DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 7 Recruitment and Selection
What is meant by recuritment ? Discuss the various sources of recruitment.
Recruitment – Meaning And Source:
Once the manpower requirements have been determined, the next logical step in staffing process is the recruitment of personnel. Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and to attract them to apply for the job. According to Dale S. Beach, “Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower resources. It involves the creation of a pool ofavailable labour upon whom the organisation can depend upon when it needs additional employees ”. According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process ofsearchingfor prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation, ”
In short, recruitment is the process of discovering the potential applicants for actual or anticipated organisational vacancies. Recruitment is a “Linking activity” bringing together those with the jobs and those seeking jobs.
Recruitment is a positive process because it increases the selection ratio by attracting a large number of applicants for the jobs. Recruitment enables the management, to select suitable employees for different job. Recruitment has as its major objective developing and maintaining adequate manpower resources, with the required skill, upon which the organisation can depend when it needs personnel. The functions of recruitment is two fold:
- To discover sources of manpower and;
- To attract an adequate number of prospective employees.
Sources Of Recruitment:
The sources of recruitment may be grouped into two:
(A) Internal Sources, (B) External Sources
(A) Internal Sources – Internal sources include personnel already on the pay-roll of the organisation. Whenever any vacancy arises, somebody from within the organisation may be looked into. The following are the internal sources of recruitment. ,
1. Promotion – Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carryinghigherresponsibilities, facilities, status and salaries. Various positions in an organisation are usually filled dp by promotion of existing employees on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of these.
2. Transfer – Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. It may involve a promotion or demotion, or no change in terms of responsibility and status. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent, depending on the necessity of filling jobs. Promotion involves upward mobility while transfer refers to a horizontal mobility of employees. Transfers or job rotations are also used for training of employees in learning different job.
Advantages of Interna! Sources of Recruitment
(a) Familiarity – The organisation and its employees are familiar to each other. The organisation knows the ability and skills of the likely candidates since they are insiders – similarly, employees also know about the working conditions and job requirements of the vacancies.
(b) Better utilisation of internal talent – Reliance on internal recruitment enables the enterprise to make the best use of the capabilities of its employees. For example, some employees may be so talented that they deserve, promotion, or some may do better on transfer to other jobs.
(c) Economy – The cost of recruiting internal employees is minimal. The enterprise need not incur any expenditure on informing and inducing its employees to apply. .
(d) Motivational value – Internal recruitment is a source of encouragement and motivation for employees. The employees can look for promotion and transfer with hope and thereby do their jobs well so as to earn the desired promotion/transfer.
Limitations of Internal Recruitment:
(a) Restricted Choice – Internal recruitment restricts the options and freedom for the enterprise in choosing the most suitable candidates for the vacancies. It has a narrow base. The enterprise may have to compromise on quality of its choice of candidates.
(b) Inbreeding – If the enterprise depends too much on internal recruitment, it means that the enterprise denies itself fresh talent and ‘new blood’ available outside. Existing employees, even if promoted or transferred may continue to work and behave in the same habitual ways, without any dynamism.
(c) Absence of Competition – In the absence of competition from qualified candidates from outside, employees are likely to expect automatic promotion by seniority and sure prospect. Thus they may lose the drive for proving their worth. ‘
(d) Conflict – There may be chance of conflict and infighting among those employees who aspire for promotion to the available vacancies. Those who are not promoted are unhappy and their efficiency may decline.
Apart from the,above limitation, acutally an enterprise cannot fully rely on internal sources of recruitment. Suitable candidates may simply not to be available internally for some vacancies. In such cases, the enterprise has to look for external sources of recruitment. However these drawbacks may be minimised by job-analysis and skill inventory.
(B) External Sources. External sources of recruitment refer to prospective candidates outside the enterprise. They usually include new entrants to the labour force the unemployed and people employed in other organisations seeking a change.
Following are the most common external sources :
1. Advertising. Advertising in newspapers and periodicals is one of the most important methods of recruitment today. This is specially so in case of recruitment of management and technical personnel. The company needing manpower advertises details about the job requirements, salary, perquisites, duties and responsibilities etc. The advantage of advertising is that all details about the job can be given in advertisement to allow self-screening by the prospective candidates. Advertisement g ives the management a wider range of candidates from which to choose. Its disadvantage is that it brings large – numer of applications screening costs may be qui te heavy.
2. Employment Agencies. There are government as well as private employment agencies providing a nation-wide or area-wise service in matching personnel demand and supply. In India, there are employment exchanges and employment guidance bureau which provide a range of service. In some cases, compulsory notification of vacancies to the employment exchange is . required by law.
Employment seekers get themselves registered with these exchanges. The employment exchanges bring the job-givers in contact with job-seekers. Employment exchanges are well regarded particularly in the field of unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. However, in the technical and professional area, private consultancy firms provide recruitment facilities. In metropolitan cities, there are several such agencies prominent among them are Tata Consultancy Service, A.F. Ferguson and Company, ABC Consultants etc.
3. Gate Hiring. In a country like ours, where there is a large number of unemployed people, it is usual to find job-seekers thronging the factory gates. Whenever workers are required. The company places a notice on the notice board at the gate of the organisation specify the details of jobs available and recruit the required numbers of workers out of those who have assembled at the gate. This method can be used safely for unskilled workers. In some industries, a large number of workers work as badli or substituted workers. Whenever a permanent worker is absent, a substitute is employed in his place from among the people at the gate.
4. Educational Institution. Direct recruitment from colleges and universities is prevalent for the recruitment of higher staff in western countries but not in India. Many big organisations maintain a close liaison with educational institutions for recruitment to various jobs. Various recruiting groups develop systematic formal university recruiting programmes. They hold preliminary on-campus interviews and select some students for final interview mostly at their offices.
5. Management consultants or Head Hunter. There are management consultancy firms which help the organisation to recruit technical, professional and managerial personnel. The specialise in recruiting middle or top level executives. They maintain data bank of persons with different qualifications and skills and even advertise posts on behalf of their clients to recruit right type of personnel. A few example of head hunters are – A.F. Ferguson and Co., ABC consultants, Godman’s International etc.
6. Campus Recruitments or Educational Institutions. Direct recruitment from educational institutions for jobs which required technical or professional qualification,has become acommon practice. Big organsiations maintain a close liaison with the universities, professional on vocational institutes, management institute for recruitment various jobs. They select the candidates for recruitment on the basis of their performance. Company officials visit the institutions for picking up the talented candidates for continuing apprentices or necessary training.
7. Telecasting. The practice of telecasting the vacant jobs over the television (Doordarshan or other channels) with full details is gaving popularity these days. However, this source is used less as compared to other sources.
8. Employee recommendations. In order to encourage existing employees, some concern have made a policy to recruit further staff only from the applicants introduced and recommended by employees or employees’ union. Other conditions being equal, preference will be given to friends and relatives of existing employees.
9. Labour Unions. In many organisations»labour unions are regarded as a source from which to recruit manpower. This facilitates in creating the sense of cooperation and in developing the better industrial relations. But sometimes trade unions support a candidate who is not suitable for the job and not acceptable to management. This weakens the labour relations.
10. Leasing. To adjust short term fluctuations in personnel needs, .the possibilities of leasing personnel for some specified period may be considered. This’ system of leasing has been well adopted by the public sector organisations with the rapid growth of public sector, the acute shortage of managerial personnel has been solved by borrowing the personnel from the Government departments. At the lend of their term they are given option to choose either parent services or the present organisation.
11. Waiting Lists. Many organisations prepare waiting lists of candidates who have gone through the recruitment processes but who have not been employed for the time being. When the need arises, such candidates may be called for employment. Such a source can be developed through provisions of attractive employment.
12. Field Trips. At interviewing team makes trips to towns and cities which are known to contain the kinds of employees required by the enterprise. Arrival dates and the time and venue of interview are advertised in advance.
13. Unsolicited Applications. One of the important source of recruitment is unsolicited applicants who send their requests for appointment with the reputed concerns against a vacancy to be vacant in near fyture. It serves as valuable source of manpower. The company calls the candidates out of such unsolicited applications for interview as and when there is a vacancy in the organisation. By appointing such casual callers the employer saves the selection and training costs.
14. Labour Contractors. In many Indian industries, workers are recruited through contractors who are themselves the employees of these organisation. The main disadvantage of this system is if contractor leaves the organisations all the worforce employed by the contractor shall have to be left out.
15. Ex-employees. Ex-employee mean persons who have even worked in the enterprise and have left the organisation and now eager to return. Such employees haying good record may be preferred. They will require less initial training.
Advantages of External Sources of Recruitment :
- Wide Options – External sources bring in a large number of applicants. This will permit the enterprise to have a free hand in making the selection.
- Infusion of new blood – The enterprise can expect to get fresh, talented candidates from outside. This means infusions of new blood and new ideas, into the enterprise represented by outside candidates.
- Element of Competition – Internal candidates have to complete with outside candidates for the vacancies. This is a healthy feature from the point of view of the enterprise.
Limitations of External Source of Recruitment –
- Frustration among existing employees – Recruitment from outside may cause dissatisfaction and frustration among the existing employees who aspire for the jobs by promotion or transfer. This is likely to strain the relations between management and the employees.
- High expense – The process of recruitment of candidates from outside involves considerable expense in the form of advertising for vacancies, screening’ and selection.
- Time consuming – External recruitment takes more time than the internal recruitment since the enterprise has to publicise about the vacancies, or otherwise contact the sources and wait or their response.
- Lack of certainty – The prospective candidates from outside may or may not be good for the enterprise. There is no guarantee that the enterprise will be able to attract suitable applicants even after advertisement, and other steps.
Evaluations Of Various Sources Of Recruitment :
It is very difficult to say which source is suitable to an enterprise or recruiting the personnel at various jobs. No single source can suit all the enterprise for filling up the posts of different nature and at different times. For example for recruiting the unskilled workers, direct recruitment at gate or friends and relatives of existing employees or casual workers may be the best sources of recruitment. For recruiting managers’ and high officials, consultants, professional bodies, universities and employment exchange may¬be the suitable sources. Thus suitability of the source of labour supply depends upon various factors –
- Size of the enterprise –
- Nature of job –
- Supply of qualified persons
- Time lag between requisition and placement
- Reactions of present employees to source of recruitment
- Relative merits of source on the basis of turnover
- Employment conditions in the community where the organisation is located.
Define selection of personnel. Describe the importance of selection of personnel in an organisation.
“Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management of personnel.” Comment.
Selection Of Personnel – Meaning And Importance:
A planned recruitment programme provides the organisation with job-applicants from whom a required number of selections are made. Selections means a process by which the qualified personnel can be choosen from the applicants who have offered their services to the organisation for employment. Thus the selection process is a negative function because it attempts to eliminate applicants, leaving only the best to be selected . In the words of Dale Yoder, “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes – those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”. In short, selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of several persons.
Recruitment is different from selection. Recruitment precedes selection. Recruitment is positive as it identifies the sources of manpower and stimulates the persons to apply for the job in the organisation. Whereas the selection is negative as it rejects a large number of candidates in an endeavour to select the best out of a number of candidates applied for the jobs. Recruitment involves prospecting or searching whereas selection involves comparison and choice” of candidates. The purpose of selection is to pick up the right persons for every job to man various positions in the organisation.
Importance Of Selection:
Selection is an important function of the human resource department. Selection means to choose right person from among the prospective candidates to fill in the vacant posts in the organisation. The success of the organisation depends upon the quality of personnel selected for the job. Faulty selection may lead to wastage of time and money and spoils the environment of the organisation. Thus, selection is the most important function of the human resource management. The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts :
1. Procurement of Qualified and Skilled Workers – Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organisation. It is in the interest of the organisation in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the” production and also facilitate the expansion in the size of the business.
2. Reduced Cost of Training and Development – Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. They can understand the technique of the work better and in no time. Further, the organisation can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences, thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably. The rate of accidents will be considerably low.
3. Absence of Personnel Problems – Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organisation. Many problems like labour turnover, absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organisation. Labour relations will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work. Skilled workers help the management to expand the business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates, the workers with high wages, benefits etc.
4. Job-Satisfaction. When people get jobs of their taste and choice, they get higher job satisfactions. This will build up a force of contended workers. A satisfied worker has a high morale. ’
Explain the process of selection of employees which is generally followed in a large scale business concern.
Selection is the process of logically choosing individuals who possess the necessary skills, abilities and personality to successfully fill specific jobs in the organisation. The selection process is entirely dependent upon proper manpower planning and recruitment. Selection process divides the candidates for employment into two categories namely, those who will be offered employment and those who will not. For this reason, selection is frequently described as negative process as it rejects more candidates than employed. –
The success of an organisation significantly depends on the quality of personnel which in turn depends on the effectiveness of selection process. It is, therefore, necessary that a job should be done by a qualified person. This is the essence of a scientific and sound policy of personnel selection, to ensure the selection of the right type of persons for various jobs, the techniques of psychology may be adopted in a systematic manner.
When workers are selected for vocations or jobs in an industrial concern after a careful weighing of the requirements of the jobs on the one hand and assessment and evaluation of the abilities and aptitudes of men on the other, it is referred to as “scientific vocational selection”. Scientific selection involves two things: (a) knowledge regarding the qualities which a person in order to do a given job properly and (b) the measurement of qualities possessed by a candidate for the job. The first task requires the drawing up of “job specification” i.e., “job analysis” and “job grading”.
Procedure For Selection :
Techniques used by a particular organisation depend on a number of factors including its size, resourcesfulness and staff objectives. Selection techniques also differ according to the size of the business and the kind of the personnel that are to be selected. Various steps of the selection procedure may be described as under :
- Application Blank
- Preliminary Interview
- Screening Application Forms
- Employment Tests
- Reference Checks
- Physical Examination
- Final Selection.
1. Application Blank – The application blank is invariably used as one of the selection tools. The applications is the starting point of the selection process. Where application forms i.e., applications blanks are used, the data become a part of the employee’s record. Further it provides factual information needed for evaluating the candidate’s suitability. Application blank contains written record of the following informations :
- Identifying Information – Such a family background, date and place of birth, age, sex, height, citizenship, marital status etc.
- Information regarding Education – It includes information regarding his academic career, subjects taken at various school certificate and degree levels, grade, division or place awarded in school and college, technical qualification etc.
- Information regarding Experience – Giving full details of past jobs such as nature of work, job responsibilities, periods involved, designations, salaries with allowances, reasons for leaving the present assignment etc.
- Expected salaries and allowances and other fringe benefits.
- Information regarding Community Activities consisting of details regarding extra curricular activities, hobbies, positions. –
2. Preliminary Interview – Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of “at the gate” candidates. This interview usually of a short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified. If the candidate seems to be possessing the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance, he is given an application form for being filled out by him.
3. Screening Application Forms – Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of informations given in the application blank is rejected outrightly at this stage by the screening committee. The candidates who are fit and may be called for interview may be short tested. The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected.
4. Employment Tests. An employment or a selection test is an instrument designed to measure selected qualities and abilities of a prospective incumbent in terms of job specifications. Such tests provide a sample behaviour that is used to draw inferences about the future behaviour or performance of an individual. The use of tests is widespread and hence there is a long lists of tests. A variety of tests are used as selection tools. They may be classified as intelligence tests, aptitude tests, achievement tests, interests tests and personality tests.
5. Interviewing. Interviewing is the most widely used selection technique by all kinds of organisations. It is relied upon to a great extent in accepting or rejecting a candidate. Despite the relative subjectivity and unreliability of interviewing as a selection technique, the fact remains that intangible personality variables left to be evaluated by the interviewer are important for job success and some evaluation is better than no evaluation. Interview enables the person responsible, for hiring to view the individual and to appraise the person-and his behaviour directly.
The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job. Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. Information given in the application blank may be confirmed or additional information may by asked for future record. It being a two way communication, the interviewee should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes, about the job and the organisation.
6. Reference checks – Reference checks serve as an important selection technique, if conducted properly. The applicant is asked to mention the names and addresses of his former employers and also of two or three persons known but not related to him. If references are checked in the correct manner, a great deal can be Teamed about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit. Referees may be called upon to give detailed informations about candidate’s capabilities, relations with part employer, his reputation etc.
7. Physical Examination – Candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination. This is very important because a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste. Thus, a thorough medical examination is essential.
8. Selection – If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given above he would be declared selected. An appointment letter may be given to him mentioning the terms of employment, pay scales, post , on which selected etc. On which selected etc. Initially, a candidate is selected on probation (oh trail) for sometime and after crossing that period successfully, he is made permanents in the organisations. If he is found unsuitable for the job during this period, he may be transferred to some other job for which he is considered suitables or he may be given training for a job for which he is considered suitable. If he is found quite unsuitable, he may. be sacked after this period.
The above steps in selection process are not rigid. They may vary from organisation to organisation or from jobs to job in the same organisation and from time to time. The arrangement of the steps may also be disregarded or steps may be reduced or some other steps may be added. All this depends upon the size of the enterprise, nature of the company, nature of the job, job description and the objectives of the organisations Following is the selection process chart:
Describe the main principles of recruitment and the selection policies.
Recruitment And Selection Policies:
Recruitment and selection of personnel are the most important aspects of personnel management. For this reason many principles have been evolved to make them well planned and sound. Following are the important principles of recruitment and selection:
- Recruitment of personnel for the whole organisation should be centralised with personnel department.
- Organisation’s objectives – both in short term and long term – must be taken into consideration as a basic parameter of recruitment decisions and needs of the personnel-areawise and job-family-wise.
- Internal and external sources of recruitment should be given due importance. It should be clearly spelt out in the recruitment policy whether existing employees would be given any preference in filling up the higher vacant posts and if so on what basis.
- In formulating the recruitment policy for the organisation the recruitment policies followed in similar organisations and in government undertakings should be thoroughly considered. ,
- Recruitment needs should be properly identified to take decisions regarding the balance of qualitative dimensions of the recruits i.e. the organisation’s personnel department should prepare the profiles for each category of workers and accordingly work out the main specifications decide the sections departments or business where they should be placed and identify the particular responsibilities which may be immediately assigned to them.
- In establishing the recruitment policy statutory provisions regarding= recruitment of personnel should also be considered. ’
- The recruitment policy should be elastic so that it may be amended suitably to achieve the organisational objectives.
- Recruitment policy should be in conformity with its general personnel policies.
- The qualifications of the applicants should commensurate with the job specifications.
- Merit should be the basis of recruitment and other considerations like friendship relations etc. should be ignored.
Principles Of Selection Policy:
- The responsibility for the selection of employees should be assigned to an efficient and qualified selection board so that only the right man can be selected.
- “Job first, man next” should be basic and fundamental principle for selection.
- Management should not rely much on one single source. Selection should be from internal as well as external sources.
- There should be some standard or personnel with which a prospective employee may be compared i.e., there should be available, before hand, and comprehensive job description and job specifications as developed by a job analysis. If suitable candidate is not available the post should be allowed to remain vacant for the time being till such a time a right man is made available.
- Selection policy should be within the framework of personnel policy and organisation policy.
- The selection policy of the organisation should commensurate the employment policy of the Government.
- There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees may be selected.
- Selection policy should be flexible; not rigid so that necessary amendments may be made whenever necessary.
- The selection policy should be unbiased and employment oriented.
- The selection policy should provide the vocational guidance for prospective candidates.
Define tests and their characteristics.
Employment tests are widely used in selection process. However, these should be considered as a step in selection process and not a replace-ment of any other phases of the selection process. As organisations become complex and the number of jobs they offer increases managers have been in search of any device which would improve their selection decisions. Such decisions are usually arrived at with the help of psychological tests which are more objective and less biased than others. Tests are probably the most sophisticated tools of measuring human characteristics and individual differ-ences that form the very basis of industrial psychology.
A test has been man-ner. Broadly, it has been defined by Groonbach as a “Systematic procedure for comparing the behaviour of two or more persons. ” In a narrow sense, according to Milton, “Test is a sample of an aspect of an individual’s behaviour, performance of attitude.” We may define a test as a systematic procedure for sampling human behaviour.
Tests are used in many fields for various purposes. They are used for the purpose of guiding students, vocational guidance of adults, research into human behaviour and selection of candidates. According to Wendel, tests are used in business for three primary purposes: (a) For the selection and placement of new employees; (b) For appraising employees for promotional potentials; and (c) For counselling employees.
Characteristics Of Tests:
Tests usually possess the following characteristics:
- The use of tests is based on the assumption that no two persons are equal so far as intelligence, skills, aptitudes personality are concerned.
- A test measures a person’s ability as a criterion of job success.
- A test is reliable in the sense that it yields the same score throughout a series of measurements.
- A test is used as an additional factor in selection procedure and should not be used as the sole basis for selecting a candidate.
Discuss the importance of tests in the selection of suitable employees.
Describe in brief the various types of tests and their purpose.
Significance Of Tests:
When used appropriately under a well planned testing programme, tests can and do lead to a number of positive benefits to the company in the long run. These benefits are as under:
- It is easier to determine the value of a test as a selection device and not a replacement of the other phases of the selection process.
- Tests are subjected to minimum subjective bias. Tests are much more objective than any other device.
- Tests provide a uniform basis for comparing candidates from diverse background. They measure the extent of differences among people.
- Tests reduce to a considerable extent the labour turnover and which in turn, may reduce the cost of training because lessor workers will have to be trained as a result of reduced turnover.
- Tests help in increasing production because better workers are employed; and may result in increased satisfaction of employees because they are placed on the job for which they are most competent and interested. This may reduce absenteeism, rate of accidents and increase morale of the workers.
- Tests minimise the time of selection and can also be judiciously used in training the workers for appropriate position.
- Tests reduces the cost of selection and placement because a large number of applicants can be evaluated when a short period of time.
- Tests, are of great value in selecting people with promotional ability discovering the various causes of failure at the job analysing the personality .traits of the individuals.
Criticism Of Test:
- Tests are criticised for measuring only a part of the total amount of information needed to make an accurate selection. This criticism would be justified if tests were the only selections method used. In practice, tests are rarely used as the only selection method.
- Tests are sometimes criticised on the ground that they cannot make prediction of changes of success of an applicant because he was nervous. This is valid only when the test results for the entire group are not valid.
- No test can measure with guarantee the complex combination of characteristics required in numerous positions. But it should remembered that tests have been devised which do not measure far more complex functions and facilities.
Inspite of these limitations employment tests have become widely accepted in the selection process. However tests should be used simply as a step and not as a replacement for the other phase of the selection process.
Types Of Tests :
Testing of a candidate is a recently developed technique in the selection ‘ process. Each individual differs from each other and these individual differences may be best judged by the different types of tests. We may classify the tests into two categories :
(A) Trade Tests;
(B) Psychological Tests.
(A) Trade Tests – Trade tests are those tests which are designed to measure proficiency and skills already acquired by the candidate through training experience; These are also known as Proficiency or performance tests. There are various jobs that require specialised skill such as driving, typing, stenography etc. In these jobs, the candidate is asked to demonstrate His abilities by undergoing trade test. A number of industrial organisations in India are using this test for the selection of clerical, supervisory, managerial and technical personnel.
(B) Psychological Tests- – Psychological tests are the best judge of the psychological behaviour in selecting an employee and is superior to the traditional interview procedure. It helps the management in selecting a candidate to a technical position. Psychological tests may be further classified in the following categories:
- Intelligence Tests
- Aptitude Tests
- Interest Tests
- Personality Tests
- Achievement Tests.
1. Intelligent Tests – These tests generally include verbal comprehension, word fluency, memory, inductive reasoning, number facility, speed of perception, spatial visualisation. Intelligence test is used to measure intelligence and mental ability quantitatively. In this type of test, simple questions are asked pertaining to reasoning, common sense, arithmetic, analogies, vocabulary, similarity, opposites etc. Such tests are used in selection and classification of workers for all types of jobs.
2. Aptitude Tests – Such tests are used for measuring basic human characteristics or abilities relating to the capacity’ to develop proficiency on specific jobs. Aptitude test measures the latent or potential ability to do something. This t^t is more valid when an applicant has had little or no experience along the lines of the job opening. It is generally applied in selecting a candidate for the clerical position. This type of test may also be used to train the workers when there is a technical change in machines and methods.
3. Interest Tests – A person who is interested in a job or task does much better than a person who is not interested in the job. Interest is a factor that contributes to success on the job. Interest test is an inventory of likes and dislikes ofpeoplein relation to occupations, hobbies and recreational activities. Generally two types of tests are applied in this case – strong vocational interest blank and Kudar Preference Record. These tests measure interests of outdoor, mechanical, computational, scientific, persuasive, artistic, literary, musical, social services etc. Such tests facilitate the employer to place a person at a suitable job satisfying him.
4. Personality Tests – Personality refers to those traits of an individual or those aspects of his/her behaviour that have emotional, motivational or moral connotations such as stability, extraversion, preservance and honesty. Personality comprises the totality of individual’s behaviour and emotional tendencies. Personality tests propose to discover an individual’s value system, emotional maturity, relation moods etc., which generally affect his working. The importance of personality to job success is Unquestionable and employers seek that the prospective candidate has a personality which completely matches with the job requirements. Such tests are conducted with the help of questionnaires. A typical questionnaire is prepared comprising a series of questions directly concerned with personality in its behavioural aspects.
5. Achievement Tests – Whereas aptitude tests are conducted to assess the ability of the candidate to learn in future; achievement test is concerned with what one has accomplished or learnt or achieved. These tests attempt to measure how well he/she knows it. For example, for a post of typist, a typing test may measure his/her speed, accuracy and efficiency. This test is also known as proficiency tests.
How will you develop a test programme ?
Developing A Test Programme:
There are several tests for measuring a particular quality in the candidates. As such selecting. a test requires careful planning, analysis, understanding and setting a battery of tests for a particualr selection situation.
For such a purpose, the incharge of test development section should be a qualified person. He can be either a fully qualified industrial psychologist or a personnel management specialist with proper background of industrial psychology, psychometrics, statistics and adequate testing experience. However, there are certain steps which are followed in developing a test programme. These are as follows :
1. Deciding Programme Objectives. Tests are utilised for a wide range of objectives as discussed earlier and it should be decided for which particular purpose or purposes tests would be utilised. If these are meant for selection, then coverage of various activities and positions should be specified to be tested.
2. Job Analysis. Job analysis, as discussed earlier, provides the basic and necessary information for determining the nature of responsibility involved in the job and qualities required in a person to discharge this responsibility efficiently. The job analysis should specifically prescribe these qualities in clear terms as tests are administered to appraise whether a candidate possesses these qualities or not.
3. Choosing Test for Tryout. After the qualities and attributes are prescribed,a particular test is chosen for the purpose. This test may either be developed by the organisation itself or several such tests have been developed by others and anyone of these may be used. However, while selecting a test proper weightage should be given to its validity, reliability, problems in its administration, cost involved etc. The choice is usually based on experience, previous research and guesses.
4. Validation of Test Procedure. While trying out a test, it is desirable to establish the empirical validity also. Experimental evidence is called for to show that test is in fact effective in discriminating those who are and those who are not in particular job.
5. Combination of tests into Battery. Most of the jobs call for different aptitude, factors of intellectual skills, interest and personal adjustments. All these factors cannot be assessed only with single test materials. Different types of tests techniques are required to assess the several traits making for success or failure. It is this fact that different tests are used in assessing different abilities.
6. Establishing Criteria of Employee Success – Suitable criteria should be fixed in regard to success. The fixation of these criteria is very difficult as to find out accurate, full and fair criteria is really hard. However, on the basis of quantity of output, quality of output, grades in training course, accident frequency, attendance, promotion rate in the organisation, professional achievement, such as awards received, published work etc., performance rating by supervisor, some criteria of success may be fixed.
7. Analysis and Decision-making – The scores of candidates on a test are analysed and compared in terms of criteria of employee success and a final decision regarding candidate’s selection is made. Any candidate who has scored above the prescribed standard may be selected. Sometimes, this standard is to be changed depending upon the number of candidates being tested and number of positions to be offered.
What is an employment interview ? What is the importance of interview in employee selection ?
Employment Interview Meaning And Importance:
Interview is probably the most widely used selection tool mainly in Indian industries. It is most complex selection technique because its scope includes measuring all the relevant characteristics and integrating and classifying all other information about the applicant. Interview is a selection technique which enables the employer to view the total indiviudal and directly appraise him and his behaviour. It is a method by which an idea about an applicant’s personality including his intelligence, breadth of interests, and general attitudes towards life, can be obtained.
By interviewing is meant deliberate, active listing with a purpose to draw the other person out, to discover what he really wants to say and’to give a chance to express himself freely. According to Scott Clothier and Spriegel, “an interview is a purposeful exchange of idea, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.” According to Bingham, “an interview is a conversation with a purpose and the purpose may be to get information, to give information and to make a friend.” In other words, an interview is an attempt to secure maximum amount of information from the candidate concerning his suitability for the job under-consideration.
When used in personnel selection interview serves following objectives:
- To get an opportunity to judge an applicant’s qualifications and characteristics as a basis for sound selection and placement.
- To give an applicant essential facts about the job and the company viz, nature and .hours of work, medical requirements, opportunities for advancement, special hazards, employee benefits and services company policies etc.
- To establish a rapport or a feeling of mutual understanding and confidence between the personnel department and the applicant who is to be employed.
- To seek more information about the candidate which are not mentioned in Application Blank or not judged by various tests.
Importance OF Interview IN Selection Of Employees:
Selection interviews give a chanceto personally “size up” the candidate, and to pursue questioning in a way that tests cannot, they give an opportunity to make judgements on the candidate’s enthusiasm and intelligence and they give an opportunity to assess “subjective aspects” of the candidate – facial expression, appearance, nervousness etc. In other words interviews are a very patent screening tool. The importance of interview in the selection of an employee may be judged from the following facts:
- Selection of a suitable candidate. Interview is considered to be the most satisfactory way if judging ,mental qualities. It decides whether the qualities possessed by him make him suitable, for the job.
- Verification of Facts. The employer has the opportunity to verify the facts mentioned in the Application Blank by the candidate himself. The interviewermay seek clarification regarding informations given in Application Blank. .
- Collection of Information. Interview is a tool to seek information about the candidate which is not mentioned in the Application Blank or tested by any test. Interviewer may collect various relevant information regarding the candidate.
- Knowledge about enterprise. Interview makes the candidate know about the policies and objectives of the organisation. Interviewee is also given a chance to ask questions to be clear about the facts regarding the jobs and the organisation.
- Advice and opinions. Interview can help the interviewer getting . advice from the opinions of the interviewees for the problem from different angles and thus their cooperation may be sought.
“Interview is not a valid tool for selection”. Comment.
“In the process of recruitment and selection, interview as the only tool is not sufficient to find the suitability of the candidates. It is to be supplemented by other techniques of selection” elaborate this statement.
Discuss the, limitations of interviewing as a tool of selection.
Limitations Of Interview:
Interview is the oldest and most widely used technique in the selection of an employee. But interview is not a valid tool for selection. It implies that the qualities and the capabilities of a candidate cannot be evaluated and judged properly only through interview without supplementing by other techniques of selection. As a tool for selection, the technique of interview has following limitations –
1. Interview cannot judge the skill and the ability of a candidate for the job. Interview can test only his personality.
2. Success of interview depends on the interviewer also. Interviewer is always not an expert of the situation or of the job to be offered and therefore he may not be in a position to extract maximum information from the candidate which is one of the purposes of the interview.
3. The technique of interview is not free from bias. The result of interview depends on the personal judgement of the interviewer. The result of interview is decided on the basis of personal judgement of the interviewer which is not always correct. Sometimes interviewer forms a particular view about the candidate which deviates from the objective of purposeful exchange of meanings.
4. Sometimes interviewer confuses the candidate. Sometimes, the interviewer has not been an expert of the situation and asks the questions of the candidate only to confuse him or to defeat him and not to get the maximum information from him. The questions are directed to the interviewee in such a fashion, as to allow him no time to answer.
5. Interview is a costly technique. An interview involves the time consuming and expensive technique.
6. Predetermined view. Generally it happens that answers of all possible question to be asked in the interview are predetermined. If the candidate’s answer tallies with that ofthe interviewer’s predetermined answer, he is declared successful. The other view is completely rejected. Notwithstanding the fact that it is supported by valid arguments. It results in the selection of an undesirable candidate.
On the basis of above limitations, interview may be regarded as unreliable technique of selection. But it is not correct. In spite of above limitations, it is a sound and effective’technique for employee selection. The above mentioned limitations may be removed by the management. The interviewer should be trained in the art of interviewing. Further interview should be supplemented by other techniques of selection such as trade tests, psychological tests etc. Interview is one of the techniques of selection and not the only valid tool in the process of selection.
Discuss the essentials of a good interview. Discuss briefly the various methods of interviewing for employment.
Essentials Of A Good Interview And Methods Of Interview:
Interview is an important device of our selection procedure but there are various limitations of interview as a technique of selection if it is not conducted properly. In order to make the interview more effective, the limitations of the interview should be overcome. The essentials of a good interview can be classified by the typical sequence of functions that occur within the interview:
- Closing and
- Evaluation of the interview.
1. Preparation. There should be preparation of some type for all interviews. A considerable amount of planning is needed for interviews that are scheduled in advance. In preparation for interview, one has to determine the specific objective of the interview, the method of accomplishing the interviewing objectives and gathering as much information about the interviewee as possible.
2. Setting. There should be proper setting for interview. This setting is of two types – physical and mental. The physical setting for the interview should be both private and comfortable, free from any physical disturbance. The mental setting should be one of rapport between interviewer and interviewee.The interviewer should establish an atmosphere of ease.
3. Conduct of the Interview. This is the first step in the interview process where most of action takes place. In this process, the interviewer obtains the information desired and supplies the facts that interviewee wants to know. As such, the interview should be conducted properly. For this purpose, the interviewer should possess and demonstrate a basic liking and respect for people, he should ask questions in a manner that encourages the interviewee to talk, he must listen to attentively, and should satisfy the interviewee if there is any query from his side.
4. Closing of Interview. The interview should open and run smoothly
without awkwardness and embarrassment. There is a similar requirement for its close. In the interview process, the interviewer should make some overt sign to indicate the end of the interview and, if possible, the interviewee should be given some type of answer of indication of future action. .
5. Evaluation. The interviewer should undertake the task of evaluating the performance and characteristics of the interviewee immediately after the close of interview while the details are fresh in his mind. If he has taken brief notes at the time of interview he should record details now.
Conduct of the interview is the most important step in the process of interview where most of the actions take place. It is the stage where we get relevant informations from the candidates and supply the facts that the interviewee wants to know.
Following are some of the important principles for conducting the interview:
1. The interviewee should possess and demonstrate a basic liking and respect for people.
2. The question should be asked in a manner that encourages the interviewee to talk. Question that can be answered by “yes” or “no” should be allowed sufficient time to answer and should share the greater amount of talking so as to bring about materials and ideas.
3. In the interview, pleasant atmosphere should be created. The interviewer should have the full attention of the interviewee. The marginal listening of the interviewee not only prevents the inteviewer from obtaining the full information but is also insulting to the interviewee. The interviewee
must acquire the art of listening. The interviewer should be at ease himself dnd keep the Interviewer at ease.
4. To understand fully the interviewee, the projective listening is required to assess the hidden feelings or meaning of the ideas and reactions of the candidates. The interviewer must listen much faster than the interviewee can talk and utilise the time by attempting to project into the position of interviewee.
5. The interviewer should be familiar with the job specification and job descriptions so that he can reconcile the qualifications of the candidates with the job specifications and relevant informations may be gathered and facts supplied to the interviewee.
6. There should be two-way traffic in interviews. Not only the interviewers should ask the question but the interviewees should also be given opportunity to ask the questions, regarding the company and the job’ to be offered.
7. Interview is an art like other arts and the interviewer must be trained in the art of interviewing.
8. The time off the interview should not be consumed in collecting routine information which can be conveniently gathered from the application blank.
9. An interview should be made more reliable and more valid i.e., the* interviewer should guard against being unduly prejudiced or coloured by their own personality or theories. Their own feelings and standards should not be allowed to influence them nor should their feelings about religion or company, affect their judgement.
10. An interviewer should avoid too much talking. A good working ratio for an interviewer is to talk for not more than 25 per cent of the time and listen for 75 per cent of time. The best interview is one in which the interviewer talks the least.
11. Interviewer should be of a certain status, standing and experienced. He must have knowledge about the job and the organisation.
Methods Of Interviewing Or Types Of Interviews :
In selecting a candidate in an organisation employment interviews are the most important screening devices of the selection process. Interview evaluates the individual differences which helps the management in projecting the future development programmes. Interviews may be classified in many ways. Their main differences arise from the pattern of interaction by which the interviewer communicates with the interviewee, respond to his answers, asks questions and from the structure of the interview. Generally, interviews may be classified in following categories:
- Directed Interview
- Non-directed Interview
- Patterned Interview
- Stress Interview
- Group Interview
- Board Interview
- Exit Interview
1. Directed Interview. The directed interview is a straightforward, face-to-face question-and-answer situation. Questions are based on job duties and other facets, including a probe ofthe candidate’s background information. It measures job knowledge and also provides opportunity to observe personal characteristics, attitudes, and motivation. However, it is not the best method for personality assessment.
2. Non-directed Interview. Non-directed interview, also known as depth-interview, is applicant-centered, with the interviewer playing mainly a listening role. In this method, the interviewer poses a minimum of constraints on the applicant. The method is informal, conversational,with freedom of expression for interviewee. The main advantage of non-directed interview is that the applicant tends to be more at ease because he does not need to be so concerned about the right answer. As such, the” personality assessment tends to be better under this method.
3. Patterned Interview. Patterned interviews are limited by selecting the strategic parts of the applicant’s background and preparing in advance the questions that best illuminate this background. The advantages of this interview are that it helps in standardising the approach in diferent interviews’. The standardisation is achieved through a standard set of interpretation, and standard methods of recording observations. This combines with the direct method some of the characteristics of the non-directed interviewing approach.
4. Stress Interview. In the stress interview, the interviewer assumes a hostile role towards the applicant. He deliberately puts him on the defensive by trying to annoy, embarrass or frustrate him. Usually the interviewer in such circumstances, asks questions rapidly, criticises the interviewee’s answers, interrupts him frequently, keeps the candidate waiting indefinitely and then asks too.many questions. The purpose of stress interview is to find out how a candidate behave in a stress situation whether he looses his temper, gets confused or frightened. It assesses the emotional strain of a candidate.
According to Professor Harell, “The stress interview in which pressure is purposely puts on the applicant, may have some value for jobs, where emotional balances is a key requirement. It involves putting the candidate under relatively severe emotional strain in order to test his response. It, often, is characterised by the rapid firing questions by several seemingly unfriendly interviews.” ,
5. Group Interview. In this type of interviews, groups rather than individuals are interviewed. A problem for discussion is given to a group of candidates and interviewees are asked to reach a specific decision within a particular time limit. Interviewers watch the activities of the interviewees – those who take a lead in the discussion, those who try influencing others, those who summarise and clarify issues, and those who speak effectively.
The assumption underlying this type of interview is that “the behaviour displayed in the solution of the problem is related to potential success in the job. The object is to see how well individuals perform on a-particular task or a particular situation”. Group interview is conducted for a management position where leadership ability is an important factor. 5
6. Board Interview. Board or panel interview is opposite to the group interview. In it, candidate is screened by a group of interviewers who are specialist in their respective fields. They call upon the candidates one by one and assess his qualities. This technique is very common in India.
7. Exit Interview. This type of interview is generally conducted at the time when an employee is leaving the organisation. The main purpose of organising such an interview is to know the feelings of the outgoing employee regarding his job or the institution, as to extract the deficiencies of plan, programmes and policies of the organisation and to develop or improve such policies in the light of deficiency.
How will you develop an interview programme ?
Interview Procedure Or Developing On Interview Programme:
Following steps are generally involved in an interview procedure:
1. Reviewing Background Information. Pertinent information about the candidate should be collected and noted down before hand. This preparation saves time and mental effort during the interview and enables the interviewer to sketch in advance at least a general picture of the candidate.
2. Preparing a Question Plan. Every interview should have a question plan. It is useful for inexperienced interviewers to have this written down in front of them so that questions can be ticked off as they are dealt with. This plan may cover physical make up, attainments, general intelligence, specialised aptitudes, interest, dispositions and circumstances.
3. Creating a Helpful Setting. Most interviews have overtones of emotional stress for the applicant. Success in interviewing depends on reducing this stress. This can be achieved if the following conditions are present at the place of interview: privacy and comfort, atmosphere of leisure, freedom from interruptions, authentic feeling for and interest in the candidate,
4. Conducting the Interview. Interviewing is an art and the interviewer should be an expert of this art. In conducting the interview, the interviewer should establish a rapport with the candidate. He should ask the candidate to be at ease, listen carefully what he says, be alert noting down the candidate’s sentiments and attitudes etc. The interviewer may adopt any technique of interview which may bear fruits.
5. Concluding the Interview.’In the final few moments, the interviewer guides the interview to a close. After the candidate leaves, the interviewer looks over his notes, recalls his impressions, collects his observations and makes a provisional appraisal before seeing the next candidate. He fills up the interviewer’s Rating Sheet meant for this purpose. Rating sheet forces the interviewer to think carefully on various factors relevant to the job.
6. Evaluating. The final test of interviewing is whether or not it achieves established goals satisfactorily. Interviews should elicit data that validly predict job success for applicants if they are hired and the results of interviewing should be consistent.
1. Directed Interview. The directed interview is a straightforward, face-to-face question-and-answer situation. Questions are based on job duties and other facets, including a probe ofthe candidate’s background information. It measures job knowledge and also provides opportunity to observe personal characteristics, attitudes, and motivation. However, it is not the best method for personality assessment.
2. Non-directed Interview. Non-directed interview, also known as depth-interview, is applicant-centered, with the interviewer playing mainly a listening role. In this method, the interviewer poses a minimum of constraints on the applicant. The method is informal, conversational,with freedom of expression for interviewee. The main advantage of non-directed interview is that the applicant tends to be more at ease because he does not need to be so concerned about the right answer. As such, the’ personality assessment tends to be better under this method. ‘
3. Patterned Interview. Patterned interviews are limited by selecting the strategic parts of the applicant’s background and preparing in advance the questions that best illuminate this background. The advantages ofthis interview are that it helps in standardising the approach in diferent interviews’. The standardisation is achieved through a standard set of interpretation, and standard methods of recording observations. This combines with the direct method some of the characteristics of the non-directed interviewing approach.
4. Stress Interview. In the stress interview, the interviewer assumes a hostile role towards the applicant. He deliberately puts him on the defensive by trying to annoy, embarrass or frustrate him. Usually the interviewer in such circumstances, asks questions rapidly, criticises the interviewee’s answers, interrupts him frequently, keeps the candidate waiting indefinitely and then asks top many questions. The purpose of stress interview is to find out how a candidate behave in a stress situation whether he looses his temper, gets confused or frightened. It assesses tile emotional strain of a candidate.
According to Professor Harell, “The stress interview in which .pressure is purposely puts on the applicant, may have some value for jobs, where emotional balances is a key requirement. It involves putting the candidate under relatively severe emotional strain in order to test his response. It, often, is characterised by the rapid firing questions by several seemingly unfriendly interviews.” ,
5. Group Interview. In this type of interviews, groups rather than individuals are interviewed. A problem for discussion is given to a group of candidates and interviewees are asked to reach a specific decision within a particular time limit. Interviewers watch the activities of the interviewees – those who take a lead in the discussion, those who try influencing others, those who summarise and clarify issues, and those who speak effectively. The assumption underlying this type of interview is that “the behaviour displayed in the solution of the problem is related to potential success in the job. The object is to see how well individuals perform on a-particular task or a particular situation”. Group interview is conducted for a management position where leadership ability is an important factor.