Linux Tutorial for Beginners PDF Download | Learn Basics of Linux Online @ Free Linux Beginner Tutorials

An Operating System is software that enables the connection between computer hardware and software. Linux is a popular server OS. Explore more about Linux OS by referring to BTech Geeks Linux Tutorial for Beginners and experienced developers. In this Linux OS Tutorial Free PDF for beginners, we will be discussing what is Linux, its history, features, Unix Vs Linux, a list of topics covered here, and Top 10 interview questions on Linux Operating System.

What is Linux?

Linux is the most famous and demanding open-source operating system similar to other OS like Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS, iOS, Google android, etc. It is a clone of UNIX. The basic function of an OS is conveying the input to get processed by the processor and delivers output to the hardware to display it. You can see Linux everywhere like in our phones, laptops, PCs, cars, and also in refrigerators.

List of Concepts covered in Linux Tutorial PDF

Take a look at these tutorials on Linux operating system and start learning the concept behind each and every logic in programming. Here is the list of topics involved in the Linux OS Beginners’ Tutorial:

Prerequisites to Learn UNIX / Linux Concepts

Before learning about the Linux or Unix topics firstly you need to have basic and sufficient knowledge of Operating Systems and their functionalities. Also, fundamental knowledge on different computer topics aid in grasping several concepts explained in this Linux Beginners Tutorial.

History of Linux OS

In 1991, Linus Torvalds developed the Linux OS, which sprouted as an intention to develop the UNIX Operating System. After that, he got rejected by the Unix designers after suggested improvements. Hence, he calls up launching an OS, created in a way that could be changed by its users. Now, Linux comes under the fastest-growing Operating Systems used for phones to supercomputers by nearly all important hardware devices.

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Linux Operating System Structure

The collection of software, each created for a particular function is an operating system. Linux OS has the following components that are covered in the structure:

Structure Of Linux Operating System

Why Use Linux?

In various ways, Linux is entirely distinct from other operating systems. They are as follows:

  • One of the greatest things about Linux is an open-source operating system, so programmers can use it easily because they can create their own custom OS.
  • As per your requirement, you can decide while programming as it has numerous features.
  • Linux is highly secured and robust so various top companies like Google, Amazon, and Facebook use Linux to safeguard their servers because it is highly reliable and stable.
  • Software and server licensing for installing Linux are free of cost.
  • You never gonna face any issues like viruses, malware, and slowing down your computer as it is entirely a trouble-free operating system.

Linux Features

The following are some of the most crucial features of Linux/Unix programming:

  • Open Source
  • Application support
  • Multiuser capability
  • Portability
  • Multitasking
  • Graphical User Interface (X Window System)
  • Security
  • Live CD/USB
  • Support’s customized keyboard
  • File System

Difference between Linux and Unix

Comparison Linux Unix
Definition It is an open-source operating system that is freely available to everyone. It is an operating system that can be only used by its copyrighters.
Examples It has distinct distros like Ubuntu, Redhat, Fedora, etc IBM AIX, HP-UX and Sun Solaris.
Users These days, there is a demand for Linux. Linux can be used by anyone whether a home user, developer or student. Mainly, Unix was developed for servers, workstations, and mainframes.
Usage You can use Linux everywhere from servers, PC, smartphones, tablets to mainframes and supercomputers. It is used in servers, workstations, and PCs.
Cost Linux is freely distributed, downloaded, and also distributed via magazines. Also, priced distros of Linux are lower than Windows. Unix copyright vendors take decisions regarding various costs for their respective Unix Operating systems.
Development As it is open-source, it is developed by sharing and collaboration of codes by worldwide developers. Unix was developed by AT&T Labs, several commercial vendors, and non-profit organizations.
Manufacturer The development of the Linux kernel was by the developer’s community across the world. Although the father of Linux, Linus Torvalds oversees things. IBM AIX, HP-UX, and Sun Solaris are the three distributions of Unix. Apple also uses Unix to make OSX operating system.
GUI Linux is a command based but some distros provide GUI-based Linux. Gnome and KDE are mostly used GUI. Initially, it was a command-based OS, yet later Common Desktop Environment was created. Gnome is mostly utilized Unix distributions.
Interface The default interface is BASH (Bourne Again Shell). But some distros have developed their own interfaces. It originally used a Bourne shell. Also, it is compatible with other GUIs.
File system support Linux supports more file systems than Unix. It also supports a file system but lesser than Linux.
Coding Linux is a Unix clone, acts like Unix but doesn’t contain its code. Unix contains a completely diverse coding made by AT&T Labs.
Operating system Linux is just the kernel. Unix is a complete package of Operating systems.
Security It provides higher security. Linux has about 60-100 viruses listed up to now. Unix is also highly secured. It has about 85-120 viruses enlisted till now.
Error detection and solution As Linux is open-source, whenever a user posts any kind of threat, developers from across the world begin working on it. And thus, it provides a faster solution. In Unix, users have to wait for some time for the problem to be resolved.

Top 10 Interview Questions on Linux OS

Here is the list of often asked Top Linux interview questions that helps freshers and job searchers to prepare and clear their Interviews in various companies:

  1. What is Linux Kernel?
  2. What is LILO?
  3. Define shell
  4. What is the advantage of open source?
  5. Write about an internal command.
  6. Define inode.
  7. Name some Linux variants.
  8. What is the basic difference between BASH and DOS?
  9. What is the GUI?
  10. Is the Linux Operating system virus-free?