## Java Program to Count Total Number of Positive Elements in a Matrix

In the previous article, we have discussed Java Program to Count the Numbers of 0’s in a Binary Matrix

In this article we are going to see how we can write a program to count the Total Number of Positive Elements in a matrix in JAVA language.

## Java Program to Count Total Number of Positive Elements in a Matrix

A 3*3 Matrix is having 3 rows and 3 columns where this 3*3 represents the dimension of the matrix. Means there are 3*3 i.e. total 9 elements in a 3*3 Matrix.

Let’s understand it in more simpler way.

                   | A00   A01   A02 |
Matrix A =  | A10   A11   A12 |
| A20   A21   A22 | 3*3
• Matrix A represents a 3*3 matrix.
• A‘ represents the matrix element
• Aij‘ represents the matrix element at it’s matrix position/index.
• i‘ represents the row index
• j‘ represents the column index
• Means A00=Aij  where i=0 and j=0,  A01=aij where i=0 and j=1 and like this.
• Here we have started row value from 0 and column value from 0.

Positive elements in a matrix are the elements which are greater than 0.

Let’s see different ways to count total number of positive elements in a Matrix.

### Method-1: Java Program to Count Total Number of Negative Elements in a Matrix By Static Initialization of Array Elements

Approach:

• Declare and initialize an array of size 3×3, with elements.
• Use two for loops to iterate the rows and columns.
• Inside the for loops count all the positive elements using a counter.
• Print the result.

Program:

public class matrix
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
// Initializing the 3X3 matrix i.e. 2D array
int arr[][] = {{19,25,-32},{40,-54,-62},{-70,-20,60}};
int row, col ,count = 0;

System.out.print("The matrix elements are : ");
printMatrix(arr);

// Loops to count total number of positive elements in a matrix
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
if(arr[row][col]>0)
count++;
}

System.out.println("\nNumber of positive elements in the matrix are : "+count);
}

// Method to print the matrix
static void printMatrix(int arr[][])
{
int row, col;
// Loop to print the elements
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
{
// Used for formatting
System.out.print("\n");
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
System.out.print(arr[row][col]+" ");
}
}
System.out.print("\n");
}
}
Output:

The matrix elements are :
19 25 -32
40 -54 -62
-70 -20 60

Number of positive elements in the matrix are : 4

### Method-2: Java Program to Count Total Number of Negative Elements in a Matrix By Dynamic Initialization of Array Elements

Approach:

• Declare one array of size 3×3.
• Ask the user for input of array elements and store them in the array using two for loops.
• Use two for loops to iterate the rows and columns .
• Inside the for loops count all the negative elements using a counter.
• Print the result.

Program:

import java.util.Scanner;
public class matrix{
public static void main(String args[])
{
//Scanner class to take input
Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in);

// Initializing the 3X3 matrix i.e. 2D array
int arr[][] = new int[3][3];
int row, col ,count = 0;

// Taking matrix1 input
System.out.println("Enter matrix elements : ");
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
arr[row][col] = scan.nextInt();

System.out.print("The matrix elements are : ");
printMatrix(arr);

// Loops to count total number of positive elements in a matrix
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
if(arr[row][col]>0)
count++;
}

System.out.println("\nNumber of positive elements in the matrix are : "+count);
}

// Method to print the matrix
static void printMatrix(int arr[][])
{
int row, col;
// Loop to print the elements
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
{
// Used for formatting
System.out.print("\n");
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
System.out.print(arr[row][col]+" ");
}
}
System.out.print("\n");
}
}
Output:

Enter matrix elements :
The matrix elements are :
0 6 -1
-2 3 8
7 0 5

Number of positive elements in the matrix are : 5

Explore complete java concepts from the Java programming examples and get ready to become a good programmer and crack the java software developer interview with ease.

Related Java Programs:

## DBMS Practical Lab Manual File PDF Download | Data Base Management System Notes & Study Material

DBMS Practical: Here in this article, students will find a list of notes and study material, DBMS practical questions, and answers pdf on the subject which can help them better understand the prerequisites required for their viva on Data Base Management System. You can use them as quick guidance to resolve doubts if any by using every possible related content of the Data Base Management System such as syllabus, Reference Books, DBMS Lab Programs with Solutions PDF, etc. all in one place.

Students can also visit Department Wise Lecture Notes for Preparation.

There are a lot of helpful resources which are available for the DBMS Practical; some of them are as follows:

## Introduction to DBMS Practical Lab Manual

DBMS is an important subject which looks at the handling of data and databases. The DBMS Practical looks at the practical elements of the subject, which include experiments and application-based uses of the subject.

Some of the experiments included for the practice are as follows.

• Drawing different kinds of models from a given database.
• Implementation of a database and its functions
• Data definition and modification once it has been created, etc.

### B.Tech Data Base Management System Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Here students can find the various lab manuals that can help them understand how the lab experiments are conducted and the different viva questions that can be asked on the various systems used for DBMS. Students can download the study material and use it during their preparation process for the subject. Using the study materials provided by these notes will help aspirants get a better hunch on the concepts and the and an overall view on the subject.

The list of notes are as follows –

• Lab manuals for Database Management System by Abhishek Apoorv
• Lab manuals for Database Management System by JNTU Heros
• Lab manuals for Database Management System by Umesh Kumar
• Lab manuals for Database Management System by Snehal Kadavu

### DBMS Practicals Reference Books

Books allow its readers to materialize the concepts better so that readers firstly get a more in-depth view of the subject and help them go over the specifics. Here in DBMS, there are different systems that users must become familiar with because the course required basic knowledge of systems that are important for DBMS. Students can use these books to understand various topics better and to score better grades during their exam.

The following is a list of books that students can utilize during their preparation process of the subject-

• Learn PostgreSQL by Luca Ferrari, Enrico Pirozzi
• PostgreSQL: The First Experience by Pavel Luzanov, Egor Rogov, Igor Levshi
• Introducing InnoDB Cluster by Charles Bell
• MySQL and JSON: A Practical Programming Guide by David Stokes
• MySQL Connector/Python Revealed by Jesper Wisborg Krogh
• Pro MySQL NDB ClusterBy Wisborg Krogh, Mikiya Okuno
• MySQL Cluster 7.5 Inside and Out by Mikael Ronstrom
• Cassandra: The Definitive Guide
• Practical Cassandra: A Developer’s Approach
• Learning Apache Cassandra
• Apache Cassandra: Hands-on-Training

### DBMS Practicals Curriculum

The DBMS Practicals curriculum consists of various experiments which are carried out throughout the course. Below there is the DBMS Practicals curriculum listed experiment wise.

 Experiment Aims Experiment 1: ER diagram and relational model To draw the ER model and Relational model for a given database. To show ER to Relational model reduction. Experiment 2: Creation and implementation of the database To create the database with the proper constraints (Pk, Fk, etc.) Insert into the database using different insert statements Displaying the database Experiment 3: Data Definition (Schema) Modification To alter the table (add/remove column, add/remove constraint) To drop table To show schema of any table To apply different constraints check Experiment 4: Simple SQL Queries (single table retrieval) To make use of different operators (logical, relational, etc.) Selection of rows and columns Renaming columns Use of distinct keywords String handling (%, etc.) Updating statements and case updates Deleting or cascade deleting Experiment 5: Advanced SQL Queries Group by/Having clause and aggregate function Setting operations (union, all union, use of order by clause) Nested queries: in, not_in, etc. Join (Inner and Outer) Exists and Union Experiment 6: Implementation of views Creation and usage of views Creation of views using views Drop view Experiment 7: Triggers To create queries using Triggers. Experiment 8: Procedures To create queries using Procedures. Experiment 9: ORDBMS concepts To implement ORDBMS concepts. Experiment 10: RDBMS To implement RDBMS using JDBC connectivity.

### List of DBMS Practical Important Questions

1. What is DBMS used for?
2. What is meant by a Database?
3. Why is the use of DBMS recommended? Explain by listing some of its major advantages.
4. What is the purpose of normalization in DBMS?
5. What are the different types of languages that are available in the DBMS?
6. What is the purpose of SQL?
7. Explain the concepts of a Primary key and Foreign Key.
8. ub-query in terms of SQL?
9. What is the use of DROP command and what are the differences between DROP, TRUNCATE and DELETE commands?
10. What are the different levels of abstraction in the DBMS?
11. What is Correlated Subquery in DBMS?
12. Explain the concept of ACID properties in DBMS?
13. What is the main difference between UNION and UNION ALL?
14. What integrity rules that are the main differences between Primary key and Unique Key?
15. What is the concept of sxist in the DBMS?
16. What is 1NF in the DBMS?
17. What is 2NF in the DBMS?

Question 1.
What can I expect for my DBMS Practicals?

Answer: There are a cumulative ten experiments which are part of the DBMS Practicals course. Thus, out of the list of experiments mentioned in the DBMS Practicals curriculum, prepare all of them. Any experiment can come as your DBMS Practical so be wary and study all of them.

Question 2.
What are the best DBMS Practical reference books I can use to prepare?

Answer: The best DBMS Practical reference books are as follows:

• Learn PostgreSQL by Luca Ferrari, Enrico Pirozzi
• PostgreSQL: The First Experience by Pavel Luzanov, Egor Rogov, Igor Levshi
• MySQL Cluster 7.5 Inside and Out by Mikael Ronstrom

Question 3.
What is the importance of DBMS Practicals?

Answer: DBMS Practicals are important because they help provide the student with a well-rounded knowledge of the subject. Having only bookish knowledge is not enough, a person must have an application based on practical understanding of all subjects as well. This ensures that the student has understood the subject and topics under it fully.

Question 4.
What is the DBMS Practical curriculum?

Answer: There are a total of 10 experiments that are part of the DBMS Practical curriculum, all of which are equally important in supporting the learning of the student. The curriculum includes relational database building, data definition and modification, simple and advanced SQL queries, implementation of views, Triggers, Procedures, ORDBMS concepts, and lastly, RDBMS.

### Conclusion

From the above study material provided, the information provided is reliable and genuine. Students can use these notes in preparing for their lab experiments in DBMS as the provided lab manual notes, reference books, curriculum, and important questions will help aid them

## Control Systems Notes Free PDF | Download Control System Reference book, Study Material, Syllabus, Important Questions

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### B.Tech Electronics Control System (CSE) Course – Free PDF Notes To Download

Control Systems focuses on exactly what its name says – on the controlling of machines by providing a user with the desired response which is gained by controlling the output on that machine or device by changing the input.

A Control System is used to decide the behaviour of a machine, device, or system using what we call control loops. Control loops are the central and most important component of the subjects in Control Systems; they adjust values in the input such that it will change the output to your desire. The control loop has other several functions that come together to make a Control System work.

### Control Systems Reference Textbooks

It is important for a student to learn how to read and make proper use of a reference book. Reference book of feedback control systems for all subjects provide students with that bit of extra information which can be used to score exceptional marks. They also provide you with extra knowledge, oftentimes which is somewhat outside the course limits which is taught in classes.

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Extra readings for courses like engineering can help you out with several tips and tricks through getting to know more about the subject matter topics at hand.

Here is the list of recommended textbooks for Control Systems:

• Control Systems Engineering – IJ Nagrath, M Gopal
• Automatic Control Systems – BC Kuo
• Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems – GF Franklin, A Emami-Naeini
• Problems and Solutions in Control System Engineering – Deepa
• Control Systems Engineering – Norman Nise
• Control System Engineering: Analysis and Design – Norman Nise
• Control Systems: Theory and Applications – Ghosh
• Automatic Control Systems – Farid Golnaraghi
• Control Systems – Kumar Anand
• Problems and Solutions of Control Systems with Essential Theory – Jairath AK

### Control Systems Curriculum

Using this Control System curriculum, students can make checklists of all the topics and keep ticking off the topics that they have finished. The importance of keeping in good spirits is immense when it comes to studying because when feeling low can make retention of what you’re learning ineffective.

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 Unit Topics Basic Concepts Introduction Basic terminology Objective of subject Some basic examples Notion of feedback Open and closed loop systems Mathematical Models Representation of physical systems and analogous systems Laplace transforms Block diagrams Transfer function for different types of systems Block diagram reduction techniques Signal flow graphs Mason’s gain formula Control Hardware and Their Models Potentiometers Synchros LVDT DC and AC servo motors Tachogenerators Electro-hydraulic valves Pneumatic actuators Time-Domain Analysis Time domain performance criterion Transient response of first order, second order and higher order systems Steady state errors Static and dynamic error constants System types Steady state errors for unity and non unity feedback systems Performance analysis for P, PI and PID controllers Frequency-Domain Analysis Bode and polar plots Frequency-domain specification Correlation between transient response and frequency response Stability Analysis Concept of stability by Routh stability criterion Nyquist stability criterion Gain and phase margins Relative stability Constant m and N circles Nichol’s chart and its application Root-Locus Technique Nature of root-locus Rules of construction Root-locus analysis of control systems Compensation Types of compensation Proportional, PI and PID controllers Lead-lag compensators State-Space Concepts Eigenvalues and eigenvectors The solution of state equations Controllability Observability Pole placement result Minimal representations Non-Linear Systems Characteristics of non-linear systems Types of non-linearities Phase-plane analysis Limit cycles Describing functions

### List of Control Systems Important Questions

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There are only 5 marks questions and 10 marks questions which come in the Control Systems question paper.

5 marks questions

1. Explain the second order time domain specifications of a Control System.
2. Explain frequency domain specifications of a third order control system.
3. Sketch the root locus for a system having the following transfer function:
G(s)=k(s+1)/(s+3)
4. Compare and contrast between open loop and closed loop control systems.
5. Discuss the working of a stepper model and service a suitable mathematical model for it.

10 marks questions

1. Distinguish between order and type of a system.
2. Explain the correlation between time domain and frequency domain responses.
3. Explain the Routh Hurwitz criteria for determining the stability of a system.
4. Write the following differential equation in state equation format:
x^3+ 3x^2+ 4x=r(t)
5. The open loop transfer function of a system is given as follows. Comment on the stability of the system using a Nyquist plot.
G(s)=k/(s+1)

Question 1.

What is the significance of Control Systems Lecture Notes?

For a lot of students, the pressure to score good marks and do well in engineering colleges is extremely high. This is because most students who get through engineering colleges spend most of their school lives preparing to get in for engineering courses by going for coachings starting at a very young age.

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Question 2.

What is the question paper pattern for Control Systems exams?

The Control Systems Engineering paper is for a total of 100 marks. The paper is divided into 4 sections –

• Section A: 3 questions of 5 marks each (15 marks)
• Section B: 3 questions of 5 marks each (15 marks)
• Section C: 3 questions of 10 marks each (30 marks)
• Section D: 4 questions of 10 marks each (40 marks

Question 3.

What are some good reference books to go along with Control System Notes?

Most reference books for Control Systems Engineering are good. The best ones are the ones suggested by professors of technical universities, which are:

• Control System Engineering by IJ Nagrath IJ and M Gopal
• Automatic Control Systems by BC Kuo
• Modern Control Engineering by K Ogata
• Control Systems: Principle and Design by M Gopal

Question 4.

Where can I find good Control Systems Class Notes and other study material for it?

In the above article, we have provided the following great resources and study materials for Control Systems. Let’s have a look at these helpful study material & lecture notes for Control Systems and score well in your exams.

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## Big Data Analytics Notes PDF Free Download | Syllabus, Books, Questions & Lecture Notes for Big Data Analytics

Big Data Analytics Lecture Notes PDF Download: Choosing a career in the field of Big Data Analytics. Acquiring accurate notes is the most crucial phase of the Data Analyst preparation plan, which also includes a comprehensive study plan, all-important information, and timetable along with Big Data Analytics Study Notes. Students will get information about the latest Reference Books, Syllabus & Important Questions List for Analytics Big Data Notes.

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## Introduction to Big Data Analytics Notes

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Big Data analytics technologies and techniques provide a means to take away new information and analyze data sets, which can aid organizations to make informed business resolutions. Big data analytics is a science of analytics, which involves complex applications with components such as statistical algorithms, predictive models, and what-if analysis powered by analytics operations.

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• Data Warehousing and Multidimensional Databases – Torben Bach Pedersen, Christian S. Jensen, Christian Thomsen, Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2010
• Kimball et al., Wiley 1998 – The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit
• Hadoop Practice by Alex Holmes Manning publ.
• Chuck Lam – Hadoop in Action, MANNING Publication.
• Golfarelli and Rizzi – Modern Principles and Methodologies: Data Warehouse Design, McGraw-Hill, 2009
• Wiley John Wiley & Sons, Cay Horstmann, INC – Big Java 4th Edition
• Elżbieta Malinowski, Esteban Zimányi, Springer, 2008 – Advanced-Data Warehouse Design: From Spatial to Conventional and Temporal Applications,
• 2nd Ed., Kimball and Ross, Wiley, 2002 – The Data Warehouse Toolkit
• Tom Whites, 3rd Edition, O’Reilly – Hadoop: The Definitive Guide.
• Roman B.Melnyk, Bruce Brown, Dirk deRoos, Paul C.Zikopoulos, Rafael Coss – The Hadoop for Dummies.
• Hadoop MapReduce Cookbook, Srinath Perera, Thilina Gunarathne

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Here is an updated list of topics of the Big Data Analytics Course Syllabus-

### Big Data Analytics Important Questions List

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1. Explain in brief about Commands of PIG?
2. Define Wrapper Class? Describe in brief about writable wrappers for java primitives.
3. How Hadoop uses the Scale-out feature to develop the performance? Give an explanation with examples.
4. Differentiate between class linked list functionalities and Array List.
5. Explain with example about the implementation of the map-reduce concept.
6. In what mode does a Hadoop can run?
7. Explain in brief about API for the Map-reduce framework.
8. What is Generic writable and Object writable?
9. Explain and describe in brief about the construction blocks of Hadoop?
10. Explain in brief about running a pig script in distributed mode and local.

Question 1.

Why is Big Data Analytics imperative for business enterprises and industries?

Big Data analytics is essential for business enterprises and industries to understand obstacles sustaining an organization and to explore data in meaningful ways. Big Data analytics interprets, organizes, structures, and presents the data into beneficial information that offers context to the data.

Question 2.

What are the types of Big Data Analytics?

There are four types of big Data Analytics: Prescriptive, Predictive, Diagnostic and Descriptive

Question 3.

Name a few of the big data software and tools?

Some of the Big Data Tools and Software are Apache Storm, Hadoop, MongoDB, Quoble, Cassandra, CouchDB, HPCC, and Statwing.

Question 4.

How does Big Data Analytics operate?

Big data analytics is the science of analyzing big sets of data through different processes and tools to find out unique hidden correlations, patterns, meaningful trends, and other insights for building data-driven judgments in the pursuit of better outcomes.

### Conclusion

The Big Data Analytics Lecture Notes and Study Materials written above are aimed to assist the students at the time of exam preparations. The notes for big data analytics are reliable and have authoritative references focused to help students and improve their knowledge and understanding of the subject during the time of preparation for the exam. Students can refer and practice from the provided notes for big data analytics, analytics big data curriculum, and important questions from this article.

## OOAD Lecture Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download | Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Lecture Notes

OOAD Lecture Notes: Graduates who are looking to access the OOAD Lecture Notes can access and refer to the best and most reliable sources of references for their preparation for the essential concepts for the examination.

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## Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design or OOAD Notes

OOAD or Object-Oriented Analysis and Design is a subject which deals with designing the software. One of the most c complex tasks in a large application is of designing software. In Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, students study the foundations of understanding and design of modern computing systems. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design explore the different techniques that go into designing a modern microprocessor.

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Here is a list of a few important notes on OOAD Lecture Notes Pdf for a thorough preparation of the examination-

• OOAD Lecture Notes for B.Tech Second Year PDF
• OOAD Lecture Handwritten Notes Pdf
• Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML PPT
• Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML Question Paper

### Object Oriented Analysis and Design Reference Books

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1. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications
2. The Unified Modelling Language User Guide
3. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML
4. Headfirst Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process
5. The Unified modelling Language Reference Manual

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The updated unit-wise division of the OOAD Syllabus is as follows:

Unit I:

• Introduction: The structure of complex systems
• The inherent complexity of software
• Attributes of a complex system
• Organised and Disorganised complexity
• Bringing order to chaos
• Designing complex systems
• Evolution of the object model
• Foundation of the object model
• Elements of the object model
• Applying the object model

Unit II:

• Classes and objects
• Nature of object
• Relationships between objects
• Nature of a class
• Relationship among classes
• The interplay of classes and objects
• Identifying class and objects
• Importance of proper classification
• identifying class and objects
• Key abstractions and mechanisms

Unit III:

• Introduction to UML
• Why we model
• Conceptual model of UML
• Architecture
• Classes
• Relationships
• Common Mechanisms
• Class diagrams
• Object diagrams

Unit IV:

• Basic behavioural modelling
• Interactions
• Interaction diagrams
• Use cases
• Use cases diagrams
• Activity diagrams

Unit V:

• Event and signals
• State machines
• Time and space
• Statechart diagrams

Unit VI:

• Architectural modelling
• Component
• Deployment
• Component diagrams
• Deployment diagrams
• Case study: The Unified Library application

### List of OOAD Important Questions

Students studying Bachelors in Technology (B.Tech) can access the article and read through the list of important questions in the section below for the OOAD or Object-Oriented Analysis and Design course program. All the important review questions enlisted in the section below help students excel in their examinations and secure the best grades in their examinations.

1. Define an abstract class and explain its use.
2. Would you say that a concrete class can be a superclass? If yes, explain your answer and give examples for the same, if no, explain your reason.
3. Use the following words and create a class hierarchy to organize them: Wine, Alcoholic, Soda, Beers, Non-alcoholic, Mineral Water, Grape juice.
4. Define a Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
5. You have a task on setting the stages of the Software Development Life Cycle, how would you set up the stages of SDLC? Which is the phase which requires the most effort?
6. One of the stages of SDLC Is the domain analysis, under which there are many sub-divisions, explain the importance of the domain analysis and expand the sub-divisions with a suitable explanation.
7. How would you describe the use of “include” and “extends” in relationships in a use-case diagram?
8. Make a comparative study between the similarities and dissimilarities between a sequence diagram and a collaboration diagram.
9. In an object diagram, show at least ten relationships between the object classes. As a part of the object diagram, include associations and qualified associations: aggregations, generalization, and other additional objects.
10. Prepare an interaction diagram for an ATM, which is used for a card-banking system.

### FAQs on Object Oriented Analysis and Design Lecture Notes

Question 1.
What is OOAD or Object-Oriented Analysis and Design?

Answer: OOAD or Object-Oriented Analysis and Design is a subject which deals with designing the software. One of the most c complex tasks in a large application is of designing software. In Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, students study the foundations of understanding and design of modern computing systems. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design explore the different techniques that go into designing a modern microprocessor.

Question 2.

• OOAD Lecture Notes for B.Tech Second Year Pdf
• OOAD Lecture Handwritten Notes Pdf
• Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML PPT
• Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML Question Paper

Question 3.
Name some of the reference books that students can refer to from this article on OOAD Lecture Notes.

1. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications
2. The Unified Modelling Language User Guide
3. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design using UML
4. Headfirst Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with the Unified Process
5. The Unified modelling Language Reference Manual

Question 4.
List out of the important questions that students can refer to when they are preparing for the Object-Oriented Analysis and Design examination.

Answer: Here are some of the important questions that students can refer to when they are preparing for the Object-Oriented Analysis and Design examination:

1. Define an abstract class and explain its use.
2. Would you say that a concrete class can be a superclass? If yes, explain your answer and give examples for the same, if no, explain your reason.
3. Use the following words and create a class hierarchy to organize them: Wine, Alcoholic, Soda, Beers, Non-alcoholic, Mineral Water, Grape juice.
4. Define a Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
5. You have a task on setting the stages of the Software Development Life Cycle, how would you set up the stages of SDLC? Which is the phase which requires the most effort?
6. One of the stages of SDLC Is the domain analysis, under which there are many sub-divisions, explain the importance of the domain analysis and expand the sub-divisions with a suitable explanation.

### Conclusion

The article on OOAD Lecture Notes is a credible and reliable source of reference that enlists all the important sources mentioned above aims at helping students improve and enhance their knowledge and comprehension of the subject during their preparation process. Students can download the OOAD Notes Pdf for free, refer to the reference books and textbooks, and practice from the Important Questions list available in this article on Object Oriented Analysis and Design Notes.

## Management Science Notes Notes PDF Free Download | BTech MS Reference Books, Study Materials, Syllabus, Important Questions List

Management Science Lecture Notes PDF: Graduates who are pursuing their MBA or B.Tech trying to get hold of the Management Science Lecture Notes PDF study materials and notes can access the best PDF downloads from this article for their preparation process of all the essential concepts.

The Management Science PDF Download Notes and study materials are vital to study resources that encourage and enhance better preparation and helps students score better grades. Students can refer to the Management Science Lecture Notes and resources as per the latest syllabus from this article.

The article on Management Science Hand Written Notes Notes gives graduates an overview of all the critical concepts as per the latest syllabus, subject expert reference books, and the list of all the crucial questions over regular Management Science Study Notes notes.

Graduates can avail the best, and credible Management Science Complete Notes PDFs and Reference Books from here and enable themselves to better their preparation methods and approaches with the best and up-to-date study materials and achieve better scores.

• Introduction to Management Science
• List of MS Reference Books
• Management Science PDF Syllabus
• List of Management Science Important Questions
• FAQs on Management Science Study Notes PDF
• Conclusion

## Introduction to Management Science

Management Science is an application of science that deals with Management. Management Science Notes encompasses problems related to Management or the process of Management like Systems analysis, the study of Management-information Systems, and operations research.

Management Science Lecture Notes PDF is the study of all the activities that entails managerial functions such as-

1.  Adoption of Policies, Initiation of steps to change ineffective or inadequate policies, definition, discovering, evaluation, and development of organizational goals and alternative systems leading towards the plans
2. Scrutinisation of the effectiveness or all the adopted policies

Graduates pursuing their MBA or Bachelors in Technology (B.Tech) can access and download credible sources of study materials from this article on PDF Management Science Free Notes. Students can better and enhance their preparation with the fundamental tools that help them score better grades.

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Here, are a list of a few essential notes on the MS course for a thorough preparation-

### Management of Science Notes Reference Books

The list of all the highly recommended and best subject expert books on Management Science PDF Notes that helps better preparation is as follows. Graduates can select the recommended books that meet their knowledge and prepare accordingly for the examination.

1. Intro to Management Science Notes by David R. Anderson
2. The Twelfth Edition of Introduction to Management Science Notes by Bernard W. Taylor
3. Intro to Management Science – With Cd by Frederick Hillier
4. The Eleventh Edition of Intro to Management Science Notes by Bernard W. Taylor
5. Business Analytics: Data Analysis & Decision Making by S. Christian Albright and Wayne L. Winston
6. Principles of Management Science Notes – Text Only by Frederick S. Hillier
7. Management Science Notes: Art Modeling Spreadsheets by Stephen G. Powell and Kenneth R. Baker
8. An Intro to Management Science – Quantitative Approach by Dennis J. Sweeney, David R. Anderson, Jeffrey D. Camm, and Thomas A. Williams
9. Management Science Decision-Making Through Systems Thinking by Donald McNickle and Hans Daellenbach
10. Management Science Decision- Making through Systems Thinking by Hans Daellenbach, Shane Dye, and Donald McNickle
11. The Third Edition of Intro to Management Science by Bernard W. Taylor

### Human Resource Management Science Syllabus

The Syllabus is an essential element that briefs students of all the vital topics and concepts concisely and comprehensively. The best way to make preparation an effective process is by having an initial idea and a brief overview of the Human Resource Management Science Syllabus.

The Course Curriculum gives students a clear idea of what to study and helps them organize, structure, and plan the preparation process. The article on the nature and importance of Management Science free Notes provides a detailed view of the Management Science Class Notes curriculum, keeping into account every student’s requirements. The report offers a unit-wise break up that lays out all the essential topics for students to allot time to each concept accordingly.

Students must ensure to cover all the essential topics and concepts before attempting the Management Science exam so that the paper is reasonably answerable and accessible at the time of the examination. Graduates must also stay aware of the PDF Management Science Syllabus to prevent wasting unnecessary time on redundant topics.

The updated unit-wise breakup of the Management Science (MS) Syllabus is as follows-

 Unit Topics UNIT-I Introduction to Management and Organisational Concepts of Management and Organisation inclusive of the Importance, Nature, and Functions of Management and Systems Approach to Management Douglas McGregor’s Theory V and Theory X Decentralisation and Departmentation, Organic Structures of Organisation and Suitability, and Types and Evaluation of Mechanistic Taylor’s Scientific Management Theory Herzberg Two Factor Theory of Motivation Fayal’s Principles of Management Leadership Styles, Social Responsibilities of Management Designing Organisational Structures- Basic concepts related to Organisation Maslow’s theory of the Hierarchy of Human Needs UNIT-II JIT System, Functions of Marketing, Supply Chain Management, Marketing Mix, and Marketing strategies based on Product Life Cycle and Channels of distribution Statistical Quality Control- Control charts for Attributes and Variables (Comprises Simple Problems) and Acceptance Sampling, Deming’s Contribution to Quality, TQM, and Six Sigma Operations and Marketing Management- Types and Principles of Plant Layout Methods of Production like batch, Job, and Mass Production Objectives of Inventory Control, ABC Analysis, EOQ, Stores Records, Purchase Procedure, and Stores Management Work-Study -Basic procedure involved in Method Study and Work Measurement Business Process Reengineering (BPR) UNIT-III Essential functions of HR Manager- Manpower planning, Training and Development, Recruitment, Selection, Placement, Promotion, Wage and Salary Administration, Transfer, Merit Rating, Separation1 Performance Appraisal, Job Evaluation, Grievance Handling, and Welfare Administration  Performance Management System Human Resources Management (HRM)- Concepts of HRM, Personnel Management and Industrial Relations (PMIR) and HRD, and HRM versus PMIR Capability Maturity Model (CMM) Levels UNIT-IV Identifying Critical Path Project Crashing (Comprises Simple Problems) Project Management Network Analysis (PERTICPM) Probability of Completing the task within a given interval Programme Evaluation and Review Technique(PERT) Project Cost Analysis Critical Path Method (CPM) UNIT-V Benchmarking and Balanced Scorecard as Contemporary Business Strategies Strategic Management and Contemporary Strategic Issues- Goals, Policy, Elements of Corporate Planning, Objectives, SWOT Analysis,  Generic Strategy Alternatives, Mission, Value Chain Analysis, Strategy, Steps in Strategy Formulation and Implementation, Programmers, and Environmental Scanning

### List of Management Science Important Questions

Candidates pursuing Bachelors in Technology (B.Tech) or MBA can read through and access the list of the essential questions mentioned below for the Management Science Notes PDF course preparation. All the given review questions help candidates excel in the examination.

• Define and briefly evaluate the methods of Departmentalisation.
• Define Management and Organisation and establish the relation between the two.
• Briefly explain the concept of Management and state the Scope, Importance, and Nature of the Organisation.
• Define HRM and draw a comparison between HRM versus PMIR.
• Briefly explain Production and Productivity and elucidate how productivity can enhance and better Indian Industries.
• What are Network Analysis and state the rules for drawing networks?
• With a neat-labelled diagram, define PLC and explain various stages in PLC.
• Enumerate the elements of the Corporate Planning Process.
• Define Job Evaluation and briefly explain the methods and advantages of Job Evaluation.
• Draw a comparison between PERT and CPM with an example.
• List the various significant elements under Corporate planning.
• Explain the meaning of SWOT Analysis and elucidate the significance it holds.
• Elucidate the development of products in the TQM Environment.
• Explain the importance and need of the Supply Chain Management process?
• Briefly elucidate on Plant location and the factors that affect Plant Location.

Question 1.

Give a brief on Management Science Complete Notes.

Management Science Lecture Notes is a broad branch that is often linked with various interdisciplinary studies like Economics, Engineering, Management, Management Consulting, Business, and other fields. This branch is the study of decision-making and problem-solving in multiple organizations.

Question 2.

State the importance of Management Science Notes.

Management Science Class Notes pdf download helps in the identification of processes that notices the weakness area points, works, and realizes the possibilities of the future based on the needs and requirements of the organization’s consumer base. The Management Science Study Notes pdf approach makes the utilization and use of the resources simpler since the framework can notify the user of the available resources.

Question 3.

Enumerate a few experts recommended Management Science Books.

• Intro to Management Science by David R. Anderson
• The Twelfth Edition of Intro to Management Science by Bernard W. Taylor
• Intro to Management Science – With Cd by Frederick Hillier
• The Eleventh Edition of Intro to Management Science by Bernard W. Taylor
• Business Analytics: Data Analysis & Decision Making by S. Christian Albright and Wayne L. Winston

Question 4.

What is the importance of the Management Science Syllabus?

The Management Science Course Curriculum gives students a clear idea of what to study and helps them organize, structure, and plan the preparation process. Besides, here you avail the unit-wise break up that lays out all the essential topics so that you can allot time to each concept accordingly.

### Conclusion

The article on Management Science Note PDF Download is a credible and reliable source that aims to create better preparation and all the books and other sources mentioned above help students enhance their knowledge and comprehension of the course subject during their revisions and examination period. Students can download the PDF for reference and practice from the provided Management Science Lecture Notes PDFs, notes PDFs, books, and the list of essential questions from this article.

Radar Lecture Notes PDF: Graduates hunting around to get hold of the Radar Lecture Notes Pdf can access and refer to the best and credible sources of references for their preparation or revision process of essential concepts.

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Graduates can avail the Radar Lecture Notes Pdf and other reference sources from this article and use these references to better the preparation methods and approaches with the latest and updated study resources and turnover their grade chart.

## Introduction to Radar Lecture Notes

Radar deals with the detection of distance and location of an object from the point through an electromagnetic system. The term RADAR unfolds into Radio Detection, and Ranging System and the working module is through radiation energy emitted into space and deals with the monitoring of reflected signal and echo from objects.

Radar are sensors that locates, detects, tracks, or even recognises the different kinds of objects at considerable distances. The operation of Radar is in the Microwave and UHF range and transmits electromagnetic energy of targets to detect the echoes of their return.

A Radar holds six basic components- Waveguides, transmitter, threshold decision, antenna, receiver, and a duplexer. These enlisted components in unison determine the geographical statistics of the target or object.

Candidates studying Bachelors in Technology (B.Tech) or Bachelor’s in Engineering can access to the best and updated notes and reference sources from this article. The article on Radar Lecture Notes Pdf acts as the ultimate preparation tools to help students secure better marks.

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Here, are a list of a few important notes on Radar Lecture Notes Pdf for a thorough preparation of the exam-

• Radar Lecture Notes for B.Tech Fourth Year Pdf
• Radar Lecture Handwritten Notes Pdf
• Radar Lecture Notes for Bachelor’s in Engineering Pdf
• Radar Programme Previous Years’s Question Paper Pdfs
• Radar Lecture ECE PPT Notes Pdf

Textbooks and Reference Books are a rich source of information, and well-researched data and candidates must ensure to consult books that provide excellent conceptual background and knowledge.

The article on Radar Lecture Notes Pdf provides the list of the best and important books on Radar as per the subject experts’ recommendations. Graduates can refer and refer to the list of books mentioned below for the Radar course programme during your preparation.

The list of best and highly recommended books on Radar that enhances preparation are as follows, and candidates must ensure to choose the book that meets their knowledge and prepare accordingly.

1. The Second Edition of Introduction to Radar Systems by Merrill I. Skolnik
2. The Third Edition of Introduction to Radar Systems by Merrill I. Skolnik
3. Radar Principles by Peebles Jr. and P.Z.Wiley
4. Understanding Radar Systems by Simon Kinsley and Shaun Quegan
5. The Second Edition of Radar Hand Book by M.I Skolnik
6. Radar: Principles, Technology, Applications by Byron Edde
8. Principles of Modern Radar: Basic Principles by Mark A. Richards, James A. Scheer, and William A. Holm
9. Understanding Radar Systems by Simon Kingsley
10. Introduction to Radar Systems by KK Sharma
11. Advanced Sparsity-Driven Models and Methods for Radar Applications by Gang Li
12. Radar Systems Principles by Harold R Raemer
13. Multidimensional Radar Imaging by Marco Martorella
14. Ground Penetrating Radar by David J. Daniels
15. Understanding Radar Systems by Shaun Quegan and Simon Kingsley

The syllabus is a crucial tool that plans, structures, and organises exam preparation with a comprehensive outline of the contents. The best way to ensure effective preparation is by having a comprehensive idea and outline of the Radar Syllabus. The Radar Course Curriculum provides a detailed view of the syllabus, taking into consideration every student’s requirements and needs.

The Radar Syllabus provides students with a clear idea of what to study and how to study, and the unit-wise division of all the important concepts and theorems listed under each unit helps students allot enough time to each topic and prepare accordingly.

The article on Radar Lecture Notes Pdf covers all the important topics and students must ensure to read through all the topics before attempting the Radar exam so that the paper is reasonably easy to prevent you from wasting unnecessary time on redundant topics.

The updated unit-wise division of the Radar Syllabus is as follows-

UNIT-I

• Radar Equation- SNR, Integration of Radar Pulses, Transmitter Power, Envelope Detector, System Losses (qualitative treatment), False Alarm Time and Probability, h PRF and Range Ambiguities, Radar Cross Section of Targets (simple targets – sphere, cone-sphere), and Illustrative Problems.
• Basics of Radar- Introduction, Radar Frequencies and Applications, Minimum Detectable Signal, Maximum Unambiguous Range, Receiver Noise, Radar Block Diagram and Operation, Modified Radar Range Equation, Simple form of Radar Equation, Prediction of Range Performance, and Illustrative Problems

UNIT-II

• CW and Frequency Modulated Radar- Doppler Effect
• Applications of CW radar and Illustrative Problems
• Range and Doppler Measurement
• Block Diagram and Characteristics (Approaching/ Receding Targets)
• FM-CW altimeter and Multiple Frequency CW Radar

UNIT-III

• Tracking Radar- Tracking with Radar, Phase Comparison Monopulse, Comparison of Trackers, Sequential Lobing, Amplitude Comparison Monopulse (one- and two- coordinates), Tracking Radar – Tracking in Range, Scanning Patterns and Acquisition, and Conical Scan
• Range Gated Doppler
• Limitations to MTI Performance
• MTI and Pulse Doppler Radar- Introduction and Principle
• MTI Radar with – Power Amplifier Transmitter and Power Oscillator Transmitter
• Delay Line Cancellers – Filter Characteristics, Blind Speeds, Double Cancellation, and Staggered PRFs

UNIT-IV

• Introduction to Phased Array Antennas- Basic Concepts, Applications, Series versus Parallel Feeds, Radiation Pattern, Advantages and Limitations, and Beam Steering and Beam Width changes
• Detection Of Radar Signals In Noise- Introduction, Matched Filter Receiver- Response Characteristics and Derivation, Correlation Function and Cross-correlation Receiver, Efficiency of Non-matched Filters, and Matched Filter with Non-white Noise.
• Duplexers- Branch type and Balanced type, and Circulators as Duplexers

### List of Radar Important Questions

Graduates studying Bachelors in Technology (B.Tech) can access the article and read through the list of important questions enlisted below for the Radar course programme. All the important review questions enlisted below help the candidates excel and secure better grades in the examination.

1. With a neat-labelled diagram state the working module of a Pulsed radar?
2. State and derive the Fundamental range equation?
3. Differentiate between a Log Power Detector, RF Envelope Detector, and RF RMS Power Detector with suitable examples and diagrams?
4. Derive the Range Equations and enlist its Limitations?
5. State the reasons that caused the failure of the Simple Radar Equation form?
6. State how to detect the Pulse Modulation of a received signal envelope at 10 GHz and state which type of detector works best and why?
7. State Doppler’s Effect with an example?
8. Define thermal noise?
10. Write short notes on Frequency Diversion and Agility?
11. Explain Frequency Response Characteristics of MTI with a neat-labelled diagram through Filters and Range Gates?
12. Explain where the occurrence of blind speeds take place?
13. Elucidate on the Tracking Principles?
14. Write short notes on Coho and Stalo?
15.  Explain and derive the equation for Non-Matched Filters?

### FAQs on Radar Lecture Notes PDF

Question 1.
Define Radar and state its application.

Radar is an electromagnetic sensor with an illumination of its own for detecting, locating, tracking, or even recognising objects or targets. Radar operates in a microwave region through the transmission of electromagnetic energy and detects objects through echos.

Radar holds three primary applications- Air Traffic Control, Airport Surface Scanning, and Air Surveillance.

Question 2.
What is the importance of studying Radar?

The course programme introduces students to basic concepts in the field. It ensures that students gain knowledge on the different types of Radar systems, Navigational Aids, and the Radar Transmitter and Receiver basic design. It

Question 3.
State the importance of Radar Lecture Notes Pdf.

Radar Lecture Notes Pdf acts as the ultimate preparation tools to help students secure better marks. The Radar Lecture Notes Pdf provides a free download of the notes for students to use as a source of reference and guidance whenever during the preparation or revision process. The frequent utilisation and reference of the Radar Lecture Notes Pdf can help students get a better hunch of the important concepts and topics to change their score game.

Question 4.
State the four important possible questions for Radar Lecture Notes Pdf.

• With a neat-labelled diagram state the working module of a Pulsed radar.
• State and derive the Fundamental range equation.
• Differentiate between a Log Power Detector, RF Envelope Detector, and RF RMS Power Detector with suitable examples and diagrams.
• Derive the Range Equations and enlist its Limitations.

### Conclusion

The article on Radar Lecture Notes Pdf is a genuine and credible source of reference that enlists all the important sources mentioned above to help students better and enhance their knowledge and comprehension of the subject during preparation or revision. Students can download the Radar Lecture Notes Pdf for free, refer to the Reference Books and textbooks, and practice from the Important Questions briefed in this article.

## Electrical Distribution System PDF | EDS Notes & Study Material Free Download

Electrical Distribution System PDF: Students of Electrical Engineering looking to get hold of the Electrical Distribution System PDF can get access to all the required information and details on the subject from this article.

The Electrical Distribution System PDF aims at providing the students with all the necessary information that they require in the course of the study. These notes foster a reliable source of knowledge and enhance the grades of the students. Students of the electrical engineering branch can access the Electrical Distribution System PDF from this article and can ease their preparation for examinations.

An Electrical Distribution System is the process of distribution of electricity from the power generation system to the consumer. The Electrical Distribution System consists of a number of substations through which the electric current passes before it finally reaches the consumer. The study of the electrical distribution system consists of several technical terms that often confuse the students. The Electrical Distribution System PDF acts as a saviour for the students and helps them in the preparation and revisions.

By referring to the Electrical Distribution System PDF, a student of the electrical engineering branch can get hold of all the information that he/she requires. This PDF explains all the technical terms and concepts related to the Electrical Distribution System.

## Introduction to Electrical Distribution System

Electrical Distribution System or Electric Power Distribution System is the process of electricity distribution from the main station of power generation to the final consumers. This process involves a lot of electrical equipment that smoothens the process of transmission of electricity from the power generation station to the consumer. The types of equipment used in this process are distribution substations, primary distribution feeders, distribution transformers and secondary circuits.

In the Process of Electric power distribution, First, the energy is delivered in bulk from the power source to the distribution substations. Then, in the distribution substation, various voltage regulating devices are used to reduce the voltage of electric current for the distribution to the local consumers.

The Electrical Distribution System generally consists of two distribution channels, i.e. Primary Distribution and Secondary Distribution. In Primary Distribution, the primary circuits carry the high voltage electric power to the distribution transformer located near the house of the consumer. Then, in the secondary distribution, the distribution transformer lowers the voltage to 120/240V, which is then transmitted to the household of the consumer through secondary circuits.

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These PDFs are considered to be the most suitable and reliable form of information that a candidate can get. They make the learning process for the students simple and easy. The Pdf guides the students with every bit of information on the topic and helps them to understand the concepts of the Electrical Distribution System without any confusion.

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The PDF also comes with a set of important questions and practice question papers, that intend to give the students knowledge about the types of questions and the pattern of examination. They provide all the details on the topic, which gives an overview of the topic to the students of electrical engineering.

Few Crucial Notes of Electrical Distribution System are:-

• Electrical Distribution System Notes PDF
• Electrical Distribution System Questions with Answers PDF
• Electrical Distribution System Handwritten Notes PDFs
• Electrical Distribution Semester Notes PDF
• Electrical Distribution System PPT
• Electrical Distribution System Lecture Notes PDF

### Electrical Distribution System Reference Books

Preparing for exams of any subject without books makes no sense. Books are considered to be the chief source of information for any given subject or topic. Without books, preparation of the exam is considered to be incomplete. Books are a must required source of knowledge for a student. Books provide the students with detailed information on the topic. Scoring better grades without referring to books is quite impossible.

Different books are written by Different Authors on various subjects and topics. Similarly, there are different books by different Authors on Electrical Distribution systems. These Books guarantee quality information to the students. The Authors of these Books have years of experience on the topic, and they explain the topic in detail to the students. The books clear every bit of doubt about the topic from the minds of the students.

This article provides a list of the best and highly recommended books on Electrical Distribution Systems, and the students can choose the books that meet their requirements of knowledge accordingly.

• Electric Distribution System, written by Abdelhey A. Sallam and Om P. Malik
• Control and Automation of Electrical Power Distribution System, written by James Northcote-Green
• Electric Power Distribution Engineering, written by Turan Gonen
• Electric Power Distribution Handbook, written by T. A. Short
• Electrical Distribution Systems, written by Dale R. Patrick and Stephen Fardo
• Electrical Power Distribution Systems, written by V. Kumaraju
• Electric Power Distribution, written by A. S. Pabla
• Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering, written by brain Hardy and Colin Bayliss

### Electrical Distribution Systems Curriculum

The best way to make the preparation of exams effective is to have an initial idea and outline about the topic. The initial idea of what to study and how to study can be gained by following the syllabus of the Electrical Distribution System. The Syllabus or curriculum of a subject is always set, keeping in mind the intelligence and knowledge of the students. The curriculum of the Electrical Distribution System reduces the pressure of study from the minds of the students. By following the syllabus properly, a student can easily secure better grades.

Here, is the unit wise syllabus of the Electrical Distribution System:-

 UNIT 1: GENERAL CONCEPTS DISTRIBUTION FEEDERS Introduction to Distribution Systems Distribution System Planning Factors Affecting the Distribution System Planning Load Modelling and Characteristics Coincidence Factor Contribution Factor Loss Factor Relationship between Load Factor and Loss Factor Load Growth Classification of Loads Designs of Distribution Feeders Radial, Loop and Network Types of Primary Feeders Introduction to Low Voltage and High Voltage Distribution System Voltage Levels Factors Affecting the Feeder Voltage Level Feeder Loading Application of General Circuit constants to radial feeders Designs of Secondary Distribution System Secondary Banking Secondary Network Types Secondary Mains UNIT 2: SUBSTATIONS SYSTEM ANALYSIS Location of Substations Rating of Distribution Substations Benefits derived through Optimal Location of Substations Optimal Location of Substations Voltage Loss and Power Loss Calculations Derivation of Voltage Drops and Power Loss in Lines Manual Methods of Solution for Radial Networks Three Phased Balanced Primary Lines Analysis of Non-three Phase Systems Methods to Analyze the Distribution Feeder Cost UNIT 3: PROTECTION COORDINATION Objectives of the Distribution System Protection Types of Common Faults Procedure for Fault Calculations Over Current Protective Devices Principle of Operation of Fuses and Circuit Breakers Coordination of Protective Devices Objectives of Protection Coordination General Coordination Procedure Types of Protection Coordination UNIT 4: COMPENSATION FOR POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT Capacitive Compensation for Power-Factor Control Different Types of Power Capacitors Shunt and Series Capacitors Effects of Shunt Capacitors Effects of Series Capacitors Difference between Shunt and Series Capacitors Calculation of Power Factor Correlation Capacitor Allocation Procedure to Determine the best Capacitor Location UNIT 5: VOLTAGE CONTROL Voltage Control Importance of Voltage Control Methods of Voltage Control Equipment for Voltage Control Line Drop Compensation Voltage Fluctuations

### Electrical Distribution System Important Questions

Students, before appearing, the examination must check their knowledge by practising some questions. By practising more questions, they can become better learners and can secure better grades. They can evaluate themselves by practising the sample questions. The questions that are provided here give an overview of the pattern of questions that can come in the examinations.

• What is meant by the Electrical Distribution System?
• Establish the relationship between the Load factor and Loss factor.
• State the difference between Radial and Loop types of Primary distribution Feeders.
• Define the terms Feeders and Distributors
• Define a Substation
• What is a Distribution Transformer?
• State the Classification of Different Types of Substations?
• Describe the Operating Principle of fuses
• How does a Circuit Breaker Operate?
• State the different types of Capacitors.
• What is the Importance of Coordination of Protective Devices?
• What do you mean by Protective Devices? Explain.
• Discuss the Disadvantages of Low Voltage
• Discuss the importance of Voltage Control.
• Briefly describe the Methods of Voltage Control.

### Frequently Asked Questions on Electrical Distribution Systems Notes

1. What is the Meaning of Primary Feeders?

Primary Feeders or Primary circuits are the distribution circuits that transmit the electricity from the substations to the local distribution transformers. Their arrangement can be made in three different ways, i.e. Radial, Loop and Network types. They may be arranged under the ground or over the ground.

2. State the Factors affecting the Electrical Distribution System Planning?

The Factors affecting the electrical distribution system planning are as follows:-

• Types of Primary Distribution System.
• The voltage level at the customer point.
• Types of secondary circuits used.
• Size and location of the distribution transformer.
• Loads at the primary distribution level.
• Size and location of the distribution Substation.

3. Can you give the Definition of the Distribution transformer?

A Distribution Transformer is a piece of important electrical equipment that is used in the process of electricity distribution. It is basically an electrical isolation transformer that converts high-voltage to lower voltage levels in the transmission process of electricity. The main function of an electric distribution transformer is to step down the high electric voltage to low electric voltage for the use of home and other industrial appliances. Almost all the electricity that is transmitted from the power generation station passes through at least one distribution transformer before being consumed by the end-user.

4. How is the Electrical Distribution System PDF helpful?

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Security Analysis & Portfolio Management for MBA Notes: The Security Analysis and Portfolio Management is an essential subject for the students of MBA. It includes many vital concepts, and a student needs to understand all of its basics well to excel in the examinations. But the question is, where to study from, and what topics to cover? This article contains all the vital details regarding the subject, including its syllabus and reference books.

Download Security Analysis and Portfolio Management lecture notes and books which are highly credible and especially designed by the subject’s experts from this post. These experts have immense experience and knowledge about all the concepts, including the basic and the advanced ones. Any candidate needs to access these certified resources to get amazing results in any examination.

Starting from the descriptions to the examples and solved and unsolved questions, Security Analysis and Portfolio Management notes and books cover it all. These resources do not leave any topics and concepts, ensuring that the students learning from them will always pass with flying colors and surely touch the skies.

The notes provided are in the form of PDF that the students can easily download whenever they wish to access them anytime and anywhere. These notes will help the students in easily and fast understanding of the concepts along with their implementations of the problems.

## Introduction to Security Analysis and Portfolio Management Notes PDF

Starting with the securities, they are the assets that carry some financial values. They are tradable and fungible. Now moving on to its analysis, what is security analysis? Analyzing the tradable instruments of finance is termed as security analysis. It helps the financial experts or the security analysts determine the values of assets present in a portfolio.

Security Analysis is essential for calculating the assets’ values and finding out the effect of fluctuations in the market. It is classified as a Fundamental analysis, technical analysis, and quantitative analysis.

Now moving on to Portfolio Management, the stream deals with managing the securities and creating the individuals’ investment objectives. It is the art of selection for the best investments for the concerned individuals, guaranteeing maximum returns with minimum risks.

### Security Analysis and Portfolio Management Notes and Study material PDF Free Download

Students of MBA learn Security Analysis and Portfolio Management subject, ones in their course duration, and the study materials and notes are provided with easy downloading access. The notes cover many vital topics, like human resource, finance, marketing, accounting, statistics, operations, and others essential for MBA students.

The students can download and access these study materials and notes whenever they wish to and can learn the subject anytime according to their comfort. All the materials are easily available from single links, designed specifically to ease the task of accessing the best materials.

Download Security Analysis And Portfolio Management Notes pdf for MBA students from here as they are specially designed keeping all the requirements and vital concepts of the course in mind. These materials cover all the definitions, including the examples and the important questions of the subject.

The list of study materials provided is:

### Security Analysis and Portfolio Management Reference Books

Apart from the notes and the PPTs, it is important to learn the books’ concepts to cover up everything without leaving any single concept. The authors of the referred books for Security Analysis and Portfolio Management are the subject’s experts, having immense experience and knowledge of each key concept. For having an in-depth understanding of the subject, it is essential to refer to the below-mentioned reference books.

The preparation will touch the skies if the students refer to these books for the preparations. Further, with the best preparation, the students will pass the exams with flying colors and be the experts on the subject.

Here is the list of all the best books & Security Analysis and Portfolio Management Notes security analysis for MBA students.

• Punithavathy Pandian, Security Analysis And Portfolio Management, Vikas Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. 2001.
• Kevin. S, Security Analysis And Portfolio Management, Phi, Delhi, 2011
• Yogesh Maheswari, Investment Management, Phi, Delhi, 2011
• Bhalla V K, Investment Management: Security Analysis And Portfolio Management, S Chand, New Delhi, 2009
• Prasanna Chandra, Portfolio Management, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2008
• Avadhani, VA 2008, Securities Analysis And Portfolio Management, 9th edition, Himalaya Publishing House
• Chandra, P, Investment Analysis And Portfolio Management, 3rd edition, TATA McGraw Hill
• Fischer, DE & Jordan, Rj, Securities Analysis And Portfolio Management, 6th edition, Pearson Education
• Gnanasekaran, E 2009, Securities Analysis And Portfolio Management, 1st edition, Lakshmi Publications

### Security Analysis and Portfolio Management Syllabus & Curriculum

Studying everything according to the syllabus is highly effective as it helps to understand the concepts well and in detail. Whenever a student follows the syllabus sequence for learning Security Analysis and Portfolio Management, he/she will learn everything well, without any confusion, as the interrelated topics are also well defined in a proper sequence in the curriculum of the subject.

Also, with the syllabus’s help, the students will get a clear idea of what is included in the subject and the topics and the subtopics. Thus, the learning process gets more effective in this manner, and the students are never confused about what to learn first and what later.

Additionally, using the Security Analysis & Portfolio Management syllabus, the students can effectively divide the course to form a sequence of learning patterns that they can follow for better outcomes.

Here is the updated syllabus of Security Analysis and Portfolio Management.

Unit 1: Investment

• A Conceptual Framework: Investment process
• Risks of investment
• The common mistakes made in investment management

Unit 2: Investment Environment

• Composition and features of money market and capital market
• Money market
• Capital market
• Instruments and financial derivatives

Unit 3: Risk and Return

• Concepts of risk and return
• Measuring risk in terms of standard deviation and variance
• The relationship between risk and return

Unit 4: Fundamental Analysis

• Economy analysis
• Industry analysis and company analysis
• Weaknesses of fundamental analysis

Unit 5: Technical Analysis

• Tools of technical analysis
• Important chart formations or price patterns
• Technical indicators

Unit 6: Efficient Market Hypothesis

• Concept of ‘Efficient Market’
• Its implications for security analysis and portfolio management.

Unit 7: Behavioral Finance

• Meaning of Behavioral finance
• When, how, and why psychology influences investment decisions

Unit 8: Valuation of bonds and shares

• Elements of investment
• Bond features and prices
• Call provisions on corporate bonds
• Convertible bonds and valuation of bonds

Unit 9: Portfolio Management

• Risks and Returns
• Concept of portfolio and portfolio management
• Concept of risk
• Types of portfolio management

Unit 10: Markowitz Portfolio Selection Model

• Concept of portfolio analysis
• Diversification of risk
• Markowitz Model
• Efficient Frontier

Unit 11: Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

• Deals with the assumptions of CAPM
• The inputs required for applying CAPM
• Limitations of this Model

Unit 12: Sharpe-The Single Index Model

• Measurement of return on an individual stock
• Measurement of portfolio return
• Measurement of individual stock risk

Unit 13: Factor Models and Arbitrage Pricing Theory

• Arbitrage Pricing Theory and its principles
• Comparison of Arbitrage Pricing Theory
• Capital Asset Pricing Model.

Unit 14: International Portfolio Investments

• Investment avenues for foreign portfolio investors
• Risks and returns associated with such an investment.

Unit 15: Mutual Fund Operations

• Mutual funds as a key financial intermediary
• Mobilizing savings and investing them in capital markets.

### List of Security Analysis and Portfolio Management Important Questions and Answers

Practicing the important questions is a necessary step while learning any concept or topic. It helps to gain more expertise in the subject and understand the concepts in a better manner. For Security Analysis & Portfolio Management, the important questions and answers are mentioned below:

• Explain Investment.
• Describe all the steps involved in the investment process.
• What is the basic elements of the securities market?
• Write a short note on the Indian management of stock exchanges.
• What are the different categories of securities markets? Explain their role and functions.
• Explain Fundamental Analysis? Bring out its correlation for an equity investment decision.
• Why is company analysis important for an equity investment decision?
• Explain Technical and Fundamental Analysis? Which is the superior one among the two, and why?
• Explain Market efficiency?
• Explain a risk-free asset. List out any two.
• Compare Capital Market Line (CML) and Security Market Line (SML).
• Distinguish between performance evaluation and performance measurement of the investment portfolio.
• Why are investment companies needed? Explain the functions of an investment company.

### FAQs on Security Analysis & Portfolio Management Notes for MBA

Questions 1.

What are the securities? Explain Security analysis and its need.

Securities are assets that have some financial value. Securities are fungible and tradable. These are the important assets of any individual or business.

Security analysis is the one that is carried over the securities for analyzing their tradable instruments and their financial terms. It helps the financial experts or analysts determine the values for each asset available in the portfolio. It is a method that effectively calculates the value of assets and thus finds out their effect on the market fluctuations.

Questions 2.

What is portfolio management? Also, explain portfolio theory.

Portfolio management is the stream that mainly deals with managing securities and creating investment objectives for individuals. It is an art for selecting the best investment plans for the concerned individuals that guarantee minimum risks and maximum returns.

On the other hand, portfolio theory, proposed by Harry M. Markowitz, states that the portfolio managers must carefully select the financial products and combine them on behalf of the clients. It is involved in guaranteeing minimum risks and maximum returns.

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