DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year History of Social Thought Notes Study Material

Delhi University DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of Social Thought Notes & Study Material

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year History of Social Thought Syllabus

1. Auguste Comte (1798—1857)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Comte’s Theory of Evolution and Progress. Comte’s Methodology. Comte’s Concept of Social Statics and Social Dynamics- Comte’s Idea about the Hierarchy of Science. Comte’s Scientific Theory of Morality.

2. Emile Durkheim (1858—1917)
Thinker’s Background; His JVlajor Works. Emile Durkheim’s Methodology, Durkheim’s Idea of Social Facts; Characteristics of Social Facts; Postulates of Durkheim’s Social Facts; Criticism of Durkheim’s Theory of Social Facts. Collective Representation; Characteristics of Collective Representation; Distinction between Social Consciousness Collective Representation. Durkheim’s Views about Social Solidarity. Durkheim’s Ideas of the Division of Labour; Effects of Division of Labour; Distinction, between Division of Labour and Disintegration. ‘Durkheim’s Idea about Suicide; Types of Suicides. Durkheim’s Idea about Religion. Contributions of Emile Durkheim to the History of Social Thought.

3. Karl Marx (1818 -1883)
Thinker’s Background. Marx Dialectic Materialism Marxian Conception of Materialistic Interpretation of History. Marx on Social Change; Critical Evaluation of Marx’s Theory. The Theory of Surplus Value.’ Dictatorship of the Proletariate. Contribution of Karl Marx to the History of Social Thought.

4. Herbert Spencer (1820—1903)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Herbert Spencer’s Views about Social Evolution; Criticism of the Theory of Social Evolution: Spencer and Darwin’s Views about Evolution. Spencer’s Conclusions from the Application of Biology to Social Thought.

5. Vilfredo Pareto (1848—1923)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Pareto’s Theory of Nature and Sociology. Pareto’s Theory of Social Factors and Elites. Classes of Elites. Pareto’s Theory of Residues. Pareto’s Theory of Derivations. Manifest and Latent Functions. Pareto’s Contribution to the History of Social Thought.

6 Ferdinand Tonnies (1855—1936)
Thinker’s Background. Tonnies’ Concept of Community and Society; Critical Evaluation. Ferdinand Tonnies’ Views about Social Entities. Tonnies’ Views about Social Norms.

7. Georg Simmel (1858—1918)
Thinker’s Background; His. Major Works. Subject Matter of Sociology according to Georg Simmel. Simmel’s Theory of Conflict. Sociological Relevance of Conflict. George Simmel’s Ideas about Human Culture.

8. Max Weber (1864—1920)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Definition of Sociology; Social Action; Characteristics of Social Action; Importance of Types of Action, Sociological Methodology evolved by Weber. Concept of Ideal Types.
Social Organisation; Factors and Forces that give rise to Capitalism. Max Weber’s Ideas about Bureaucracy. Factors contributing to the Development of Bureaucracy. Criticism of Weber’s Theory. Max Weber’s Contribution to Sociological Thought.

9. Pitirim Sorokin (1889—1968)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Sorokin’s ideas regarding the Nature and Methodology of Sociology. Sorokin’s Ideas about Culture. Sorokin’s Ideas about Social and Cultural Changes. Sorokin’s Ideas about Personality and Society. Sorokin’s Views on the Sociology of Revolution. Sorokin’s Views oh Social Stratifica¬tion. Sorokin’s Contribution to the Social Thought. Philosophical Orientation of Sorokin. Sorokin’s Concepts of Social Mobility. Sorokin’s Views on the Modalities of Interaction.

10. Charles Horton Cooley (1864—1927)
Cooley’s Theory of Relationship between Society and Individual; Cooley and the Looking-Glass Process; Criticisms of Cooley’s Idea of Looking-Glass Self. Cooley’s Concept of Primary Group. The Concept of Institution and the Concept of the Self. Contribution of Cooley to Social Thought. Cooley’s Contribution to Modern Sociological Theory.

11. Thorstein Veblen (1857—1929)
Thinker’s Background; His Works. Veblen’s Theory of Social Change; Veblen and Marx’s Theories in Contrast. Veblen’s Views about Cultural Lag. Veblen’s Views about Conspicuous Consumption.

12. Robert K. Merton
Social Ideas of Robert K. Merton. Robert K. Merton’s Views about Anomie. Reference Group; Robert K. Merton’s Reference Group Theory. Robert K. Merton’s Structural Function Theory. Merton’s Concept of Middle Range Theories.

13. Karl Mannheim (1893—1947)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Mannheim’s Ideas of Functions of Sociology. Karl Mannheim’s Metho¬dology. Karl Mannheim’s Theory of Sociology of Knowledge.

14. Arnold J. Toynbee
Thinker’s Background; His Major Work. Toynbee’s Theory of Social Change.

15. Talcott Parsons
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Parson’s Theory of Social Action. Parson’s Theory of Social Control. Important Structural Aspects of Social Systems as developed by Parsons. Contribution of Parsons to the History of Social Thought.


16. Dr. Radha Kamal Mukherjee
Thinker’s Background. Idea of Dr. Radha Kamal Muker- jee on Sociology of Value.

17. Manu
Thinker’s Background. Chief Characteristics of Manu- smriti. Social Ideas mentioned in Manusniriti.

18. Kautilya (Chanakya)
Thinker’s Background. Description of Arthashastra; Nature of Social Organisation provided in Arthashastra. Description of Kautilya’s Statecraft.

19. Shukracharya
Organisation of Society and State discussed by Shukracharya in Nitisara.

20. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772—1833)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Brahmo Samaj and Social Reforms. Efforts towards Modernity by Raja Ram* Mohan Roy. Contributions, of Raja Ram Mohan Roy to the Indian Social Thought.

21. Dayananda Saraswati (1824—1883)
Thinker’s Background. Social Ideas of Dayananda Saraswati. Dayananda’s Ideas of Social Reforms. Type of Indian Society visualised by Dayananda Saraswati..

22. Swami Vivekananda (1863—1902)
Thinker’s Background;-His Major Works. Vivekananda’s Ideas regarding Religious, Social and Political Reforms in India. Philosophical Foundations of Vivekananda’s Political Thought. Feelings of Nationalisation as Vivekananda’s Thought.

23. Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856—1920)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Social Thought of Gangadhar Tilak. Tilak’s Ideas, about the Political set up of the Society. Tilak’s Ideas about Social Reforms. Methods Suggested by Tilak to remove the Social Reblems. Contribution of Tilak in the Social Reforms in India.

24. Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866—1915)
Thinker’s Background. Social Ideas of Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Social Reforms Gokhale wanted to achieve through Servants of India Society. Contribution of Gopal Krishna Gokhale to Indian Social Thought.

25. Ravindra Nath Tagore (1861—1941)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Tagore’s Views on Human Environment essential for Building a Strong Nation and a Stable Society. Tagore’s Ideas about the Solution of Complex Social Problems. Tagore’s Ideas about Internationalism. Tagore as a Social Thinker.

26. M.K. Gandhi (1869—1948)
Thinker’s Background. Base of Gandhian Ideology. Gandhiji’s Concept of Right! and Duties. Gandhiji’s Ideas of Civil Disobedience. Meaning of Non-violence in Mahatma Gandhi’s Social Philosophy. Gandhiji’s Ideas about Swaraj. Role of Sarvodaya in Building the Society in light of Gar.dhian Ideology. Gandhiji’s Ideal Society. Gandhiji’s Conception of Democracy. Contribution of Gandhiji to Political Thought.

27. Shri Aurbindo Ghosh (1872—1950)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Aurhindo’s Theory of Nationalism and Human Unity. Ideal Of Human Unity as Formulated by Aurbindo Ghosh. Aurbindo’s Contribution to Indian Social Thought.

28. J.L. Nehru (1889—1964)
Thinker’s Background. Nehru’s Idea of Society. Nehru’s Idea about Religion. Attitude of Nehru towards Communism.

29. Subhash Chandra Bose (1897—1945)
Thinker’s Background. Ideas of Subhash Chandra Bose. Bose’s Ideas about Contemporary Ideologies. Bose’s Forward Bloc.

30. S. Radhakrishnan (1888—1975)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Ideas of Dr. S. Radha Krishnan. Evaluation of Dr. Radhakrishnan’s Ideas.

31. M.N. Roy (1886—1954)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. M.N. Roy’s Ideas about Radical Humanism.

32. Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia (1910—1967)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Major Socio¬logical Ideas df Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia.

33. Jay Prakash Narayan (1902—1979)
Thinker’s Background; His Major Works. Socialistic Ideas of Jay Prakash Narayan; J.P.’s Ideas of Sarvodaya. J.P.’s Ideas of Total Revolution.

DU SOL B.Com Programme 3rd Year Marketing Management Notes Study Material

Delhi University DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Marketing Management Notes & Study Material

DU SOL B.Com Programme 3rd Year Marketing Management Syllabus

Market and its Classification. Meaning of Marketing and its Functions. Importance of Marketing. Distinction Between Marketing and Selling. The Concept of Marketings. Different Concepts of Marketing. Approaches to the Study of Marketing. Modern Concept of Marketing. Difference Between Old and New Concept of Marketing. Marketing Management. Major Problems of Marketing Management in India. Difference Between Marketing Management and Sales Management. Functions of Marketing Manager. Managerial Functions of Marketing. Qualities of Marketing Manager. Objectives of Marketing Management. Principles of Marketing Management. Factors Influencing the Adoption of the Marketing Concept. Conflict among.Department Goals. Marketing” Organisational Structures. Suitability of the Organisation Structure. Marketing Process. Identification of Marketing Activities. Difficulties in Classification of Marketing: Activities. Marketing Financing. Marketing Risk Bearing. Various Approaches to the Study of Marketing.

Meaning of Marketing Environment. Micro Environment. Macro Environment. Controllable and Uncontrollable Forces. Environmental Scanning and Analysis. Mapping the Marketing Environment.

Meaning of Market. The Extent of the Market. Definition of Market Segmentation. Objects of Market Segmentation. Importance of Market Segmentation. Criteria for Market Segmentation. Market Aggregation. Elements of Market Segmentation. Psychological Factors Influencing Market Segmentation. Meaning of Marketing Programme. Main Elements of Marketing Planning. Justification of Marketing Programme. Factors Affecting the Planning of Marketing Programme. Marketing Mix. Factors Affecting the Marketing Mix. Marketing Strategy. Factors Affecting Overall Marketing Strategy. Causes of difference in Strategies of Consumer Products and Industrial Products. Marketing Audit.

4. PRODUCT (Concept, Classification, and Decisions)
Product and its Importance. Classification of Goods. Product Mix. Factors Influencing Change in Product Mix. Meaning of Width, Depth, and Consistency of the Product Mix. Product Life Cycle. Different Stages of Product Life Cycle. Strategies During the Life Cycle of a Product. Factors Affecting the Life Cycle of a Product. Product Planning, Product Development. Scope of Product Planning and Development. Product Line Policies and Strategies. Steps in the Developing of New. Product, Product Innovation. Test Marketing. Product Simplification. Product Diversification. Product Elimination.

5. PRODUCT (Branding, Packaging, and Labelling)
Brands. Distinction Between Brand and Trade Mark. Kinds of Brand. Advantages of Branding. Is Branding Socially Desirable ? or Arguments Against Branding. Kinds of Brand Names. Family Brand Vs. Individual Brand. Brand Testing. Brand Image and Product Image. Chief Brandmy Policies and Strategies. Packaging. Kinds of Packaging. Factors Affecting Packaging Decisions. Packaging Strategies. Label. Standardisation. Grading. Standardisation and Quality Control. 3ureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Standards of Weights and Measures.

Pricing Decisions. Factors Affecting Pricing Decisions. Kinds of Pricing. Use of Break-even Analysis for Price Setting. Information Needed for Pricing Decisions. Process of Price Determination of a Product. Price Policy and Price Strategy. Pricing Strategy and the Competitive Situation. Basic Pricing Policies. Pricing Strategy during Market Pioneering. Pricing Strategy During Market Growth. Non-price Competition During Market Growth. Oligopolistic Pricing. Pricing Under Monopolistic Competition. Runout Strategy. Pricing in Different Stages of Life-cycle of a Product. Price Discrimination. Conditions for Price Discrimination. Resale Price Maintenance. Laws relating to Regulation of Prices.

Promotion: Its Objectives and Importance. Kinds of Promotion. Relationship or Overall Marketing Strategy to Marketing Communications. Five Stages in the Communication Process. Forms of Promotion. What is Promotion Mix? Advertisement. Classification of Advertisement. Benefits or importance or Significance of Advertising. Is Advertisement a Waste? Types of Advertisement Media. Selection of Suitable Media, Advertisement Agency. Advantages of Using an Advertising Agency. Scientific Advertising. Increasing the Effectiveness of Advertisement. Advertising Budget or Appropriation. Causes for Evaluation of Advertising Effectiveness. Sales Promotion. Sales Promotion Methods or Devices or Tools. Personal Selling. Mutual Relationship Among Personal Selling, Advertising and Sales Promotion.

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year Mass Communication and Journalism Notes Study Material

Delhi University DU SOL BA 3rd Year Mass Communication and Journalism Notes & Study Material

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year Mass Communication and Journalism Syllabus

1. Introduction: Mass Communication and Society
Mass Communication—Meaning and objective/Possibility and utility for society, Role of Mass Communication in developing societies – Social Change, democracy, and developmental journalism.
Practical Application—Intensive study of Issues, along with gaining efficiency through developmental writing, for example, rural issues, tribal issues, environmental issues, health and family planning, juvenile vaccination, new agricultural method etc.

2. Media of Mass Communication
(a) Print Media—Newspaper, News Agencies, books, magazines, leaflets pamphlets!
(b) Electronic Media—Radio, Television, video, Film, Computer-based techniques – Email, internal and online journalism.
(c) External Mass Communication—Exhibitions and fairs, Roadshows, Crowd behaviour and crowd mentality.
(d) Advertising.
Note—Selection of media of mass communication can be according to utility, approach, effect, frequency and cost.

3. Language of Mass Communication
Language and art of writing. Dictionary and diction. Prentauciation, script, is a number of forms of punctuation.

4. Writing for media
(a) Newspaper—News Report – What is news, News value, News Source, Types of News report, Principles of news writing, Article, views, and editorial writing in various Print Media.
Techniques of Editing, Organisation, and operation of News Room. Reporting: Qualities and Responsibility of News Reporter.
(b) Radio—Radio News/Programme, Radio script writing, and editing.
Television— News/Programme, T.V. anchoring, Techniques of interviewing, group discussion and presentation, script creation for selected T.V. programs.
Practical Application:
(а) Interview feature as a communication apparatus, investigative and interpretative Reporting, editorial and edit page etc. Inner production of newspaper or magazine and cartoon.
(б) News Reading and Interview for Radio.
(c) Vidio production and Digital Technique.
Note: One of above
Advertisement— Meaning arid definition of advertisement. Difference between, advertisement and propaganda. Advertisement Media – Print, Electronic and other and their utility.
Effects—An instrument of social, economic and cultural Revolution.
Ethical Dimension of Advertisement – Manipulation, perversion, illusion and misuse.
Practical Application – Production of story-board (with the assistance of computer) and caption writing, etc. for Audio vidual advertisement.

6. Cyber Media
Challenges of integration of Mass Communication.
Information Technology
News portal and connected web site
Practical Application – Designing/Renovation of Website.

7. Mass Communication of Conflict situations like riots, infiltration, terrorism, war and natural calamities.

8. Media Ethics and Press Law
Media Ethics-Investigative journalism, issues of Press Responsibility. Accountability of journalists and publishers.
Constitution and Press Law, Issues of Freedom of Press and its control – Defamation and law for defamatory writing, Contempt of court and violation of constitutional privilege, Right to information and Broadcasting Bill, Self-discipline, Indian Press Council.
Practical Application – Selective case studies on the struggle for control of Press and freedom of Press.
Note for Evaluation—Students have to submit Practical Assignment across the full academic session on any three subjects of the above. The evaluation may be done at the end of the year.

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year History of India Notes Study Material

Delhi University DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of India (1750-1970) Notes & Study Material

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year History of India Syllabus

Chapter 1 The First Century of Colonial Rule:
Anglo French Rivalry, Expansion and Consolidation of British Power, Lord Clive, Clive as a founder of the British empire, Institutions and Policies, Foreign Policy of Warren Hastings, Evaluation, Lord Cornwallis, Making of Colonial economy, Lord Hastings, Haider Ali and Tipu, Causes of Downfall of Marathas, Lord Amherst, Cultural responses: tradition and reform, Lord Auckland, Ranjit Singh. Anglo Sikh Relations, Administration of Ranjit Singh, Part Ranjit Singh Punjab, Downfall of Sikh Empire, Lord Ellenboroughs, Lord Dalhousie, Lord Canning.

Chapter 2 Revolt of 1857:
Nature of the Revolt, Causes of Revolt, Organisation, spread V and Suppression, Causes of Failure, Results of Revolt.

Chapter 3 Modern Colonial State after Revolt:
Lord Elgin, Lord Lawrence, Lord Mayo, Lord Northbrook, Lord Lytton, Lord Ripon, Lord Duffrin, Lansdoune, Curzen, Curzen’s administration, Lord Minto, Chelmsford, Reading, Irwin, Willingdon, Linlithgow, Wavell, Lord Mountbatton, knowing India, Movements of Race, Caste religion and custom, Social Development, Constitutional Development, under company Rule, Under Crown, The New Constitution.

Chapter 4 National Politics:
Dawn of Nationalism, Advent of Congress, Nationalist movement After 1905, Gandhian Era, Progress of Nationalist movement, Hindu Muslim Unity Last phase of the Nationalist movement.

Chapter 5 Colonial Economy and Society:
Economic Consequences of British Rule in India, Drainage of National Wealth, Features of Indian Economy under colonial Rule, English Education, the new capitalist and working classes, social movements, peasant movements, Trade Union Movements, Tribal movements.

Chapter 6 Independent India: Economy and Polity:
Constituent Assembly and establishments of Indian Republic, Economic and Social Change Planning, The Changing Caste class relations in rural India, Indian Foreign Policy, Factors responsible for the evolution of foreign policy. Non-alignment and its emergence, Indian Federalism, Linguistic states, political parties and Indian politics, 1950-1977.

Chapter 7 Independent India: Culture and Society:
Modern Indian Literature, Indian films; Scientific and Technological Developments, Dalits, OBC movement, Environmental movements.

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year Administration and Public Policy Notes Study Material

Delhi University DU SOL BA 3rd Year Administration and Public Policy Notes & Study Material

DU SOL BA 3rd Year Administration and Public Policy (Public Administration) Notes & Study Material

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year Administration and Public Policy Syllabus

Chapter 1 Meaning, Scope And Significance of Public Administration:
Meaning and Definition of Public Administration; Scope of Public Administration; Significance of Public Administration; Public Administration as Art and Science; Meaning, Nature and Scope of S. Comparative Public Administration.

Chapter 2 Public Administration and Private Administration:
Similarities between Public and Private Administration; Differences between Public and Private Administration.

Chapter 3 Brief Evolution, Major Approaches and Comparative Approaches To Public Administration:
Salient Features of Administrative System in U.S.A.; Approaches to the Study of Public Administration; Comparative Study of Public Administration; Behavioural Approach of Organisation

Chapter 4 The Classical Theory, Scientific, Management, The Human Relation
Theory and Rational Decision Making Theory:
Bureaucratic Theory of Organisation; Contribution of Weber to the Concept of Authority and Bureaucracy; Main Features of the Human Relations Theory; Theories of Decision Making; Views of Herbert Simon on decision-making; The Classical Theory of Organisation; Scientific Management Theory of Organisation

Chapter 5 Concept and Theories of Public Policy Relevance of Policy Making in Public Administration, Process of Policy Formulation & Implementation and Evaluation:
Meaning of Public Policy; Policy Formulation in India; Evaluation of Public Policy; Adoption of Public Policies

Chapter 6 Elements, Dimension and Politics of Development Administration:
Development Administration; Developmental Non- Developmental Dichotomy; Administrative Development and Development Administration; Administrative Development; Role of Public Administration in Developed Countries; Role of Public Administration in Developing Countries.

Chapter 7 Good Governance And Development of Corporate Governance:
Organization—Goals and Effectiveness; Organisational Effectiveness.

Chapter 8 Feminist and Ecological Perspectives on Public Policy and Administration:
Public Administration as a Profession; Cultural Factors and Public Administration; .Social Factors and Public Administration; Political Factors and Public Administration; Economic Factors and Public Administration; Legal Factors and Public Administration

Chapter 9 Functional and Fiscal Decentralization in Rural and Urban Context:
Growth, Powers and Functions of Rural Government in India; Problems Before Panchayati Raj institutions; 73rd Constitution Act, 1992; Forms of Urban Administration in India; Problems Before Urban Local Governments

Chapter 10 Social Welfare Administration and Social Protection for Worker Sections:
Strategy for Development of Scheduled Castes; Officers Responsible for Implementation of SC’s Welfare Programmes; Monitoring of Special Component Plans; Strategy for Development of Scheduled Tribes; Administrative Setup for Implementation of the Tribal Development Programmes; Role of Voluntary Agencies in the Field of Tribal Welfare; National Perspective Plan for Women (1986-2000); Women’s Development Corporations; National Commission for Women

Chapter 11 Criteria of Successful Administration, Meaning and Forms of Public Account Ability, NGOs and Peoples Participation in Public Administration Role of Machinery for Redressal of Public Grievances Right To Information and other Innovations:
Relations between Citizens and Administration; Concept of Accountability and Control in Public Administration; Means of Parliamentary Control; Legislative Control in Presidential System; Nature and Scope of Judicial Control; Habeas Corpus; Mandamus; Prohibition; Certiorari; Quo-Warranto; Power of the Indian Courts Regarding the Writs; , Modes of Enforcing Public Responsibility; Modes of Public Influence on Administration; Lok Pat; Lok Ayukta; Obstacles in the way of Administrative Reforms

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 1 Nature and Scope of Human Resource Management

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 1 Nature and Scope of Human Resource Management

Question 1.
Define Human Resource Management and explain its nature.
“Human Resource Management is a basic management function to all levels and types of management.” Discuss.
Definitions Of Human Resource Management :
The success or failure of an organisation depends not on materials, machines and equipment but on the efficiency of the personnel who are to put in their best efforts for ar&efficient performance at their job. In the words, of Deyner, “Materials, machines, and even offices themselves can be replaced and any risks involved can be insured against but a good loyal team of workers cannot be replaced so easily. ” To achieve the basic objective of an organisation, efficient and effective use of people at work is essential. Human resource management is the management of people at work. Human Resource/ Personnel management is a function of the general management with the objective of ensuring that every employee makes his fullest contribution to the achievement of the objectives of business.

Human Resource/Personnel management may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve organisational goals efficiently. Following are the leading definitions of personnel management/Human Resource Management.

According to Daje Yodev, “Personnel management effectively describles the processes of planning and directing the application, development and utilisation of human resources in employment.”

Professor Michael J. Jucius defines, ‘Personnel Management’ is ‘ ‘the field of management which has to do with planning, organising and controlling various operative functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilising a labour force, such that the (a) objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively; (b) objective of all levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree, and (c) objectives of the community are duly considered and served.”

In the words of Ed win B. Flippo, “The personnel function is concerned with the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of the personnel of an organisation for the purpose of contributing towards the accomplishment of that organisation’s major goals or objectives. Therefore, personnel management is planning, organising, directing and controlling of performance of those operative functions. ”

Prof. E.F.L. Brech defined the term ‘Personnnel Management’ in the following words- “Personnel Management is that part of management progress which is primarily concerned with the human constitution of an organisation. ”

The definition of personnel management, as given by the U.K. Institution of Personnel Management and which has also been adopted by the Indian Institution of Personnel Management runs as follows: “Personnel management is that part of management function which is primarily concerned with the human relationship within the organisation. Its objective is the maintenance of those relationship on a basis which by consideration of the well being of the individual, enables all those engaged in the undertaking to make their maximum, contribution to the effective working of that undertaking.”

Thomas G. Spates defines the term in the following words: “Personnel, Administration is a code of the ways of organising and treating individuals 4 at work, so that they will get the greatest possible realisation of their intrinsic I abilities, thus attaining maximum efficiency of themselves and their group, and thereby giving to the enterprise of which they are a part, its determining Vv competitive advantage and its optimum results.”

It is clear from the above definitions that personnel or Human Resource management is concerned with a careful handling of relationship among the individuals at work.

Nature Or Characteristics Of Human Resource Management :

From the various definitions of Human Resource management, we may list following features of Human Resource management:

1. A Specialised branch of General Management—Human Resource ‘management is a part of the general management and therefore all the principles of management are applicable to this also. Human’Resource management is a central and pervasive subsystem of all organisations.

2. Management of Human Resources — Human resource management is management of personnel i.e., human resources. It includes the functions of employment, training development, welfare and compensation. These functions are usually performed by the Human resource Department in consultation with the officials of other departments.

3. A Pervasive Function — Human resource management is a pervasive function of management. It is performed by all managers at various levels in the organisation. As Fredrick R. Kappel observed, “personnel management is not something you turn over a personnel department staff. Since all decisions in an organisation are made by human beings and are put into operation by human beings, all activities have a human aspect and therefore a personnel aspect.” Human resource management is not a function of Human resource department alone; it is a function of all departments of the organisation.

4. Employees as individual and group — Human resource management is concerned with employees both as individuals and also as a group. It establishes relationship between (a) employer and employees and also between
(b) employees and employees. The term employees includes all types of employees whether at lower level or top level e.g. workmen, craftsmen, operators (lower level), departmental managers (middle level) or general manager or chief executive (top level) etc.

5. Development of employees — Human resource management is concerned with helping employees to develop their potential abilities fully. It considers the development of individuals at work, as an indiviudal and as a member of the group. Personnel policies, are designed in the manner so that intrinsic abilities of the employees may be developed to the best use of the organisation.

6. A technique of thinking — Human resource management is an approach, a point of view, a technique of thinking and a philosophy of management. The whole philosophy of human resource management is that labour is a human being, an humanly treatment should be given to them.

7. Based on principles — Management of work force is a difficult job. Here, the subject matter consists of human beings whose attitudes and behaviour do not conform to any set pattern. Each individual worker has his own attitudes, beliefs, and temperament make up. Personnel/human resource management is based on certain well-defined principles which have been evolved after a great deal of research and experimentation.

8. A never-ending process — Human resource management as a function needs to be performed on a continuous basis. It involves the delicate function of management of human relations. Moreover, it is to be continuously attended to and nurtured like a delicate plant.

9. Science as well as an Art. Human Resource Management (HRM) is a science as it contains an organised body of knowledge consisting of principles and techniques. It is also an art because it involves application of theoretical knowledge into practice to solve the problems of human resources. In fact handling people at work is one of the most creative arts. ‘

10. Staff Function. HRM is a staff function or its function is advisory in nature. It contributes to the success and growth of the organisation by advising the operating departments on personnel matters.

Question 2.
What are the objectives that human resource management seeks to achieve in an organisation ?
“The objective of personnel management, personnel administration or industrial relations in an organisation is to attain maximum individual development, desirable working relationship between employers and employees and effective moulding of human resources as contrasted with physical resources.”—Explain
Objectives Of Human Resource Management:
The main objectives of personnel/human resource management is the accomplishment of the goals of the enterprise. According to Indian Institute of Personnel management, “Personnel/human resource management aims to achieve both efficiency and justice, neither of which can be pursued successfully without the other. It seeks to bring together and develop into an effective organisation. The men and women who make up an enterprise enabling each to make his own best contribution to its success both as an individual and as a member of a working group. It seeks to provide fair terms and conditions of employment and satisfying work for all those employed.” The objectives of personnel management may be summarised as below.

1. Social objectives — An enterprise is a part of the society in which it functions. As such human resource management cannot ignore the need to work for the attainment.of social objectives. Firstly, it should aim at maximising employment opportunities. This objective assumes greater importance in the context of a country faced with the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the jobs to be created should be such that they afford maximum material and mental satisfaction to the people who perform them. Thirdly, it should be ensured that the jobs are so planned that they result in maximum productivity per worker with a minimum of wastage of effort. Lastly, it is the responsibility e, of human resource management to promote healthy and mutually satisfying human relations leading to harmony and cooperative endeavour.

2. Personnel Objectives — Good human resource management implies maximum material and mental satisfaction to each individual employee. This can be done by providing him the following:

  • Firstly, worker should be provided with adequate remuneration.
  • Secondly, there should be job-security.
  • Thirdly, the worker should be given facilities for proper training and development.
  • Fourthly, the worker should be provided with increased job satisfaction.
  • Fifthly, the workers should be provided the opportunities for advancement.
  • Sixthly, the workers should also be provided with proper work environment – a clean and orderly place equipped with all necessary tools and instruments.
  • Lastly, a worker should be treated with dignity.

3. Enterprise Objectives- Pursuit of social and individual objectives should hot minimise the importance of enterprise objectives. As a matter of fact, these objectives are closely inter-linked. Thus, to subserve the enterprise objectives, Human resource management should aim at recruiting and retaining competent, loyal and mentally well-adjusted team of workers.

The object of Human resource management should ensure that the , various posts in the enterprise are manned by highly competent and contented workers. Further this should be done at the lowest costs possible. It should also seek to create a sense of belonging among the employees so that when the occasion demands, they are willing to sacrifice their individual interests v for the sake of group interests.

4. Union Objectives—Human resource management has also to deal with labour unions and often there are more than one union in an enterprise. As such it should display fact and consideration in deciding the questions relating to recognition of representative unions, formulation of personnel policies in consultation with them, and creation of an atmosphere where they are obliged to practice self-discipline and cooperate with the management.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 1 Nature and Scope of Human Resource Management 1

Question 3.
Discuss the scope of Human Resource Management.
Scope Of Human Resource Management :
Human Resource management may be taken to mean the task of managing the personnel of an organisation. The subject matter of human resource management is man and therefore all such functions, duties and responsibilities and powers are included in the scope of personnel management which help the management in getting the work done with the help of people. In the early stage of industrialisation, the scope of human resource management was very limited because labour was considered to be the one of the factors of production like land and machinery. But with the advent of science of management scope of human resource management was also increased. Change in the attitude of labour and the management to each other and the development in industrial field have contributed to a great extent in widening the scope of human resource management. The scope of human resource management is extremely wide.

It may be clearly pointed out that the scope of human resource management varies from organisation to organisation and from country to country. Different authorities On management include different functions in the scope of personnel management. We can summarise them as follows:

1. Procurement- Procurement includes recruitment and selection of right kinds of personnel to occupy the various posts in the organisation. It includes: (a) determination of manpower requirements; (b) job analysis;
(c) nature and scope of recruitment; (d) employee selection; and (e) placement of employees.

2. Training and development is a must to prepare the worker gaining proficiency in the methods and techniques of work assigned to them. Efforts may be made to involve the employees in actual management situations., Employees participation in committees and board meetings may also contribute toward their development.

3. Job Analysis and Job Description — Job analysis and job description involves the studies of job requirements of the enterprise and assignment of well defined functions to jobs so that qualified employees may be hired. It also forms the basis of wage determination.

4. Remuneration — Provision of adequate remuneration for the work done by an employee involves job analysis and job evaluation. It includes determining wage rates, incentive systems of wage payment, merit-rating and performance appraisal,

5. Personnel Records — The function of personnel records includes collection of bio-data of all employees pertaining to their work e.g., training job performance, aptitude payment records etc.

6. Welfare and Industrial Relations — It includes health and safety programme, sanitary facilities, recreational facilities, group insurance employee associations etc.

The Indian Institute of Personnel Management (IIPM) has described the scope of Human Resource Management into the following three aspects—

1. Labour or Personnel Aspect. It is concerned with the personnel aspect of HRM. Functions associated this aspect include activities concerned with. manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction promotion, transfer, demotion, separation, layoff, retrenchment, training and development, wage and salary administration, Incentive etc.

2. Welfare Aspect. Welfare aspect covers activities concerning with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, rest rooms, lunch rooms, housing, transport^ educations, medical help, health, safety, recreation and cultural facilities etc.

3. Industrial Relations Aspect. This aspect is concerned with the company’s relations with the employees as a group and include union- management relations, joint consultations, negotiations, collective bargaining, grievance handling, disciplinary action, settlement of industrial disputes etc.

Question 4.
What are the various functions of human resource management?
“Personnel management involves two categories of functions, managerial and operative”. Describe these functions in detail.
Functions Of Human Resource Management
Human resource management involves two categories of functions:
(A) Managerial
(B) Operative

(A) Managerial Functions
General management and personnel management are one and the same. Basic managerial functions—planning, organising, directing and controlling—are common to all managers including personnel or human resource managers and are performed by all of them. Following are the managerial functions of human resource management:

1. Planning — The planning functions of human resource department pertains to the steps taken in determining in advance personnel requirements, personnel programmes, policies etc. After determining how many and what type of people are required, a personnel manager has to devise ways and means to motivate them. *

2. Organisation — Under organisation, the human resource manager has to organise the operative functions by designing structure of relationship among jobs, personnel and physical factors in such a way so as to have maximum contribution towards organisational objectives. In this way a personnel manager performs following functions: (a) Preparation of task force; (b) allocation of work to individuals; (c) integration of the efforts of the task force; (d) coordination of work of individual with that of the department.

3. Directing — Directing is concerned with initiation of organised action and stimulating the people to work. The personnel manager directs the activities of people of the organisation to get its functions performed properly. A personnel manager guides and motivates the staff of the organisation to follow the path laid down in advance.

4. Controlling — Controlling is concerned with the regulation of the activities in accordance with the plans. Controlling complete the managerial cycle and leads back to planning. Through direct observation, direct supervision, as well as reports, records and audit, personnel manager assures himself that the activities are being carried out in accordance with the plans. Controlling also helps the personnel manager to evaluate the performance of the human resource department in doing various operative functions.

(B) Operative Functions
Operative functions are those functions which are entrusted to the human resource department. Such functions are of the routine nature. These are concerned with procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of the personnel of the organisation. Following are the important operative functions of personnel or human resource department:

1. Procurement of Personnel — It is the first operative function of ‘ Human Resource Management. It is concerned with the number of persons necessary to accomplish organisational goals. It includes following subfunctions:

  • determination of man-power requirements;
  • job-analysis and job-grading;
  • determining the nature and sources of recruitment;
  • selection of employees;
  • placement and induction.

2. Development and Training of Personnel — After the placement of employees on various jobs the next function of the human resource management is to give them training and to develop them to get their work efficiently. The personnel department devises and runs the appropriate training programme for developing the necessary skills among the personnel.

3. Remuneration — Another function of human resource management is concerned with the determination of wages and salaries policy and levels. The personnel or human resource manager has to consider various factors while fixing the remuneration viz., basic needs, requirements of the jobs, legal provisions, financial capacity of the firm, wage-level of competitors, performance rating etc.

4. Integration or Human Relations — The maintenance and promotion of harmonious relations between employees working in different departments, and between the employees and management is a function of personnel or human resource department. The personnel department has to ensure a reasonable reconciliation of the interest of the personnel with that of ‘ organisation. The personnel manager must provide an efficient system of communication. He should be in touch with the grievances of the people at work and try to remove them. In all circumstances, he should try to maintain proper discipline in the organisation.

5. Maintenance of Personnel — Maintenance of personnel means to keep the workers engaged on the work with good health and with full loyalty to their jobs and to the organisation. This functions involves provisions of better working conditions and labour welfare activities such as medical benefits, housing facilities, canteens, recreational facilities, rest rooms etc.

Question 5.
What is the importance of human resource management in industrial undertaking?
Examine carefully the place of human resource management in business organisation.
Importances Of Human Resource Management :
During the past two centuries because of the quick industrial development, a new industrial world with new industrial culture has emerged. According to this, human power has no place to importance but physical resources have been given an important place and hence labour relations have taken a new turn. Everyday new labour problems are raised and the management ‘ has to find out their solution.

Human Resource Management has a place of great importance. According to Peter F. Drucker, “The proper or improper use of the different factors of production depend on the wishes of the human v resources. Hence, besides other resources, human resources need more development. Human resources can increase cooperation but it needs proper and efficient management to guide it.”

Some scholars have compared human brain with human resource management. As the brain directs all the parts of the human body and by its illness the best parts of the body become inactive. Likewise an efficient human resource management takes work from the whole personnel and gains the objective.

Lawrence A. Appley has stressed that if management agrees to this truth that management means the development of the personnel-and pay attention to the development of human resources properly, many problems relating to management will be solved in itself and many difficulties will not arise. R. M. Aldrich calls the personnel or human resource management as the nervous system i.e., an integral part of the process of management itself.

Effective management of Human Resources is essential not only for the organisation, but also for the society and notion is discussed below-

Importance for the Organisation. Importance of personnel management is in reality the importance of labour functions of personnel department which are indispensable to the management activity itself. Because of the following reasons human resource management holds a place of importance.

  1. It helps management in the preparation, adoption and continuing evolution of personnel programmes and policies.
  2. It supplies skilled workers through scientific selection process.
  3. It ensures maximum benefit out of the expenditure on training and development and appreciates the human asset.
  4. It prepares workers according to the changing needs of industry and environment.
  5. It motivates workers and upgrades them so as to enable them to accomplish the organisation goals.
  6. Through innovation and experimentation in the field of personnel, it helps in reducing casts and helps in increasing productivity.
  7. It contributes a lot in restoring the industrial harmony and healthy employer-employee relations.
  8. It establishes mechanism for the administration of personnel services that are delegated to the personnel department.

Importance for the Society :
Sound HRM has great importance for the society in the following ways-

  • It provides suitable employment to labour that provides social and psychological satisfactions to people.
  • It develops sound personnel policies for socio-psychological satisfaction to people at work.
  • It maintains a balance between jobs available and job seekers in terms of numbers, qualifications, needs and aptitude.
  • It eliminates waste of human resources through conservation of physi-cal and mental health of the people.

Importance for the Nation :
Effective human resource management plays a vital role in the growth, development and self sufficiency of the nation. An efficient and committed manpower only can utilise the nation’s natural, physical and financial resources of the country. There are wide differences in development between countries with similar resources due to differences in quality of their people. Countries are developed or underdeveloped not because of their resources but because of educational and other standards. If the people are educated skilled and efficient, the country will progress in the desired direction. Effective management of people results in their developments which in turn, speeds up the process of economic growth leading to higher standards of living and employment opportunities.

Thus, the role of Human Resource Management is very important in an organisation and it should not be’ undermined especially in large scale enterprises. It is the key to the whole organization and related to all other activities of the management i.e. marketing productions and finance etc.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com Programme 3rd Year E-Commerce Notes Study Material

Delhi University DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year E-Commerce Notes & Study Material

DU SOL B.Com Programme 3rd Year E-Commerce Syllabus

Chapter 1 Introduction to E-Commerce:
Meaning of E-Commerce and its Nature; Advantages of E-commerce, Categories of E-Commerce.

Chapter 2 Planning Online Business:
Nature and Dynamics of the Internet; Differences between Pure Online and Brick and Click Business; Requirements for E-commerce designing; Tools for Promoting Websites; Product and Service Digitisation; Remote Servicing and Procurement; On-Line Marketing and Advertisement with reference to E-Commerce; E-Commerce resource and Infrastructure.

Chapter 3 Technology for Online Business:
E-Commerce as part of the Internet and IT Infrastructure; Middleware; Text and Integrating E-business Applications.

Chapter 4 Mechanism of making Payment through Internet:
Special Features Required in Payment systems for E-commerce; Types of E-Payment Systems; Business issues and Economic Implications; Components of an Effective Electronic Payment system.

Chapter 5 Laws relating to Online Transactions:
Cyber Laws and its Aims and Salient Provisions; Cyber Laws in India; Taxation issues in Electronic Commerce.

Chapter 6 Applications in E-Commerce:
E-commerce applications in manufacturing, wholesale, retail and service sectors.

Chapter 7 Security in E-Commerce:
Security risks of E-commerce; Types of threats and sources of threats; Risk Management approach; E-commerce security and Rational security policy for E-commerce.

Chapter 8 Website Design:
Role of Website in B2C E-commerce; Website Strategies and Website Design Principles; Push and Pull Technologies; Alternative methods of customer communication.

Chapter 9 Multimedia and E-Commerce:
Concept and Role of Multimedia; Various Media elements used in Multimedia Technologies; Meaning of Digital Video; Desktop Video Conferencing and Marketing; Various Broadband networks and related concepts: ISDN, ATM,
Cell relay.

Chapter 10 Internet Protocols:
Layers and Networking; OSI Layering and TCP Layering; Meaning of TCP, UDP, IP, SLIP and PPP Protocols; Emerging Scenario in ISP and internet work.

DU SOL B.Com Programme 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Study Material

Delhi University DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes & Study Material

DU SOL B.Com Programme 3rd Year Human Resource Management Syllabus

Chapter 1 Nature and Scope of Human Resource Management:
Definitions of Human Resource Management; Nature or Characteristics of Human Resource Management; Objectives of Human Resource Management; Scope of Human Resource Management; Functions of Human Resourcement Management; Importance of Human Resource Management.

Chapter 2 Development of Human Resource Management:
Evolutions of Personnel Management; Contribution of Industrial Psychology to HRM; Changing of Concepts of Human Resource Management; Reasons for the Growth of Personnel Management; Development of Personnel Management in India.

Chapter 3 Organisational of Personnel Department:
Organisation of Personnel Department; HRM—A Staff Function; Characteristics of a Good Personnel Department; Personnel Programme of the Company; Qualities of Personnel Executives; Role of Human Resource Manager; Status of Human Resource Manager.

Chapter 4 Human Resource Policies:
Human Resource Policy—Meaning and Contents; Importance or Objectives of Personnel Policy of HR Policy; Ideal Human
Resource Policy; Formulation of Human Flesource Policy; Types of Human Resources Policies.

Chapter 5 Human Resource Planning (Or Manpower Planning):
Human Resource Planning Meaning and Objectives; Importance of Human Resource Planning; Prerequisites for manpower planning; Process of Human Resource Planning; Quantitative and Qualitative aspect of Human Resource Planning; Problems in or Limitations of Human Resource Planning.

Chapter 6 Job Analysis:
Job Analysis—Meaning and Significance; Proces of Job- Analysis; Methods Employed in Job Analysis; Job-Description; Characteristics of a Good Job-Description; Use of Job, Description; Job Specification.

Chapter 7 Recruitment and Selection:
Recruitment—Meaning and Importance; Selection Process; Recruitment Selection Policies; Employment Tests; Significance of Tests; Developing a test Programme; Employment Interview Meaning and Importance; Limitations of Interview; Essentials of a Good Interview and Methods of Interview; Interview Procedure or Developing on Interview Programme.

Chapter 8 Placement, Induction (Or Orientation) and Socialisation:
Placement—Meaning and Principles; Induction (Or Orientation)—Its Meaning, Object, and Elements; Induction Procedure and Practices; Socialisation of Employee.

Chapter 9 Training of Operative Personnel:
Meaning of Training; Objectives of Training Programme; Importance of Training; Types of Training; Methods of Training; Principles of Training; Organising Training Programme in an Industry.

Chapter 10 Executive Development:
Executive Development—Meaning and Importance; Process of Executive Development; Objectives of Executive Development; Various Methods of Executive Development.

Chapter 11 Performance Appraisal Or Merit-Rating:
Performance Appraisal—Meaning; Performance Appraisal— Advantages or Objective Limitation; Essentials of a Good Appraisal System; Methods of Performance Appraisal.

Chapter 12 Job Changes (Transfers, Promotions and Separations):
Introduction of a Job Change; Purposes of Job Changes; Transfer; Kinds of Transfer; Features of a Sound Transfer Policy; Need and Objectives of Transfer; Promotion vs. Direct Reemitment; Essentials of a Good Promotion Policy; Basis of Promotion—Merit Vs. Seniority; Demotion.

Chapter 13 Employee – Counselling:
Counseling Meaning and Importance; Functions of Counselling; Types of Counselling.

Chapter 14 Wages and Salary Administration:
Need of Proper System of Compensation; Meaning and Classification of Wages; Principles of wage and salary Administration; Characteristics of Satisfactory wage policy; Wage Variations; Methods of Wage Payments (Base Wages); Components of Compensation; Fringe Benefits or Perquisites; Difference between the base and Supplementary Compensation Base.

Chapter 15 Performance Linked Compensation (Variable and Incentive Wage Plans):
Definition and Objectives of Incentive Plan; Opposition of Incentive wage system; Essentials of a Good Incentive Plan; Various Incentive Wage Plans; Profit-Sharing Scheme; Employees Stock Option Plan (ESOP).

Chapter 16 Employee Health:
Meaning and Importance of Industrial Health; Industrial Health in India; Industrial Health Under-Factories Act.

Chapter 17 Employee/Labour Welfare:
Meaning, Functions, and Advantages of Labour Welfare; Principles of Labour Welfare Programme; Significance of Welfare Activities; Reasons for the Welfare Activities in India; Labour Activities in India.

Chapter 18 Social Security:
Meaning of Social Security; Need and Significance of Social Security; Working of the various social security measures.

Chapter 19 Emerging Horizons in Human Resource Management:
Information Technology in HRM, Integrated Human Resource Information. System (HRIS); Functions, Objectives, Significance, and Designing of HRIS; Business Process Re-Engineering; Causes of Failure in BPR and Making it Effective; Downsizing; Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS).