Basic Electronics Notes PDF Free Download | List of Syllabus, Reference Books, Imp Questions of Basic Electronics

basic-electronics-notes

Basic Electronics Notes: Some basic electronic concepts govern many electronic devices around us. Students should have a sound understanding of these concepts to help them make the most out of their semester and course. Students can download basic electronic notes here and start building up their understanding and insights on the vast field of electronics. This subject comprises both basic and advanced concepts which might seem complex at first. But with the help of these lecture notes and regular practice, students can increase their understanding of basic electronics.

Notes available for download are free of cost. Download links for the notes are given below. Also, you will find solutions to any of your further queries. We recommend getting your notes from a reliable source that is accurate and effective. These foundational concepts will lay the groundwork for your advanced studies and applications. For further details click on the links given below-

Introduction to Basic Electronics Notes

Basic electronics is the branch of engineering which deals with the practical application of electrical components and their use in electrical circuits, logic systems, communication systems and other fields. Basic electronics looks at the basic concepts of Voltage, Current, Resistance, capacitance, etc. from a practical point of view. It gives us insight as to how electrical circuits around us work.

We are covered with electrical circuits from our circuit boards to electrical appliances, from communication systems to artificial intelligence, the applications are ever-increasing, and in the near future when demand for more complex electrical systems arises, the need for complex minds to fulfill will increase at an equally faster rate. This study material, therefore, is helping to create innovators of tomorrow that will bring about the positive change in our use of electrical machines.

Basic Electronics Notes/Study Material Download links

Given below is the list of download links to all the notes available. These study materials have helped many before you. You can grab your pdf free of cost and start your preparations. All of these notes/study materials are reliable and also include previous years’ question papers for reference. These are created to help students to give them an equal opportunity in this competitive age, and you can use them to your advantage. These notes are highly recommended by students who have gone through them and also teachers.

  • Basic Electronics Notes pdf
  • Basic Electronics Study material
  • Basic Electronics handwritten notes
  • Basic Electronics Previous year Question papers pdf
  • Basic Electronics Sample question papers pdf

Reference Books for Basic Electronics

Books are rightly your best friends. These are informational resources written by people with years of experience. But even then finding the right book for your use can be a challenging task. So given below is a list of suggested readings students can go through to get a better understanding of the concepts and an in-depth analysis of the same. These books are recommended according to the course guidelines that surely have everything you need to get your doubts cleared. Effective use of these books is bound to take you a long way. Experts verify all of these books for accuracy and reliability, so you need not worry about it.

Students can refer to these books anytime. It is advisable to consult newer editions of the books mentioned to be in touch with the changing courses. The list is in no particular order, and professors and students highly recommend all these books.

  • Getting Started in Electronics – Forrest.M.Mims
  • Make electronics – Learning by Discovery (2nd edition) by Charles Platt.
  • Self-teaching guide: All new electronics – Harry Kybett and Earl Boysen
  • Practical electronics for inventors – Paul Scherz
  • The Art of Electronics – Paul Horowitz & Winfield Hill (3rd edition)
  • Encyclopedia of Electronic components VOLUME 1
  • Electronics: All in one for dummies
  • Understanding basic electronics – 2nd edition

Basic Electronics syllabus

Basic electronics is a vast field in itself. The syllabus prescribed to the students is well diversified and includes both theoretical and application-based concepts. It is designed keeping in mind the changing times and the demands of the industry. Students need to be well aware of the syllabus, which will help them in planning their preparations and prioritizing tasks accordingly. The syllabus might feel overwhelming, but with the notes provided in the pdf and consistent efforts, you can manage it.

The syllabus is broadly divided into six modules to cover the entire topic and give the students a proper understanding of the concepts.

MODULE 1:- Basics Of Semiconductor Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors- crystal structure, Fermi Dirac function, Fermi level, Energy band diagrams, valence band, conduction band, and band gap; intrinsic, and extrinsic ( p-type and n-type) semiconductors, the position of Fermi level in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, drift and diffusion current – expression only ( no derivation), mass action law, charge neutrality in semiconductor, Einstein relationship in a semiconductor.
MODULE 2:- P-N Junction Diode And Its Applications p-n junction formation and depletion region, energy band diagram of a p-n junction at equilibrium and barrier energy, the built-in potential at the p-n junction, energy band diagram and current through the p-n junction at forward and reverse bias, Static and Dynamic resistance of Diode, Transition capacitance and diffusion capacitance, V-I characteristics and current expression of a diode, temperature dependencies of V-I characteristics of the diode, p-n junction breakdown – conditions, avalanche and Zener breakdown, Concept of Junction capacitance, Zener diode and characteristics. Diode half-wave and full-wave rectifiers (centre tapped and bridge) circuits and operation (IDC, Irms, VDc, Vrms), ripple factor without filter, efficiency, PIV, TUF; Reduction of ac ripples using filter circuit (Qualitative analysis); Design of diode clipper and clamper circuit – explanation with an example, application of Zener diode in the regulator circuit.
MODULE 3:- Bipolar Junction Transistor Concept of “Transistor”, Formation of PNP/NPN Transistors, energy band diagram, current conduction mechanism, CE, CB, CC configurations, static transistor characteristics in CE, CB and CC Syllabus for 1 st year Autonomous curriculum 2018 mode, junction biasing condition for active, saturation and cut-off modes, current gain α, β and γ, early effect. Biasing and bias stability; biasing circuits – fixed bias; voltage divider bias; collector to base bias, D.C. load line and Quiescent point, calculation of stability factors for different biasing circuits. BJT as an amplifier and as a switch – Graphical analysis.
MODULE 4:- Field Effect Transistor Concept of “field effect”, Classification of FETs-JFET, MOSFET, operating principle of JFET. Drain and transfer characteristics of JFET (n-channel and p-channel), CS, CG, CD configurations, Relation between JFET parameters. FET as an amplifier and as a switch– graphical analysis. E-MOSFET (n-channel and p-channel), D-MOSFET (n-channel and p-channel).
MODULE 5:- Feedback Concept of feedback with block diagram, positive and negative feedback, gain with feedback. Feedback topologies; the effect of feedback on input and output impedance; distortion; the concept of oscillation and Barkhausen criterion.
MODULE 6:- Operational Amplifiers electrical equivalent circuit, ideal characteristics, non-ideal characteristics of op-amp – offset voltages; bias current; offset current; Slew rate; CMRR and bandwidth, Configuration of inverting and non-inverting amplifier using Op-amp, the closed-loop voltage gain of inverting and noninverting amplifier, Concept of virtual ground, Applications op-amp – summing amplifier; differential amplifier; voltage follower; basic differentiator and integrator.

Basic Electronics Problems

These are sample theoretical problems from Basic Electronics and are commonly asked in examinations and interviews to check the basic concepts of the students. It is recommended to prepare these questions if you are going to sit for an examination or an interview.

  1. What is Electronics?
  2. What is a transistor?
  3. What is a diode?
  4. What is latch-up?
  5. Explain the principle of a microwave.
  6. Define Power rating?
  7. Differentiate between conductor and inductors.
  8. Comment on uses of Semiconductors
  9. What are active and passive components?
  10. What is a resistor?
  11. What is a capacitor?
  12. Explain the practical and ideal voltage source.

Frequently Asked Question on Basic Electronics Notes

Question 1
What is a Semiconductor?

Answer:
Semiconductors are materials that have conductivity falling between a conductor like metals and an insulator like glass. Semiconductors occur as pure elements and also in the form of compounds. Some common semiconductors are- Silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, etc. A small amount of impurity is added to pure semiconductors to obtain certain desired conductivity; this process is called doping.

Semiconductors are commonly used in the manufacturing of common electrical circuit parts like – transistors, diodes, etc. Due to their power efficiency, low cost and reliability semiconductors have a wide application range from use in TVs, radios, medical devices and many more.

Question 2
Explain the term Electronics engineering.

Answer:
Electronics engineering is a field of engineering dedicated towards the use of components to make digital and analog circuits, electrical devices like transistors, diodes, etc. and is designing complex systems. It is used basically in all electronic devices and in building logic circuits, communication devices, electrical devices, artificial intelligence and robotics.

It’s often confused with electrical engineering, but it works with low current voltage. Electrical engineering works with the concepts of electricity and electromagnetism. Electronics engineering, on the other hand, deals with the applications of electronics devices and electrical systems.

Question 3.
What are some common electrical components found in electrical devices?

Answer:
An electrical circuit consists of certain components. Depending upon the complexity of the electrical system, the type of the system and its application, these components vary. Some common components are-

  • Resistors: It is an electrical component with two terminals, and its main function is to provide resistance to the flow of current in the circuit. It is widely used in heating appliances.
  • Capacitor: Capacitor is 2 terminal components used to store potential energy in the form of charge. The property to store charge is measured in terms of Farad and is called capacitance.
  • Transistor: It is a 3 terminal semiconductor device used in amplification or switching of a signal.
  • Diode- It is a unidirectional semiconductor device with a positive and a negative terminal

Question 4.
Comment on “Charge”.

Answer:
A charge is very much like gravity. As gravity is described as a force between 2 masses that can be felt, in early experiments, the charge was described as a force that exists between 2 bodies and is exerted during certain electrical conditions.

A charge is measured in Coulombs named after the French engineer Charles Augustin Coulomb who first discovered and measured force between two charged bodies. The charge is conserved, which means it can neither be destroyed nor created, but it can be neutralised. Charge exists as a positive and negative charge.

Conclusion

Electronics engineering is a vast and practical field. It’s very imperative for students to be well versed with the important concepts and their applications. Also, the subject offers many career options and specializations students can opt for. The study material and notes provided in this article are a good starting point for anyone looking to build their knowledge in this field.

Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes PDF Free Download

Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes: Students who are looking to get access to the Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes and Study Material can access the best notes for their preparation process.

The Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes and Study Materials acts as the primary study material and notes that enhance and expand the knowledge of students. With the help of the Computer Organization and Architecture Notes and Study Material students will be able to score better marks. Students can access all the Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes and Study Material through this article.

Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes helps students get a head start when they start their preparation. Students get access to Lecture Notes, Reference books, and Important questions for Computer Organization and Architecture.

Students will benefit from the Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes PDFs and Reference books available in this article. They can start their preparation with all the study material available and score the best marks in Computer Organization and Architecture examination.

Introduction to Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes

Computer Organization and Architecture is a course where students learn about the internal working and structure of a computer system. The Architecture part of the time is where students learn about the external design of the computer system.

Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes PDF Free Download

Students who are pursuing their Bachelor’s in Technology (B.Tech) can use the Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes and Study Material which is available in this article. Students can start their preparation process with the help of the Study Material; available. The Computer Organization and Architecture Study Material are going to help students score the maximum marks.

Candidates can easily download all the available study material. You can refer to and study from the Computer Organization and Architecture Notes and Study Material during your preparation. Study Material is going to help the candidates get a better understanding of the topics. When candidates have a better understanding of the subject, they can score more marks.

Here is a list of few essential notes for proper preparation of the Computer Organization and Architecture course programme:

Computer Organization and Architecture Reference Books

The primary source of all the concepts is Reference books. It would be best if you started your preparation for Computer Organization and Architecture by reading through reference books. All the reference books in this article are according to the recommendations of the experts.

Students can refer and go through the Computer Organization and Architecture Books and other study material during their preparation.

The list of the best and most recommended books for Computer Organization and Architecture preparation is as follows. Candidates should choose a book that meets their needs and requirements and start preparing for their examination.

  • ‘Computer Organization’ (5th Edition) written by C. Hamacher, Z. Vranesic and S. Zaky
  • ‘Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/ Software Interface.’
  • ‘Computer Organization and Architecture’ (10th Edition)

Computer Organization and Architecture Curriculum

The first step to start your preparation towards any examination is by reading the syllabus. It is one of the essential parts of the subjects. Therefore, when you begin your practice for Computer Organization and Architecture, you should start by reading and going through the syllabus. It’s going to give you a description of all the topics that you will have to study on the subject.

We provide students with a detailed view of the Computer Organization and Architecture Curriculum.

It is according to the latest syllabus. The course curriculum gives the students an idea of what to study. In the syllabus, there is a unit-wise breakup of all the topics.

Students should study all the topics which are in the syllabus. When they cover all the subjects, they will have a better understanding of all the concepts. They will be able to attempt the question paper of Computer Organization and Architecture comfortably. Being aware of the syllabus is going to help the students avoid studying unnecessary topics.

The unit-wise breakup of the Computer Organization and Architecture is as follows:

Unit I

  • Basic Structure of Computers
  • Operational Concepts
  • Bus Structures
  • Arithmetic Operations
  • Memory Operations
  • Addressing Modes
  • Basic I/O operations
  • Performance
  • RISC
  • CISC

Unit II

  • Arithmetic Unit Addition & Subtraction of Signed Numbers
  • Binary Multiplications
  • Booth’s Algorithm
  • Bit Pair Recoding
  • Carry Save Addition
  • Unsigned Integer Multiplication and Division Algorithm
  • Floating Point Operations

Unit III

  • Processing Unit Control Unit
  • Pipelining
  • Multiple Bus Organization
  • Hardwired Control
  • Micro programmed Control
  • Hazards
  • Data Path
  • Embedded Systems

Unit IV

  • Memory System Basic Concepts
  • Semiconductor RAM Memory
  • Cache Memory
  • Performance Considerations
  • Virtual Memory
  • Secondary Storage

Unit V

  • I/O Organization and Logic Circuits Accessing I/O Devices
  • DMA
  • Buses
  • Interface Circuits
  • Serial Communication Links
  • Logic Circuits
  • Practical Implementation of Logic Gates
  • Case Studies of Various Computer Architectures

List of Computer Organization and Architecture Important Questions

Students who are pursuing Bachelors in Technology (B.Tech) should go through the list of the questions available below for the Computer Organization and Architecture course programme. All the questions aimed at helping the student excel at their examination.

  1. What is meant by Computer Organization and Architecture?
  2. With the help of a diagram, explain in detail the implement manual multiplication.
  3. Explain in detail about the entire computer system.
  4. Write a short note own memory unit functions.
  5. What is meant by memory locations and addresses?
  6. Explain in detail about the bus.
  7. What are mean addressing modes? Explain all its types.
  8. Make a comparative study between RISC and CISC.
  9. Define the term Pipelining and explain its characteristics.
  10. Explain the concept of virtual memory.

FAQs on Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes

Question 1.
What is Computer Organization and Architecture?

Answer:
Computer Organization and Architecture is a course where students learn about the internal working and structure of a computer system. The Architecture part of the time is where students learn about the external design of the computer system.

Question 2.
Which are some of the books that students can refer to for Computer Organization and Architecture?

Answer:
Below is a list of the books candidates can refer to for Computer Organization and Architecture course programme:

  • ‘Computer Organization’ (5th Edition) written by C. Hamacher, Z. Vranesic and S. Zaky
  • ‘Computer Organization and Architecture’ (10th Edition)

Question 3.
What are some of the study material available for students to access for Computer Organization and Architecture?

Answer:
Here is a list of all the study material that students can download for Computer Organization and Architecture:

  • Computer Organization and Architecture Notes
  • Computer Organization and Architecture Book
  • Computer Organization and Architecture Question Paper
  • Computer Organization and Architecture Question and Answer

Question 4.
List out a few critical questions for the Computer Organization and Architecture course programme.

Answer:
Here are some of the essential questions related to Computer Organization and Architecture:

  1. What is meant by Computer Organization and Architecture?
  2. With the help of a diagram, explain in detail the implement manual multiplication.
  3. Explain in detail about the entire computer system.
  4. Write a short note own memory unit functions.
  5. What is meant by memory locations and addresses?
  6. Explain in detail about the bus.

Conclusion

The information on Computer Organization and Architecture Handwritten Notes are reliable. All the books and study material which is available aims at enhancing the students’ knowledge of the subject. Students can refer to and practice from the Handwritten Notes, Books and Important Questions available for Computer Organization and Architecture course.

Data Communication Notes for CSE Students | DC Lecture Notes PDF Free Download

data-communication-notes-for-cse

Data Communication Notes: Data Communication course provides the theoretical and practical knowledge of Data Communication. It educates the students about the basic concepts of data and network communication used in networking technologies. Students get the opportunity to understand the fundamentals of modern data and network communication. There are different courses available on Data Communication. Sometimes, Data Communication is also taught in the bachelor’s programme. However, study materials and notes are essential for this course. In this article, you will get complete details about the reference books, study materials, and Lecture notes available for Data Communication.

Introduction to Data Communication

Data Communication is the process in which data gets exchanged between a source and a receiver through transmission media. If the communicating devices are in a similar geographical area, it is called local data communication. The device that transmits data is called the source. The receiver receives the transmitted data. Data Communication focuses on data transfer and maintenance throughout the transmission process. Data exists in various forms such as text, numbers, and bytes. This article will help you to learn more about the subject in detail before you choose to start studying Data Communication.

Data Communication Notes and Study Material for CSE PDF Free

People interested in undergoing any course related to Data Communication can get the study materials and notes from this article. These study materials will help you to understand the subject and score well in the exam. Interested students can download the study materials and practice it offline as well. Here is a list of study notes for Data Communication that will aid in your preparation.

DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING NOTES PDF Links
Data Communication and Networking Lecture Notes Download
Data Communication and Networking Book PDF Download
Data Communication and Networking Syllabus Download
Data Communication and Networking Question Paper Download

Data Communication Reference Books

For studying Data Communication, you must read reference books to clear the concepts. Some of the popular books recommended by experts for Data Communication are listed below:

  • Applied Data Communications and Networks by B Buchanan
  • Data Communication and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan
  • Computer networking: a top-down approach / James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross
  • Communication Systems by Simon Haykin
  • Analog and Digital communication by Sam Shanmugan
  • Data and Computer Communications Eighth Edition by Andrew Tenenbaum
  • Computer networks and internet by Douglas E. Comer

Data Communication Curriculum

It would help if you went through the syllabus of Data Communication before starting the course. The syllabus of the course is given below:

Unit I

Introduction: Network Types, Internet History, Data Communications, Networks, Standards and Administration.

Networks Models: The OSI model, Protocol Layering, TCP/IP Protocol suite, Introduction to Physical Layer-1: Transmission Impairment, Data Rate limits, Performance, Data and Signals, and Digital Signals.

Digital Transmission: Digital to digital conversion (Only Line coding: Polar, Bipolar and Manchester coding).

Unit II

Physical Layer: Analog, Analog to digital conversion (only PCM), and Transmission Modes.

Transmission: Digital to analog conversion.

Bandwidth Utilization: Spread Spectrum and Multiplexing.

Switching: Packet switching, Introduction, and Circuit Switched Networks.

Unit III

Error Detection and Correction: Introduction, Block coding, Cyclic codes, Checksum, Forward error correction.

Datalink control: DLC services, Data link layer protocols, HDLC, and Point to Point protocol (Framing, Transition phases only).

Unit IV

Media Access control: Controlled Access, Random Access, and Channelization, Wired LANs Ethernet: Ethernet Protocol, Fast Ethernet, Standard Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet. Unit V – Cellular Telephony, Wireless Networks WIMAX, Satellite networks, Wireless LANs: Introduction, Bluetooth, and IEEE 802.11 Project.

List of Data Communication Important Questions

  • Explain Data Communication and its characteristics.
  • What are the components of Data Communication?
  • Briefly explain different Data flow directions.
  • Please write a short note on Network and its characteristics.
  • Explain different types of connections.
  • Write a short note on different types of Networks.
  • Explain the protocol and standards.
  • Explain different kinds of topologies.
  • Write about digital signals and composite signals.
  • Explain line coding and its characteristics.
  • Briefly explain analog to analog conversion techniques.

FAQs on Data Communication Notes

Question 1.
What is Data Communication?

Answer:
Data Communication is the process in which data gets exchanged between a source and a receiver through transmission media.

Question 2.
What is called local Data Communication?

Answer:
If the communicating devices are in a similar geographical area, it is called local data communication.

Question 3.
What are the five components of Data Communication?

Answer:
The five components of Data Communication are Receiver, Message, Transmission Medium, Sender, and Protocol.

Question 4.
What are the fundamental characteristics of Data Communication?

Answer:
The fundamental characteristics of Data Communication are accuracy, delivery, jitter, and timeliness.

Data Communication Notes for CSE Conclusion

The information provided above about Data Communication study materials will help you to score well in the examination. Please reach out to us through the comment section in case you have any other doubts.

Environmental Studies Notes for Engineering PDF Free Download

Environmental Studies Notes

Environmental Studies Notes: aspirants who are in the process of learning or are willing to learn under the engineering environmental studies program need specific notes which establish what one needs to know about the subject. The notes are geared at creating efficiency in the preparation process for candidates. Additionally, these notes make it easier to sift through the curriculum – which has been given in this article to make prospects aware of the various topics they might touch upon as they go about studying the syllabus.

Furthermore, the curriculum-based units are broad, so much so that students are prone to be confused as they study the course. Thus, to ease the stressors arising out of investing time in studying the course, these lecture notes will prepare students in such a way that they are instilled with a sense of self-confidence and self-assurance. Additionally, the available study materials include incorporating the use of important questions related to the mentioned course/subject.

There are various sources of information students should be open to using when learning interesting subjects such as this one because these sources help elucidate the subject’s concepts – on average, such subjects tend to be conceptually very heavy, thus, to offset this the notes have been designed by experts in such a way that during their utilization, they simply the course more than anything.

What is Engineering Environmental Studies About?

The foundational concepts that go behind the creation of a course like engineering environmental studies are essentially drawn from the overarching belief that the world needs to find a way to sustainably develop. The rate of growth the world has seen since the 1800s – overpopulation leading to pollution and global warming, amongst other things – is leading the world towards an unfavorable future for humans and animals alike.

In addition, to the before mentioned, this course teaches students why countries involve themselves in World Summit Meetings and UN conferences on environment and sustainable development. These countries mostly attend such meetings because the problems the world is facing, the most damaged sector being our environment – that is deteriorating at a very fast pace – have to be resolved before humans actually end up destroying themselves. This course teaches students the importance of good environmental management and how managing environmental hazards is something so potentially harming to our world that it is imperative to be managed effectively.

Engineering Environmental Studies | Free PDF Download Option for Study Materials

Students interested in pursuing B.Tech 1st year can get a hold of PDF format versions of engineering environmental studies notes online and through this article, can gain insight into all the other possible sources of information that have a PDF version available online. Moreover, students pursuing a BTech will need reference books to study from – fear not, for this course down below are mentioned several reference books- several of which are more than likely available online. Another factor which is pertinent to take into account is the fact that this service is given to you for free.

Those students who manage to seize the opportunity to thoroughly revise through the contents of this course’s curriculum using these PDF notes and textbooks are going to be more comfortable when they appear for their examinations. A benefit of using a downloadable PDF is that in case you do lose it, you do not worry – you simply need to go online and download it from where you originally downloaded it. Moreover, PDF forms are effortless to use in the sense that they do not take up much of your personal space, except for the space in your laptop or computer’s hard-disk.

Engineering EVS Notes pdf Download

Environmental studies question paper pdf Download
Environmental studies notes for engineering Download
Environmental studies pdf notes Download

Engineering of Environmental Studies Reference Books

If one does wish to obtain Engg. EVS notes or books, it is an easy process, all he/she has to do is find a site online that provides a PDF formatted version of engg. environmental studies notes and reference books. To help ease your troubles, this article has all the information you need on reference books – this is done so in order to ensure you do not scramble online searching for the books which are directly applicable to this course/subject. This article contains several reference books which students should not find a hard time looking up on the internet.

Find below a list of reference of books that will help you traverse through this subject and its course outline:

  • Environmental Studies, Benny Joseph
  • Environment, Ha-al Studies (2006)
  • Environmental Studies, Oxford Publication 2005
  • Textbook of Environmental Science & Technology
  • Environmental Science and Engineering

These are the most pertinent textbooks one has to be on the lookout for when it comes to using study materials for engineering environmental studies.

Engg. EVS Curriculum

The following list of units and chapters are all relevant to the syllabus which is updated on an annual basis, they are to be read with the other study source materials so students do not waste time on redundant information not relevant to the syllabus.

UNIT – I
  • Multidisciplinary nature of natural resources and the environmental science used in EVS.
  • Definition of Environmental Science and its scope and need for public awareness
  • Listing all the resources discussed in this subject:
    • Forest Resources
    • Water resources
    • Mineral resources
    • Food resources
    • Land resources
    • Energy resources
UNIT – II
  • What is an ecosystem?
  • Define what an ecosystem is, the structure of an ecosystem, the function of an ecosystem, etc.
  • Energy and how it flows in an ecosystem
  • Ecological food chains and food webs
  • Introduction to different ecosystems
    • Forest Ecosystem
    • Grassland ecosystems
    • Desert Ecosystems
    • Aquatic Ecosystem
UNIT – III
  • Biodiversity: introduction, definition, and types
  • Biogeographical classification of India
  • The value of biodiversity
  • Biodiversity at global, national & local levels/areas
  • India as a Mega Diversity Nation
  • Threats to biodiversity
  • Endangered Species of India IUCN Red data book
  • Wildlife conflicts
UNIT-IV
  • Definition of pollution
  • Various types of pollution
    • Air pollution
    • Soil pollution
    • Marine pollution
    • Thermal pollution
    • Water pollution
  • Role of an individual when it comes to prevention methods
  • Human pollution and the exponential growth in population across the globe

Engineering of Environmental Studies Important Questions

Aspirants who need to prepare for the engineering environmental studies examinations should be exposed to practice questions and exercises as early as possible. These important questions which you will find below are picked up directly from the relevant curriculum and have been designed in a way to be inclusive of all the topics. In this way, B.tech first-year students can also improve their mental strength – which will only serve to build their confidence and make them more self-assured about themselves and their database of knowledge. Keeping the aforementioned in mind, read the following list containing important questions regarding Engineering Environmental Studies:

  • Explain engg. Environmental studies and its multidisciplinary nature.
  • Explain the problems in terms of the usage of chemical pesticides and fertilizers seen in the agricultural sector.
  • Biodiversity can be grouped into three different levels, each one based on either their nature or/and their taxonomic status.
  • What are the effects of the overutilization of groundwater resources?
  • Over usage of groundwater for various purposes has resulted in rapid depletion of water in various areas. Explain the possible negative side-effects.
  • India is known as a “Mega diversity nation”. Support this previously mentioned statement and highlight the key features of the biodiversity of India.
  • Write the objectives, principles, key elements, and the importance of the Environmental Impact Assessment.
  • Give a detailed account of the EPA (1986).
  • What are the potential methods of propagating the need for environmental awareness? Explain and give an account of the possible ones.

Frequently Asked Questions on Engineering Environmental Studies

Question 1.
What are the best-recommended books for engineering environmental studies?

Answer:
It may be confusing as to which book might prove to be the best to work with in terms of preparation for the examinations. Aspirants who prepare for Btech engineering environmental studies need the best books they can get their hands on. Thus, the best ones, according to experts are the following:

  • Environment, Ha-al Studies – or – D.I. Manjunath, Pearson Education (2006)
  • Environmental Studies, Oxford Publication (2005)
  • Textbook of Environmental Science & Technology, Anji Reddy, US publication

Question 2.
How to effectively use the Engineering Environmental Studies study materials?

Answer:
Engineering Environmental studies is a holistic subject that demands aspirants to assume a global approach, primarily because this subject is applicable to the world at large. B.tech 1st-year students may find it slightly difficult to go through all the units without first being in possession of one or two textbooks – which can then help aspirants to navigate and study unit-wise. Furthermore, PDF formatted notes make these notes and text-books available at anybody’s fingertips. To conclude, the course’s study materials have all been listed within the confines of this article. The pertinent ones to keep in mind are reference books, PDF notes; listed Important Questions.

Question 3.
Where can I find study materials for Engineering Environmental Studies?

Answer:
You can find it available online on most sites. One needs to only type out the particular study material they wish to obtain. The PDF version of these materials may range from notes to reference books and practice questions and solutions. Students need not waste their time trying to get hard copies of textbooks, the freely downloadable option makes it easier for students to find and collate study materials on the go.

Conclusion

To conclude, aspirants who wish to either revise the subject-matter altogether or prepare for main examinations, should consider the various study materials which exist for the subject. Talking from a student’s perspective, subjects concerned with sustainable development such as EVS are to be studied in tangent to global affairs that are ongoing. In other words, students have to take a holistic approach when preparing for examinations. The important questions, along with a variety of reference books, is sure to make it easier for an aspirant to go through the updated curriculum.

Object Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes and Study Material PDF Download

object-oriented-programming-c++-lecture-notes-pdf

Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes: Students who are looking for Study Materials and Notes for Object-Oriented Programming C++ can easily access the best notes for their preparation for their examination and revision.

The Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes and Study Material acts as the primary study material and notes that enhance knowledge which will be helpful for students to score better marks. Aspirants can easily refer to the Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes and Study Material as per the latest curriculum in this article.

Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes gives the students a start as they can get access to the Syllabus, Reference Books, and Important Questions List for Object-Oriented Programming C++ over the regular notes.

Candidates can benefit from the Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes PDF and Reference Books from this article. It’s going to help the students ace their preparation method and the best study resources. With the help of the study materials for Object-Oriented Programming C++, they can achieve better grades.

Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming C++

Object-Oriented Programming C++ refers to languages that use objects in programming. One of the aims of Object-Oriented Programming C++ is to achieve real=world entities and incorporate them into programming. Real-world entities refer to inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, etc. The main intend of the Object-Oriented Programming C++ course is to use and implement the board study of the C programming language.

Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes and Study Material PDF Download

Students who are pursuing Object-Oriented Programming C++ can easily avail and access the Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes and Study Material with the help of this article. Candidates can quickly start your preparation with all the Object-Oriented Programming C++ tools that will help you achieve a better score.

Aspirants can quickly down all the study material and notes and refer to them while preparing for Object-Oriented Programming C++ test or examination. The use of the Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes and Study Material is going to help students get a better understanding and knowledge of the concepts and topics.

Here is a list of the few important notes for a thorough preparation of the Object-Oriented Programming C++ course programme:

Object-Oriented Programming C++ Reference Books

Object-Oriented Programming C++ Reference Books will provide to be a rich source for candidates and information about all the concepts. Students can easily access and use the best books for Object-Oriented Programming C++ as per the subject expert’s recommendations.

Students can easily refer and go through the Object-Oriented Programming C++ Reference Books and all other study material while preparing for their examination.

The list of the best and most recommended books for Object-Oriented Programming C++ preparation as given below, and the candidates can easily choose the book that meets all their needs and requirements perfectly.

  • Programming in C++ written by Ashok N Kamthane (2nd Edition)
  • Programming in C written by Reema Thareja.
  • Object-Oriented Programming C++ written by Joyce Farrell
  • C Programming: A problem-Solving Approach written by Forouzan, Gilberg and Prasad.
  • The Complete Reference C++ written by Herbert Schildt (4th Edition)
  • Programming with C written by Bichkar
  • C by Example written by Noel Kalicharan

Oriented Programming C++ Curriculum

The best way to start their preparation for Oriented Programming C++ is to have an initial idea and outline of the Oriented Programming C++ syllabus. Keeping in mind every student requirements, we have provided a detailed view of the Oriented Programming C++ curriculum.

The Oriented Programming C++ course curriculum gives the students a clear idea which gives the students a clear idea about what to study. Given below is a detailed view of the syllabus, which is into unit-wise topics.

Students must cover all the topics which are below before they attempt the Oriented Programming C++ exam. If they have all the topics covered, they will comfortably answer all the questions. Candidates must ensure that they know the Oriented Programming C++ syllabus, so you don’t waste time learning unnecessary and redundant topics.

The latest unit-wise breakup of the Oriented Programming C++ Syllabus is as follows:

Unit I:

  • Introduction to C++
    • Difference between C and C++
    • Evolution of C++
    • Object-Oriented Technology
    • Disadvantages of Conventional Programming
    • Critical Concepts of Object-Oriented Programming
    • Advantages of OOP
    • Object-Oriented Language

Unit II:

  • Classes and Objects & Constructors and Destructor
    • Classes in C++
    • Declaring Objects
    • Access Specifiers and their Scope
    • Defining Member Function
    • Overloading Member Function
    • Nested Class
    • Constructors and Destructors
    • Introduction to Constructors and Destructors
    • Characteristics of Constructor and Destructors
    • Application with Constructor
    • Constructor with Arguments (Parameterized Constructors, Destructors and Anonymous Objects)

Unit III

  • Operator Overloading and Type Conversion and Inheritance
    • The Keyword Operator
    • Overloading Unary Operator
    • Operator Return Type
    • Overloading Assignment Operator (=)
    • Rules for Overloading Operators
    • Inheritance
    • Reusability
    • Types of Inheritance
    • Virtual Base Classes
    • Object as a Class Member
    • Abstract Classes
    • Advantages of Inheritance
    • Disadvantages of Inheritance

Unit IV

  • Pointers & Binding Polymorphisms and Virtual Functions
    • Pointer
    • Features of Pointers
    • Pointer Declaration
    • Pointer to Class
    • Pointer Object
    • Pointer to Derived Classes and Base Class
    • Binding Polymorphisms
    • Virtual Functions
    • Introduction- Binding in C++
    • Virtual Functions
    • Rules for Virtual Function
    • Virtual Destructor

Unit V

  • Generic Programming with Templates & Exception Handling
    • Generic Programming with Templates
    • Need for Templates
    • Definition of class Templates
    • Normal Function Templates
    • Over-loading of Template Function
    • Bubble Sort Using Function Templates
    • Difference between Templates and Macros
    • Linked Lists with Templates
    • Exception Handling
    • Principles of Exception Handling
    • The Keywords try to throw and catch
    • Multiple Catch Statements
    • Specifying Exceptions

Unit VI

  • Overview of Standard Template Library
    • Overview of Standard Template Library
    • STL Programming Model
    • Containers
    • Sequence Containers
    • Associative Containers
    • Algorithms
    • Iterators
    • Vectors
    • Lists
    • Maps

List of Important Questions

Students who are pursuing Oriented Programming C+ should go through all the essential questions which are listed below for the Oriented Programming C+ course. All the questions given below will help the students get an idea of the question paper pattern. It’s going to help the candidates score the best marks in their Oriented Programming C+ examination.

  1. Briefly explain the principles of Oriented Programming.
  2. What is the Standard Template Library (STL)? Explain it’s components.
  3. What are monolithic, procedural and structural programming languages? Briefly state their drawbacks.
  4. With the usage of the friend, function write a C++ program to overload a unary operator in complex numbers.
  5. Define polymorphism. Describe using suitable examples.
  6. Write a short note on generic programming.
  7. What are the function templates? Explain in detail.
  8. Write a program for calculating the total marks and grade of the 50 students in a class.
  9. What are virtual destructors? Explain the concept in detail.
  10. How would you define a class in the C++ language? How would you declare the objects in the class in the C++ language? Explain both paths with the help of a suitable example.
  11. What are iterators? With the help of a C++ program erase all the elements in a list using it.

FAQs on Oriented Programming C+ Lecture Notes PDF

Question 1.
How to access the Lecture notes, study materials, and reference books for Object-Oriented Programming C++?

Answer:
Aspirants can easily access the Lecture Notes, Study Material, and Reference Books for Object-Oriented Programming C++ course through the links that are in the section above.

Question 2.
What are some of the reference books that students can access to study Object-Oriented Programming C++ course?

Answer:
Here are some of the books that students can refer to for improving their knowledge about Object Oriented Programming C++ course:

  • Programming in C++ written by Ashok N Kamthane (2nd Edition)
  • ‘Programming in C’ written by Reema Thareja.
  • Object-Oriented Programming C++ written by Joyce Farrell
  • C Programming: A problem-Solving Approach written by Forouzan, Gilberg and Prasad.
  • The Complete Reference C++ written by Herbert Schildt (4th Edition)

Question 3.
What are some of the topics that students will be studying in the Object-Oriented Programming C++ course?

Answer:
There are many topics that students will be learning, and each unit will earn different topics. Here are some topics they will learn in the first unit of Object-Oriented Programming C++ :

  • Introduction to C++
    • Difference between C and C++
    • Evolution of C++
    • Object-Oriented Technology
    • Disadvantages of Conventional Programming
    • Critical Concepts of Object-Oriented Programming

Question 4.
What are some of the critical questions from Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes?

Answer:
Here is a list of the essential questions from the Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes:

  1. Briefly explain the principles of Oriented Programming.
  2. What is the Standard Template Library (STL)? Explain it’s components.
  3. What are monolithic, procedural and structural programming languages? Briefly state their drawbacks.
  4. With the usage of the friend, function write a C++ program to overload a unary operator in complex numbers.
  5. Define polymorphism. Describe using suitable examples.

Conclusion

The information on Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes is reliable and dependable for all students. All the books and study material which is above aims to help and enhance the knowledge of a student when they are preparing for their Object-Oriented Programming C++ examination. Aspirants can easily refer to and practice from the provided Object-Oriented Programming C++ Lecture Notes, Study Material, Reference books and Important Questions from the article.

C Programming Lecture Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

C Programming Lecture Notes

C Programming Lecture Notes: Get your C Programming lecture Notes free pdf here. You can go through C programming lecture notes and start your preparations now. These lecture notes have helped so many before you. Now it’s your turn to put these carefully prepared notes to use. Go through these lecture notes and you will definitely find yourself improving. These are designed for both in-depth understanding and quick revision before your exams.

Find your lecture notes here and kick start your preparations. You can find a solution to any of your queries down below. For further details click down on the links provided below.

Introduction to C Programming Language Lecture Notes

C language was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie as a general-purpose programming language. It is now one of the most and if not the most used programming language. The UNIX operating system was developed in the C language. Programming in the C language is easy to learn and it can be used to write efficient programs.

If you are willing to learn the language, download the C programming lecture notes given below. This pdf is designed to take you through the step by step process of writing a program in the C language. Programming is something that does require time and effort to learn but it’s not to discourage you from trying to learn the language but rather prepare you for this exciting journey of programming.

C Programming Lecture Notes PDF Download

These notes are prepared according to the examination guidelines for you to score maximum marks. C programming lecture notes pdf is free to download and use, while still assuring premium quality study material to the students. Click on the download links below to get your copy of the free pdf now and begin your preparations. Success is within your grasp.

C Programming Reference Books

Given below is the list of books that are highly recommended to the engineering students to help them in their preparations and to resolve any doubts they might face.  These books are suggested by experts with years of experience in the field of teaching. Most of the books included in this list are available online in the form of pdf.

    1. The C programming language, 2nd edition by Brian kernighan.
    2. C, the complete reference, Herbert Schildt.

a

  1. Expert C Programming: Deep C Secrets by Peter Van den linden.
  2. Headfirst C, David Griffiths.
  3. C programming, A modern approach, 2nd edition.
  4. Computer fundamentals and programming in C by  Reema Thareja.
  5. C in a nutshell, the definitive reference by Peter Prinz and Tony Crawford.
  6. Data structures using C, 2nd edition.
  7. Programming in ANSI C by E. Balagurusamy, 8th edition.
  8. Let us C by Yashavant Kanetkar, 16th edition.

Importance of C language

C language is often termed as the mother of all the languages. It is widely used in programming because it lets you control all the low level details, and learning C language is very imperative as it makes a base for learning any other high level language. It’s just like learning alphabets before you go and learn words and sentences.

C language is a comparatively easy language to learn but a beginner still might look like an uphill task. To help you in this you should take help from the C programming lectures pdf to help you maneuver through the language and so that you know the language inside out. C language is of utmost importance in your programming journey and that is the reason why it is specified in your syllabus.

Syllabus of C Language Programming

Introduction to programming –Program and Programming

–Programming Languages

–Types of software’s, OS

–Dos commands

–Compiler, Interpreter, Loader and Linker

Fundamentals in C –History of ‘C’

–A Simple C Program

–Program execution phases

–Backslash character constants

–Character set

–Constants

–Number systems

–Format specifiers

–Identifiers

–Keywords

–Variables

–Data Types

–Declaration of Variable

–Assigning Values to Variables

–Initialization

–Comments

–Const Qualifier

–Basic Structure of a ‘C’ program

Operators and Expressions –Dealing with all 45 operators

–Arithmetic operators

–Increment and decrement operators

–Relational operators

–Logical operators

–The bitwise operators

–The assignment operators

–The conditional operator

–The size of operator

–The comma operator

–Type casting operator

–Other operators

–Precedence and order of evaluation

–Programming Examples

Data Types –Modifiers

–Format specifiers

–Dealing with each data types

–Memory representation of each type

–Programming Examples

Input Output Library functions –Unformatted I-O Functions

–Single Character Input-Output

–String Input-Output

–Formatted I-O Functions

–printf() Width Specifier

–scanf() Width Specifier

–Programming Examples

Control Statements –Conditional Control Statements

–if, if-else

–nested if-else

–else-if ladder

–Multiple Branching Control Statement

–switch-case

–Loop Control Statements

–while, do-while

–for

–Nested Loops

–Jump Control statements

–break, continue, goto, exit, return

Function –What is a function?

–Why function?

–Advantages of using functions

–Function Prototype

–Defining a function

–Calling a function

–Return statement

–Types of functions

–Recursion

–Nested functions

–main() function

–Library Function

–Local and global variables

–Programming Examples

Storage Class –Types of storage class

–Scoping rules

–Dealing with all storage classes

–Programming Examples

Pointer –Def of Pointer

–Declaration of Pointer Variables

–Assigning Address to Pointer

Variables

–De-referencing Pointer Variables

–Pointer to Pointer

–Pointer Arithmetic

–Pointer comparisons

–Dereference and increment pointer

–pointer to const data

–const pointer

–const pointer to const data

–Void pointer or Generic Pointer

–Null pointer

–wild pointer

–Programming Examples

Pointer and function –Parameter Passing Techniques – call by

value, call by address

–Using Pointers as Arguments

–Function Returning value

–Returning More than one value From A

Function

–Functions Returning Address

–Function Returning Pointers

–Dangling pointer

–Pointer to a Function

–Calling A function through function pointer

–passing A function’s address as an

Argument to other function

–Functions with variable number of

arguments

Array –One dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 1D arrays

–Initialization of 1D arrays

–Accessing element of 1D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Two dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 2D arrays

–Initialization of 2D arrays

–Accessing element of 2D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Programming Examples

Dynamic memory allocation –One dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 1D arrays

–Initialization of 1D arrays

–Accessing element of 1D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Two dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 2D arrays

–Initialization of 2D arrays

–Accessing element of 2D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Programming Examples

Strings –strings versus character arrays

–Initializing strings

–Reading string

–Displaying string

–The %s format specifier

–The gets() and puts() functions

–string handling functions

–string pointers

–Two-dimensional character arrays or

array of string

–array of pointers to strings

Structure –Why is a structure used?

–What is the structure?

–Advantages of structures

–Defining a Structure

–Declaration of Structure Variables

–Initialization of Structure Variables

–Accessing Structure Members

–Storage of Structures in Memory

–Size of Structures

–Reading and Displaying Structure

Variables

–Assignment of Structure Variables

–Pointers to structures

–Array of structures

–Arrays within structures

–Nested structures

–Self-referential structures

–memory link(linked list)

–Bit fields

C language Programming theoretical Problems

C language programming is a vast subject in the world of programming. Some of the sample questions around C language programming –

  • Explain Computer programming.
  • What is C language programming?
  • What are the 5 basic elements of programming?
  • What are the salient features of the C language?
  • What is a pointer on pointer?
  • Which language is called the mother language?
  • Explain the process of programming.
  • Why is C language called function driven language?
  • Who designed the C programming language?
  • What are the additional features of C++ over C language?
  • Can a pointer access the array?
  • Explain recursion.

Frequently Asked Questions on C Programming Lecture Notes

Question 1.
What is the difference between C language and C++ language?

Answer:
C language is a procedural programming language. C++ language is a combination of both procedural and object oriented programming language which supports classes and objects. So even though both are programming languages C language is called function driven language while C++ is called object oriented language. Both languages are used for app development but these are some significant differences in both languages.

C++ was created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979. C++ is called a superset of the C language due to some additional features over the C language.

  • C++ has 52 keywords as opposed to 32 in the C language.
  • Reference variables, namespace, inheritance, except handling, function and operator overloading is supported by C++ language only.
  • Cin and cout are used for input/output in C++ as opposed to scanf() and printf() in C language.

Question 2.
Comment on Computer Programming.

Answer:
Computer programming is defined as the process of writing a computer program commonly known as code for automating tasks of the computer. This includes analyzing and writing algorithms to perform specific functions that require sound knowledge of the algorithms, the language you are writing the code in , logic and application domain.

This term comes under the broad term of software development which includes programming, implementing and writing the actual code. The code can be written in one or more languages to allow the software or application to perform the specific task and solve the given problem.

Question 3.
What are the key features of the C language?

Answer:
C language is a procedural programming language developed in 1972. It is a structured language that allows you to control some low level features. It is a general purpose language that can be used to write some important programs. With its rich library of functions and a rich set of built in operators, it makes it one of the widely used programming languages.

The programs written in C language are easy to extend which allows you to add features into your programs easily. C language is also a really fast and efficient programming language. It is also a machine independent language which means it works similarly across different machines with some minor changes.

Question 4.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of C programming?

Answer:
Advantages

  1. C language is like a building block in learning other languages. It is therefore called the mother language.
  2. C language is a powerful language which lets you control low level activities as well.
  3. It has various built in functions and with its rich library it makes it useful to be used in writing programs and software,
  4. It has the quality to extend itself which allows it to easily add more features to its program.
  5. The computations of algorithms and data structures is fast and efficient.

Disadvantages

  1. There is no run time checking for errors. It shows syntax errors after writing the entire program and in the case of large programs it becomes very difficult to check errors
  2. Lack of exception handling
  3. There are features like OOPs which are missing in the C language.
  4. Lack of objects.

C Programming Lecture Notes Conclusion

Regular use of these notes is advised for a better overall understanding of the C language programming. It is also advised to go through any of the prescribed reference books for additional queries and more sample problems. C programming language does seem theoretical upon reading but it’s a practical based subject so it is in your best interest to put it to use. This will surely help you to understand the theoretical concepts more clearly.

Metallurgical Engineering Notes, Course Details, Eligibility Criteria, Curriculum, Job Prospects, Top Recruiters

metallurgical-engineering-notes

Metallurgical Engineering Notes: For BTech undergraduate students, the most primary study resources for exam preparation would be Books & Notes. That’s why we have come up with the new article on Btech Metallurgical Engineering Lecture Notes. Here, we have provided the Bachelor of Technology Metallurgical Engineering Full Notes in PDF together with a course syllabus, reference books, important questions list, and overview of the course. So, continue you read till to the end of this article and find all the required details about the Metallurgical Engineering Notes, & course details.

  • BTech Metallurgical Engineering First Year Notes
  • BTech Metallurgical Engineering Second Year Notes
  • BTech Metallurgical Engineering Third Year Notes
  • BTech Metallurgical Engineering Fourth Year Notes

Overview of BTech Metallurgical Engineering Course

Metallurgical Engineering Course Syllabus for All Semesters

Every course has a specific curriculum or syllabus, which is set by the college or university. This syllabus provides the students with the overall idea of what to study. The Syllabus of a course is made in order to reduce the pressure of study from the minds of the students.

The Curriculum of B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering also has different subjects. B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering is a 4-year course, and it is divided into 8 semesters. Each semester has certain subjects, and at the end of the course, the students have to implement a project in order to complete the course.

The Curriculum of B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering is as follows:

SEMESTER 1 SEMESTER 2
Chemistry-I Chemistry-II
Computer Programming Mathematics- IIN
Mathematics-IN Strength of Materials
Engineering Mechanics Heat Engineering
Physics-IA Physics- IIA
SEMESTER 3 SEMESTER 4
Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Numerical Analysis
Geology and Mineral Beneficiation Material Science
Electrical Technology Thermodynamics of Materials
Mathematics- IIIN Testing of Materials
Fuels and Combustion
SEMESTER 5 SEMESTER 6
Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Materials Steel Making
Physics Metallurgy- I Foundry Metallurgy
Iron Making Extraction of Non-ferrous Metals
Chemical Kinetics and Mass Transfer Solid-State Phase Transformation Processes
Electro-Chemistry and Corrosion Physics of Metals
SEMESTER 7 SEMESTER 8
Alloy Steel Making and Ferroalloys X-ray Diffraction
Metal Working Processes Industrial Management and Engineering Economics
Material Engineering Metal Joining and Powder Metallurgy

With all the subjects mentioned above, there are certain elective subjects, and they are:

ELECTIVE- I

  • Theory of Metallurgical Processes
  • Light Metals and Alloys
  • Composite Materials

ELECTIVE – II

  • Advanced Characterization
  • Coating Technology
  • Nanostructured Materials

Avail subject-wise B.Tech Notes related to Engineering Departments like ECE, CSE, Mech, EEE, Civil, etc. all in one place and plan your preparation according to your requirements.

About Metallurgical Engineering

Metallurgy is the branch of science that deals with the study of physical and chemical properties of metallic compounds and their mixtures. Metal plays a very important role in modern life.

Metallurgical Engineering deals with the study of various exotic metals in pure and in combined form. It is one of the most important branches of engineering as it deals with the study of metals which serves s the most important material in industries and other important activities.

Metallurgical Engineers are generally involved in the extracting, refining and recycling of various metals. Metallurgical engineers solve many problems that arise in the process of extracting metals such as they suggest ways to reduce corrosion of metals.

They help in maintaining the heat levels and increasing the strength of the products. They are basically involved in the development and improvement of metals that are used in healthcare, transportation, defence and entertainment industries.

The work of metallurgical engineers can impact the work of other engineers as they are involved in the development of the core materials that can enhance the functioning of other systems or products.

Metallurgical Engineers basically study the nature and bonding of various metals in details. They have a detailed knowledge about the extraction, refining and recycling of various types of metals. The main aim of metallurgical engineers is to find new ways to use metals in various machinery and other industrial equipment; they also enhance the quality and strength of the metals.

Metallurgical Engineering is subdivided into three branches, and they are:

  • Physical Metallurgy: It deals with solving various problems related to metallurgy, such as the development of new metallic alloys that are used in various machinery and other industrial equipment.
  • Extractive Metallurgy: It deals with the extraction of various metals from its mineral ores.
  • Mineral Processing: It is the study of mineral ores and how they are gathered from the earth’s crust.

Course Highlights

Name of The Course Metallurgical Engineering
Course Duration Under-Graduate- 4 years

Post-Graduate- 2 years

Eligibility Criteria Under-Graduate- Class 10+2 with 50% aggregate marks

Post-Graduate- B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering with overall passing marks.

Average Course Fee INR 75,000/annum
Sectors of Employment Metallurgy Industries
Average Annual Salary INR 3,50,000/annum

Eligibility Criteria For Metallurgical Engineering

For every course, a college or a university sets eligibility criteria which a student has to fulfil in order to get admission in the course. There are different sets of criteria for different courses. This eligibility criterion is set by every university and college to ensure that each student getting admission should have adequate knowledge about the course.

Similarly, to get Admission in Metallurgical Engineering, a student must fulfil certain criteria and must have passed the entrance exams of metallurgical engineering. The eligibility criteria for Metallurgical Engineering is as follows.

Eligibility Criteria For B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering:

B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering is an undergraduate course. The course duration is 4 years, and a student has to fulfil the below-mentioned criteria to get admission in the course.

  • A student must have passed 10+2 or equivalent examination from a recognized central or state board with an aggregate of 50% marks, and the candidate should have Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics as compulsory subjects.
  • The candidate must have passed the entrance exams conducted for B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering such as JEE mains, MH-CET, WBJEE and other state-level entrance exams.

Eligibility Criteria For M.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering:

M.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering is a Post-graduate course. It is a 2 years Full-time course and to get admission into M.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering a candidate must fulfil the following criteria.

  • The candidate must have a B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering Degree from a recognized college or university and must have secured at least 50% aggregate marks.
  • The candidate must have qualified the national level entrance test, i.e. GATE.

Metallurgical Engineering Jobs

The main aim of every student is to get a good job at the end of the undergraduate or postgraduate course. Similarly, every student of Metallurgical Engineering is curious to know about the job prospects after the completion of B.Tech or M.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering.

A career as a Metallurgical Engineer is very interesting as well as challenging. The work of metallurgical engineers impacts the works of others as they are involved in the development of core materials which are used to enhance the functioning of other machinery and work equipment.

The field of metallurgy is very diverse in nature and offers great employment opportunities. Metallurgical Engineers are generally hired by industries that are involved in the production, extraction, buying or selling of metals or metallic products. Metallurgical Engineers are also found in the R&D department of many industries.

Let’s have a look at the different job profiles that a student of Metallurgical Engineering is hired for

JOB PROFILE JOB DESCRIPTION
Metallurgist A Metallurgist is basically involved in the study of properties of various metals and their composition.
Welding Engineer Welding Engineers have the expertise in developing new welding techniques and welding equipment.
Plant Equipment Engineer A Plant Equipment Engineer is responsible for planning, installing and maintaining the equipment used in Plant and the plant Power Systems.
Metallurgical Lab Technicians The work of Metallurgical Lab Technicians is to assist the Metallurgical Engineers in their day-to-day activities.
Quality Planning Engineer They are involved in improving the quality of metals and metallic products.
Senior Process Engineer A Senior Process Engineer supervises and looks after the process, quality, efficiency, effectiveness and safety of metals and other metallic products.

Recruiter of Metallurgical Engineers

Recruiters are those persons or companies that hire different professionals or freshers from various fields to complete certain projects or works. The recruiters of Metallurgical Engineers are generally Metallurgy industries. They are appointed in sectors that are involved in the extraction, refining and improvement of various metals and other metallic products.

Here, in this article, we have provided the list of Top recruiter of Metallurgical Engineering

  • Larson’s Group
  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
  • The Metal Powder Company Ltd
  • Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd
  • NALCO
  • Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  • Cable Corporation of India Ltd.
  • Utkal Mineral
  • Hindustan Copper Limited
  • Tata Steel
  • HCL
  • Jindal Steel
  • Steel Authority of India (SAIL)
  • Hindalco Limited

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What are the Top Colleges for Metallurgical Engineering?

Answer. Many colleges in India offer B.Tech and M.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering. The existence of a number of colleges puts the students in the state of confusion. So, here we have provided a list of Top Colleges for Metallurgical Engineering with their Average Annual Fees.

NAME OF THE COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY CITY AVERAGE ANNUAL FEES
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Varanasi, Kharagpur, Roorkee, Chennai, Guwahati, Delhi INR 90,000
National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Raipur, Durgapur INR 70,000
College of Engineering Pune INR 75,000
Kakatiya University Warangal INR 27,000
Government Engineering College Bhuj
Coimbatore Institute of Technology Salem INR 55,000
Bengal Engineering College Howrah
Jain University Bangalore INR 1,60,000
JNTUH College of Engineering Hyderabad INR 72,000

Q2. What is the Admission Process for Metallurgical Engineering?

Answer. The admission process for Metallurgical Engineering varies from institute to institute. Mostly all of the colleges require the candidates to pass an entrance exam. Candidates who have appeared the 10+2 examinations qualify to appear the entrance exams for B.Tech in Metallurgical Engineering.

The Entrance Exams that a candidate needs to appear to get admission in an engineering institute are JEE mains, MH-CET, WBJEE and other state-level entrance exams.

Direct Admissions: Many colleges offer direct admissions to the students through management quota. However, Government colleges do not have management quota, so direct admission in government colleges is not possible.

Lateral Entry: Students those who have completed a diploma in metallurgical engineering get lateral entry into B.Tech in metallurgical engineering. They are directly admitted into the 5th semester.

Q3. What are the skills required to become a Metallurgical Engineer?

Answer. To become a successful Metallurgical Engineer, a student must be fundamentally strong in subjects like Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics. He/She must have leadership qualities accompanied by critical thinking. They should have strong problem-solving ability. They should have quick learning ability and should be ready to adapt and cope with the working environment. They should also have better communication skills and time-management skills.

Q4. Why should I opt for Metallurgical Engineering?

Answers. There are various reasons for a student to study Metallurgical Engineering. Some of the important reasons are listed below.

  • It provides a wide range of career opportunities. A student can become a metallurgist, a process engineer or a research assistant and many other job opportunities.
  • The work of Metallurgical Engineers has an impact on the work of other fields as they are involved in the production and improvement of the core material, and this is the reason metallurgical engineers have high annual pay.

Civil Engineering Notes, Course Details, Duration, Eligibility, Admissions, Fee, Career Prospects

Civil Engineering Notes

Civil Engineering Notes PDF Free Download: Aspirants who are pursuing Btech Civil Engineering Course should know the importance of Lecture Notes during their preparation. Lecture Notes is the key study materials that graduates need to use for the upcoming examination in order to get a proper preparation. This helps you to achieve more marks in the exams. One of the ultimate guides for preparation is Btech Notes. Avail subject-wise B.Tech Notes of all Engineering Departments like ECE, CSE, Mech, EEE, Civil, etc. in one place and plan your preparation according to your requirements.

So, Candidates are suggested to refer to the ultimate BTECH (Bachelor of Technology) Civil Engineering Class Notes of all Year along with other preparation tools like Syllabus, Reference books, Review Questions, etc., and have a grip on the concepts. Also, Freshers can find complete details of the Civil Engineering Course from this page. Go through this article and gather all the data that you require to clear all 8-semester examinations of Btech Civil Engineering Course.

  • Btech Civil Engineering First Year Notes
  • Btech Civil Engineering Second Year Notes
  • Btech Civil Engineering Third Year Notes
  • Btech Civil Engineering Fourth Year Notes

Overview of Civil Engineering Course Details

Civil Engineering is a branch or specialization of Engineering course. It deals with the study of designing, construction and maintenance of various complex structures such as public buildings, bridges, dams, and various other structures. Civil Engineering is one of the oldest disciplines of Engineering. Check out the brief details of the Civil Engineering course:

Civil Engineering Notes and Course Syllabus

The initial idea of what to study under a course is gained through the syllabus or curriculum of the course. The curriculum is set differently for different courses. The syllabus or Curriculum of a course is set by the university or college board. The main aim of the curriculum of any course is to have control over what a student studies, and it also helps in reducing the pressure of study from the minds of the students.

The Civil Engineering course also has a specific curriculum which has different subjects that a student has to study in a duration of 4 years. For the convenience of the students, these subjects have been divided into 8 semesters. Here is an overview of the course curriculum of the B.Tech programme of Civil Engineering.

Semester- I Semester- II
  • Engineering Mathematics-I
  • Engineering Physics
  • Engineering Chemistry
  • Systems in Mechanical Engineering
  • Basic Electrical Engineering / Basic Electronics Engineering
  • Programming and Problem Solving / Engineering Mechanics
  • Workshop
  • Engineering Mathematics-II
  • Engineering Physics/ Engineering Chemistry
  • Basic Electrical Engineering / Basic Electronics Engineering
  • Programming and Problem Solving / Engineering Mechanics
  • Engineering Graphics (Engineering Drawing)
  • Project-Based Learning
  • Physical Education-Exercise and Field Activities
Semester- III Semester- IV
  • Building Technology and Architectural Planning
  • Mechanics of structure
  • Fluid Mechanics
  • Engineering Mathematics III
  • Engineering Geology
  • Awareness to civil Engineering Practices / Road Safety Management / Foreign Language
  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Survey
  • Concrete Technology
  • Structural Analysis
  • Project management
  • Project-Based Learning
Semester- V Semester- VI
  • Hydrology and water resource engineering.
  • Infrastructure Engineering and Construction
  • Techniques
  • Structural Design –I
  • Structural analysis – II
  • Fluid Mechanics – II
  • Advanced Surveying
  • Project Management and Engineering Economics
  • Foundation Engineering
  • Structural Design – II
  • Environmental Engineering – I
Semester- VII Semester- VIII
  • Environmental Engineering II
  • Transportation Engineering
  • Structural Design and Drawing III
  • Elective – I
  • Elective –II

List of Electives

  • Structural Design of Bridges
  • Systems Approach in Civil Engineering
  • Advanced Concrete Technology
  • Architecture and Town Planning
  • Advanced Engineering Geology with Rock Mechanics
  • Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis
  • Integrated Water Resources and Planning
  • TQM & MIS in Civil Engineering
  • Earthquake Engineering
  • Advanced Geotechnical Engineering
  • Dams and Hydraulic Structures
  • Quantity Surveying, Contracts, and Tenders
  • Elective –III
  • Elective – IV

List of Electives

  • Advanced Structural Design
  • Advanced Foundation Engineering
  • Hydropower Engineering
  • Air Pollution and control
  • Finite Element Method in Civil Engineering
  • Construction Management
  • Advanced Transportation Engineering
  • Statistical Analysis and Computational Methods in Civil Engineering
  • Plumbing Engineering
  • Green Building Technology
  • Ferrocement Technology
  • Subsea Engineering
  • Wave Mechanics

Specializations In Civil Engineering

Civil Engineers are responsible for shaping, designing, planning and expanding society. They are the major minds behind some of the great structures ever built in human history. Civil Engineering is a vast course that demands students to be hard-working in order to pursue their career as a Civil Engineer.

Many colleges in India offer Civil Engineering as Under-graduate and Postgraduate programmes. The Under-graduate or UG programme is called B.Tech in Civil Engineering, and Post-graduate or PG programme is called M.Tech in Civil Engineering.

Civil Engineering as a discipline of engineering course has got a lot of specializations that a student of civil engineering can choose from. The specializations in Civil Engineering are:

  • Geotechnical Engineering
  • Construction Engineering
  • Structural Engineering
  • Land Development Engineering
  • Transportation Engineering
  • Hydraulic Engineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Coastal Engineering
  • Urban Engineering
  • Irrigation Engineering

Eligibility Criteria For Civil Engineering

Every college or university sets an eligibility criterion for different courses, and students must fulfil all those criteria in order to be eligible to take admission or study the course. The eligibility criteria are set by universities and colleges to ensure that each student who has applied for a study has a proper understanding of the course curriculum. Different courses have a different set of eligibility criteria.

Similarly, if a student is planning to pursue a career in civil engineering, he/she must fulfil certain eligibility criteria and must have passed the entrance exam for civil engineers. The eligibility criteria and entrance exams for admission into the civil engineering course are as follows.

Eligibility Criteria for B.Tech in Civil Engineering

B.Tech in Civil Engineering is an undergraduate course, It is a four years full-time programme, and a student has to fulfil the following criteria to get an admission into the undergraduate engineering programme.

  • A student must have passed 10+2 or equivalent examination from a recognized central or state board with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics as compulsory subjects.
  • A student must have also appeared and passed in entrance exams such as JEE Main, JEE Advanced, MHCET, BITSAT, KCET, SRMJEEE and other such entrance exams.

Eligibility Criteria for M.Tech in Civil Engineering

M.Tech in Civil Engineering is the Post-graduate programme for Civil Engineering. It is a two years full-time course. A student can take admission in M.Tech if he/she fulfils the following criteria.

  • A student must have an undergraduate degree in B.Tech from a recognized college or university with an aggregate of 50%.
  • The admission into M.Tech is done through a national entrance test known as GATE.

Civil Engineering Jobs

The main aim of every student is to get accomplished in life by getting a good job after the completion of an undergraduate or postgraduate programme. Similarly, every student of civil engineering is curious to know about job opportunities after the completion of B.Tech or M.Tech courses.

A career in Civil Engineering can be very challenging as it involves different elements such as construction, designing, leadership and management. A job in the field of civil engineering can be very rewarding if you have the required set of skills and knowledge. Civil Engineering jobs offer progression and show the opportunity to earn better than average salary if you have an interest in innovative and new designs.

Civil Engineers are mostly hired by Construction Firms, Defence Forces Development Boards and Municipal Development Authorities. A civil engineer works in both public and private sectors with companies that are engaged in the designing, construction and maintenance of roads, dams, bridges, canals, airports and many other complex structures.

Let’s have a look at the job profiles that a student of B.Tech is hired after the completion of graduation.

JOB PROFILE JOB DESCRIPTION AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARY
Civil Engineer The Civil Engineers are involved in the designing, construction, and maintenance of various structures such as roads, buildings, Dams etc. The average annual salary of a civil engineer is 3-3.5 lakhs rupees.
Structural Engineers The Structural Engineers are responsible for the planning, designing, construction and maintenance of the infrastructural projects such as Buildings, bridges, etc. They are also responsible for the alteration and extension of existing structures. The average annual salary of a structural engineer is approximately 4-5 lakhs rupees for freshers.
Geotechnical Engineers The primary work of Geotechnical Engineers is to create projects and find solutions to problems that are related to geology. The average annual salary of a geotechnical engineer is around 3-4 lakhs rupees.
Site Engineers The responsibility of a Site Engineer is to organize and manage the materials and manpower at a construction site. They work as a part of the site management team. The average annual salary of a site engineer is around 2.5-3 lakhs rupees.
Construction Engineers The Construction Engineers are mainly responsible for the planning, directing and supervising large construction projects. They lead the construction projects and ensure the smooth working and completion of the projects. The average annual salary of a construction engineer is around 3.5-4 lakhs rupees.
Transportation Engineers The Transportation Engineers are mainly responsible for the planning, construction and maintenance of the transportation system such as airports, railways, highways and so on. The average annual salary of a transport engineer is approximately 4-5 lakhs rupees.
Environmental Engineers The Environmental Engineers are mainly involved in managing environmental safety and pollution control projects such as an air pollution control system and water reclamation projects. The average annual salary of an environmental engineer is around 4.5-5 lakhs rupees.
Water Resource Engineers The Water Resource Engineers are responsible for the design and construction of various human water resources projects such as wells, springs and water treatment facilities. The average annual salary of a water resource engineer is 6.5-7 lakhs rupees.

Recruiters of Civil Engineers

Recruiters are those persons or companies that hire different professionals or freshers for various projects and works. The recruiters for Civil Engineers are mainly construction firms and other companies that are involved mainly in the planning, designing, construction and maintenance of different types of infrastructures.

There are certain well-established construction firms in India that hire civil engineers and offer a good average annual package. These firms undertake large construction projects and have gained popularity over the past years. Here, in this article, we have provided the list of top recruiters of Civil Engineers.

  • Hindustan Construction Company
  • DLF
  • TATA Consulting Engineers Ltd.
  • Schlumberger
  • L & T
  • Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd
  • Jacobs Engineering
  • Gammon India
  • Sobha Developers Ltd.
  • Unitech
  • Maytas Infra Ltd.
  • Shapoorji Pallonji & Company
  • Punj Lloyd
  • Skyline Builders
  • MARG Limited
  • Bridge and Roof Company
  • Metro Tunneling Group
  • Gannon Dunkerley & Company

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Why Do I study B.Tech in Civil Engineering?

There are various reasons to study B.Tech in Civil Engineering and the opinion differs from student to student, but here we have listed some of the common reasons to study B.Tech in Civil Engineering.

  • It is a Reputed Profession: Civil Engineering is the oldest division of engineering course, and a civil engineering profession is a very reputed profession. Any student with the required skills and knowledge can become successful in the field of civil engineering. The demand for a Civil Engineer is rising day by day.
  • Offers Various Career Opportunities: After completion of the B.Tech programme a civil engineer can opt for various professions such as law, the management or one can also apply for competitive examinations to get employed as a government employee.
  • High Annual Pay Package: The Average annual package of a B.Tech graduate is on a higher side in both public or private organizations.

2. List some Top colleges for Civil Engineering.

Many colleges offer B.Tech in Civil Engineering, and the existence of various colleges creates confusion in the minds of the students. They often get confused in choosing the best college. Here, in this article, we have provided the best Private and Public Colleges and Universities that offer B.Tech in Civil Engineering.

NAME OF THE COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY CITY
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras, Delhi, Bombay, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Roorkee, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore
National Institute of Technology (NIT) Tiruchirappalli
Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) Vellore
S. R. M. Institute of Science and Technology Chennai
Birla Institute of Technology Ranchi
Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) Bhubaneswar
Amity University Noida
Manipal Institute of Technology Manipal
DIT University Dehradun
NIMS University Jaipur

3. What is the Career Scope after B.Tech in Civil Engineering?

A student after the completion of B.Tech in Civil Engineering can opt for various career options such as:

  • M.Tech in Civil Engineering: If a student wants to continue education in the field of civil engineering after completion of graduation he/she can opt for M.Tech in Civil Engineering, which is a two years full-time course and the eligibility criteria for which is B.Tech in Civil Engineering from a recognized college or University.
  • MBA: A student of B.Tech in Civil engineering can also opt for a Masters in Business Administration or MBA as a career option.
  • Competitive Examinations: A B.Tech graduate can also apply for various competitive exams so as to be employed in a government organization.

4. What are the skills required to become a successful Civil Engineer?

To become a successful Civil Engineer, a person or a student must have certain skills such as leadership skills, technical skills, communication skills. The person must also have creative thinking accompanied by problem-solving ability and critical thinking. In order to be successful in the field of civil engineering, a student must have good negotiating skills, attention to details, good time management and should always have a passion for learning new things.

Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Pdf Free Download

Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Pdf: Students who are pursuing their B.tech who are trying to access the Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf can avail the best and credible sources of notes and references material. 

The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf acts as the primary preparation tool that enhances and improves the preparation of students for the essential concepts. This article on The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf enhances, improves and implements preparation approach to help the students secure the best grades. Students can refer to The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf as per the latest and updates curriculum from this article on The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf. 

The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf aims to give students a head start and a comprehensive view of all the essential topics and concepts. However, the Notes Pdf, latest and up-to-date Syllabus, subject expert-recommended Reference Books and list of the Important Questions provide better preparation. 

Students can access The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf and Study material for free form this article and improvise the preparation methods and strategy with the best and updated study resources and achieve better grades. 

  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Reference Books 
  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
  • List of The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Important Questions 
  • FAQs on The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf 
  • Conclusion 

Introduction to The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering 

Mechanical Engineering is a course where students learn about physics as well as Mathematics. It is a course which deals with the construction, design and use machines. In this course of Mechanical Engineering students will learn the necessary understanding and knowledge about the user and functioning go heavy tools and machinery. 

The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf Free Download 

Students who are pursuing their Bachelors in Technology (B.Tech) can avail The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf updates in this article. Students can download these pdf for free and refer to them during their preparation as these notes serve as the ultimate preparation tool to help students secure the best grades. 

Aspirants can download the Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf and refer to them when they are preparing for their preparation process. The frequent use and utilisation of The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf as a source of reference aim to help the candidates get a better hunch and a basic overview of the concepts. With a better understanding, students can score the best marks in The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering examination.

Here is a list of a few critical The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf for a thorough preparation of the course programme-

  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf 
  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Handwritten Notes Pdf 
  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Past Year’s Question Paper Pdf

The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Reference Books

The reference books for Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering provide excellent books for the students to refer to during their examination. Students should refer to reference books because they provide excellent information on all the essential concepts and topics. Candidates can access the best and highly recommended books on Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering as per the subject experts’ recommendations. 

Students can refer and read through the Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Reference Books to get a comprehensive understanding of all the essential and essential topics during your preparation. 

The list of the best and most recommended books for Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering preparation is as follows, and candidates should ensure to select the text that meets their needs and requirements. 

  • Mechanical Engineering: Conventional and Objective Types
  • Basic Mechanical Engineering 
  • Mechanical Engineering for Competitions
  • Objective Mechanical Engineering 
  • A Text Book on Production Engineering 
  • Mechanical Engineering (Objective Type)
  • Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design – SIE
  • A Textbook of Thermal Engineering: Mechanical Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering: Fundamentals
  • Elements of Mechanical Engineering 
  • Theory of Machines 

The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Syllabus 

The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Syllabus is a practical course planning tool that can help students structure, strategise and plan in such a way that the students cover all the essential topics and concepts. When students know the basic idea and outline of The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Syllabus, they can make a productive and practical preparation planning process. 

The article on The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf provides a detailed view of the entire course concisely. This article on The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf has the Syllabus according to the requirements of the students. 

The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf Curriculum enables the students to get a comprehensive idea of what to study, how to research and how to analyse preparation strategy. Students can avail the unit-wise breakdown of the Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering syllabus from here, so you can cover all the essential topics under each unit and allot time to each subject and prepare accordingly. 

Students should cover all the essential topics and concepts before attempting the Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering examination so that the paper is accessible and answerable. When students are aware of the Syllabus, they can avoid studying redundant and unnecessary topics. 

The updated unit-wise division of the Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Syllabus is as follows:

Units  Topics
Unit I Stresses and strains Kinds of stress and strains 

Elasticity and plasticity

Hooks law

Stress-strain diagrams

Modulus of elasticity 

Poisson’s ratio

Linear and volumetric strain

The relation between E, N and K

Bars of uniform strength 

Compound bars 

Temperature stresses

Unit II Types of support Loads

Shear Force 

Bending moment for cantilever 

Supported beams without overhanging for all types of load

Theory of simple bending 

Simple bending formula 

Shear stress formula 

Shear stress distribution for some standard sections 

Unit III Thin cylindrical shells stress in cylindrical shells due to internal pressures

circumferential stress

longitudinal stress

design of thin cylindrical shells 

spherical shells  

thick cylinders 

Lame’s equation 

Unit Iv Steam boiled

Reciprocating air compressors

Classification of boilers

essentialities of boilers

selection of different types of boilers

the study of boilers

boiler mountings and accessories

Reciprocating air compressors

uses of compressed air

work is done in single-stage

two-stage compression

inter cooling and simple problems

Unit V Internal combustion engines

classification of IC engines

basic engine components and nomenclature

working principle of engines

Four strokes and two-stroke petrol and diesel engines

comparison of CI and SI engines

comparison of four-stroke and two-stroke engines

simple problems such as indicated power

brake power

friction power

specific fuel consumption

brake thermal efficiency

indicated thermal efficiency

mechanical efficiency.

Unit VI Transmission systems

Belts –Ropes and chain

belt and rope drives

velocity ratio

slip

length of the belt

open belt and cross belt drives

the ratio of friction tensions

centrifugal tension in a belt

power transmitted by belts and ropes

initial tensions in the belt

simple problems

Gear trains

classification of gears

gear trains velocity ratio

simple, compound –reverted and epicyclic gear trains

List of Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Important Questions 

Students who are pursuing B.Tech can read through and practice the list of all the essential and essential questions available below for the Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering course programme. All the review questions enlisted below aim to help each candidate to excel in the examination and secure the best marks. 

  1. Present a diagram to explain the Hydro-electric power plant. 
  2. Make a comparative study of Renewable and Non-Renewable energy resources. 
  3. Write a short note on the construction and working of Lancashire Boiler with the help of a diagram. 
  4. What is wet Steam?
  5. What is meant by the enthalpy of wet Steam?
  6. Explain the concept of Dryness fraction. 
  7. With the help of a map explain the working of the Pelton wheel turbine.
  8. Draw a neat diagram of the De Laval’s Turbine and explain it.
  9. Draw a neat diagram of the Parson’s Turbine and explain it. 
  10. Write a short note on the properties of a sound refrigerant.

FAQs on Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf

Question 1. What is Mechanical Engineering?

Answer. Mechanical Engineering is a course where students learn about physics as well as Mathematics. It is a course which deals with the construction, design and use machines. In this course of Mechanical Engineering students will learn the necessary understanding and knowledge about the user and functioning go heavy tools and machinery. 

Question 2. What are some of the reference material that you will find in the article on Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf?

Answer. Here is all the reference material that you can download from this article on Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf:

  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf 
  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Handwritten Notes Pdf 
  • The Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Past Year’s Question Paper Pdf

Question 3. Name some of the reference books that students can refer to for Fundamentals on Mechanical Engineering.

Answer. Here are some of the books that students can refer to for Fundamentals on Mechanical Engineering:

  • Mechanical Engineering: Conventional and Objective Types
  • Basic Mechanical Engineering 
  • Mechanical Engineering for Competitions
  • Objective Mechanical Engineering 
  • A Text Book on Production Engineering 
  • Mechanical Engineering (Objective Type)
  • Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design – SIE
  • A Textbook of Thermal Engineering: Mechanical Technology

Question 4. List out some of the essential items that students can review while studying for a Fundamentals on Mechanical Engineering examination. 

Answer. Here are some of the questions students can refer to while studying for a Fundamentals on Mechanical Engineering examination:

  • Present a diagram to explain the Hydro-electric power plant. 
  • Make a comparative study of Renewable and Non-Renewable energy resources. 
  • Write a short note on the construction and working of Lancashire Boiler with the help of a diagram. 
  • What is wet Steam?
  • What is meant by the enthalpy of wet Steam?
  • Explain the concept of Dryness fraction. 
  • With the help of a chart, explain the working of the Pelton wheel turbine.

Conclusion 

The article on Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf is a credible and reliable source that students can depend on as a material for their reference. The list of all the essential notes, study materials, reference books and essential questions on Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf enhances and improves the knowledge of the student and comprehension of the subject during their preparation process. Students must ensure two remain updated to the latest notes and study material pdf, reference sources like textbooks, updates curriculum and practice the essential questions enlisted in the article on Fundamentals of Mechanical Engineering Notes Pdf. 

Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF Free Download

Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF: Manufacturing Technology comes into use in every aspect of our lives. If we look all around us, at the electronic devices at home, various food items, furniture, etc. All of this comes under Manufacturing Technology 2.

This is the reason why it is imperative to have notes for this subject if studying it. It has great practical uses and advancements, and so, understanding it will help students in many ways. Those students who wish to go into the field of manufacturing or similar industries should make use of these Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF notes. Other students looking to score great marks should also use the Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF notes and other study materials.

The following is a list of the study materials for Manufacturing Technology 2 that we have compiled for students:

  • Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF notes
  • Manufacturing Technology 2 reference books
  • Manufacturing Technology 2 curriculum
  • List of Manufacturing Technology 2 important questions
  • Frequently asked questions about Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF – Free Download

Manufacturing Technology is a methodical process of recreating and making raw materials into what we call finished goods. The Manufacturing Technology 2 course has been created within the latest areas of Manufacturing Engineering or Technology.

Here are some relevant Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF notes that may be helpful while studying the subject:

  • MT-II Notes
  • Notes Manufacturing Technology 2
  • Manufacturing Technology II Lecture Notes
  • Manufacturing Technology 2 Lecture Notes
  • Manufacturing Technology II Syllabus Notes
  • Manufacturing Technology 2 Note PDF Download

B.Tech MT Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF Downloadable Notes

Manufacturing Technology is the terms used when we talk about the process behind the production of a commodity. Technology refers to all the modern scientific methods which are inculcated in workplaces like offices and factories to make the working of the place easier. Manufacturing technology specifically pertains to the modern methods that scientists have come up with for production and engineering which may help modify industrial production and also various manufacturing processes.

Higher technology is developed to make work and life easier and far more efficient. Manufacturing Technology 2 is a subject which focuses on teaching students the bys and hows of the manufacturing industry, including methods and techniques of production. The course looks at teaching students about the development of more efficient techniques and methods of production as well. With this course, students of Manufacturing Technology 2 shall be equipped to understand the latest production techniques and technologies.

Manufacturing Technology 2 Reference Books

Reference books are imperative during a student’s life to realise just that extra little bit of knowledge to be ready to push their marks over the highest that they can be. Using reference books allows students to find out about, read and understand the topics at hand at their own pace of reading and understanding.

Below, there are some great reference books for Manufacturing Technology 2 for students to refer to when studying:

  • Manufacturing Science – by Ghosh A, Mallick AK
  • Manufacturing Technology: Foundry, Forming and Welding – by Rao PN
  • Industrial Engineering – OP Khanna
  • Production Technology – RK Rajput
  • To Engineer is Human – Henry Petroski
  • The Design of Everyday Things – Donald Nohman
  • Machine That Changed the World: The Story of Lean Production – James Womack, Daniel Jones, Daniel Roos

Manufacturing Technology 2 Curriculum

The curriculum for any subject is important study material for each student. It comes into good use when the scholar is attempting to form a study plan for his or her examinations. It acts as a useful checklist for students pursuing their graduation or any other level of study, to tick topics off whenever they complete one.

Below is the unit wise and topic wise breakdown of the Manufacturing Technology 2 curriculum.

Unit Topics
Unit I:  Theory of Metal Cutting
  • Mechanics of chip formation
  • Single point cutting tool
  • Forces in machining
  • Types of chips
  • Cutting tools – nomenclature
  • Orthogonal metal cutting
  • Thermal aspects
  • Cutting tool materials
  • Tool wear
  • Tool life
  • Surface finish
  • Cutting fluids
  • Machinability
Unit II: Turning Machines
  • Centre lathe
  • Constructional features
  • Specification
  • Operations – taper turning methods
  • Thread cutting methods
  • Special attachments
  • Machining time
  • Power estimation
  • Capstan and turret lathes – tool layout
  • Automatic lathes
    • Semi-automatic
  • Single spindle
    • Swiss type
    • Automatic screw type
  • Multi spindle
Unit III: Shaper, Milling and Gear Cutting Machines
  • Shaper
  • Types of operations
  • Drilling, reaming, boring, tapping
  • Milling operations
  • Types of milling cutters
  • Gear cutting 
    • Forming
    • Generation principle and construction of gear milling
    • Hobbing
    • Gear shaping processes
  • Finishing of gears
Unit IV: Abrasive Process and Broaching
  • Abrasive processes – grinding wheel
    • Specifications
    • Selection
  • Types of grinding processes
    • Cylindrical
    • Surface
    • Centreless
    • Internal
  • Typical applications
  • Concepts of surface integrity and broaching machines
  • Broach construction
  • Types of broaching machines
    • Push
    • Pull
    • Surface
    • Continuous
Unit V: CNC Machining
  • Numerical control (NC) machine tools
  • CNC types
  • CNC constructional details
  • CNC special features
  • CNC machining centre
  • Part programming fundamentals of CNC
  • Manual part programming
  • Micromachining
  • Wafer machining

Manufacturing Technology 2 Important Questions

Important questions help a student study adequately for an exam by preparing them for the sorts of questions which will show up during a question paper. It’s important to understand the tactic of how and what type of questions are asked in an examination question paper, in order that we may understand the way to steel oneself against an exam. This is often in terms of the way we learn the topics at hand in order that they best suit the kinds of questions which will be asked.

Below are some of the important questions for Manufacturing Technology 2 which will help you adequately study for your exam. There are 2 marker questions, 4 markers and 8 markers.

2 marker questions

  1. Define chip thickness ratio.
  2. Name the cutting tool nomenclature of a single point tool.
  3. What is an arbour?
  4. What are the differences between NC and CNC machine tools?
  5. What are the indexing methods?
  6. List the feed drives used in CNC machine tools.
  7. What are the differences between push and pull broaching?

4 marker questions

  1. Explain buffing and polishing.
  2. What are canned cycles?
  3. What are preparatory functions?
  4. Define boring bars.
  5. What are the types of grinding processes?
  6. Briefly explain the process of gear cutting.
  7. State the desired characteristics of cutting tool materials and also name the nomenclature of single point tools.

8 marker questions

  1. How does a Turret lathe differ from a Capstan lathe?
  2. Using illustrative sketches, explain the various milling processes.
  3. Describe the numerical control elements present in an NC system?
  4. What are motion commands in computer aided part programming?
  5. Differentiate between reciprocating saw and band saw.
  6. What are the factors affecting tool life?
  7. Discuss the features of single spindle and multi-spindle automatic lathes.

Frequently Asked Questions about Manufacturing Technology 2 PDF

Q1. What is the question paper pattern for Manufacturing Technology 2?

A1. The Manufacturing Technology 2 question paper is to be written for a total of 100 marks. Its contents are divided into a Part A and Part B.

  • Part A consists of 20 marks total. There are 10 questions of 2 marks each, all of which are compulsory.
  • Part B consists of 80 marks total. There are 5 questions consisting of 16 marks each. These questions have parts under them, either as 8+8 questions, 12+4 questions or 4+4+8 questions. All questions are compulsory in Part B of the Manufacturing Technology 2 question paper as well.

Q2. Where can I find good study materials for Manufacturing Technology 2?

A2. In the above article on this page, there are some great study materials for Manufacturing Technology 2, such as notes, reference books, curriculum and important questions. You will find that these study materials will be of good help to you when preparing for exams.

Q3. What are some good reference books for Manufacturing Technology 2?

A3. There are some great reference books for Manufacturing Technology 2, of which four are listed as follows.

  • Manufacturing Technology: Foundry, Forming and Welding – by Rao PN
  • The Design of Everyday Things – Donald Nohman
  • To Engineer is Human – Henry Petroski
  • Production Technology – RK Rajput

These books not only provide theoretical knowledge about the subject of Manufacturing Technology, but they also provide a creative and realistic insight that is useful for students in an extracurricular manner. These are good books which provide a foundation for the subject.

Q4. What is the basic curriculum for Manufacturing Technology 2?

A4. The Manufacturing Technology 2 course has 5 basic units under which there are several interesting topics. The 5 units are namely as follows:

  1. Unit I:  Theory of Metal Cutting
  2. Unit II: Turning Machines
  3. Unit III: Shaper, Milling and Gear Cutting Machines
  4. Unit IV: Abrasive Process and Broaching
  5. Unit V: CNC Machining

Conclusion

In this page, we have compiled a list of best reference books in Manufacturing Technology 2 along with the latest Manufacturing Technology 2 curriculum, reference books and several important questions which will help students fare extremely well during the examinations. These references have been found to be helpful for students to be the utmost prepared for their examinations. We hope that these study materials help you out well in preparing for your exams.