Is substring inclusive java – Java String substring() method with Example | Substring() Method in Java with or without End Index

Java String substring() method with Example

Is substring inclusive java: In this tutorial, we will learn completely about the Java String substring() with Examples. Basically, there are two variants of the substring method is applied to find the substring in Java. So, stay continued to this page and understand how it returns in two variants. Also, you can understand clearly the substring() method in java after viewing our ultimate study tutorial.

Java String substring()

Substring method java: Generally, a substring is a subset of another string. In java, the substring() method returns a new string that is a substring of this string. Java String substring() method is an overloaded method.


substring(//any one of the methods)


  • beginIndex: beginning index is inclusive
  • endIndex: closing index is exclusive

substring() Return Value

Substring method java: Thesubstring()method returns a substring from the provided string.

java substring working image

String substring() Method Important Points

  1. In case, any of the below conditions satisfies then both the string substring methods can throw IndexOutOfBoundsException.
    • if the startIndex is negative
    • The length of this String object is smaller than the endIndex
    • startIndex is larger than endIndex
  2. beginIndex is inclusive and endIndex is exclusive in both substring methods.

Also Read:

String substring() method variants

Substring() java: We can see the two variants to use the java substring() method. Let’s discuss two of them in detail below-

1. When we pass only the starting index:

Java substring examples: The first way of the substring(int startIndex) method, returns a substring from the specified index to the end of the string. However, if you require to return a string that lets you specify both the beginning and ending index of the substring, then we must go for the second way of the substring method.

Syntax: The following is the syntax for the first variant of the String substring() method in java:

String substring(int beginIndex)

Example of Java substring() Without End Index

class Main {
public static void main(String[] args) {
String str1 = "program";

// from the first character to the end
System.out.println(str1.substring(0)); // program

// from the 4th character to the end
System.out.println(str1.substring(3)); // gram

2. When we pass both the indexes, starting index and end index:

Substring in java example: The second variant of the substring(int startIndex, int endIndex) method returns a new string that is a substring of this string. The substring starts at the specified startIndex and continues to the character at index endIndex -1. Similar to the first way of the substring(int startIndex) method, it throws StringIndexOutOfBoundsException if the startIndex is negative, or endIndex is larger than the length of this String object, or startIndex is larger than endIndex.

Syntax: The syntax of the second way of the java substring method is provided below:

public String substring(int startIndex, int endIndex)

Here, startIndex defines the beginning index, and the endIndex defines the stopping point.

Java substring() Method Example with End Index

class SubString{
public static void main(String args[]){
String str = "String Tutorial by Btechgeeks is best";
//returns a new string from specified
//starting index to ending index.
//returns Tutorial by Javastudypoint


Tutorial by Bteckgeeks

Note: Remember that it throws StringIndexOutOfBoundsException if the startIndex is negative, or endIndex is larger than the length of this String object, or startIndex is larger than endIndex.

Let’s see the example:

class SubString{
public static void main(String args[]){
String str = "String Tutorial by btechgeeks is best";
//throws exception because in this case
//starting index is larger than
//ending index.


Java String substring() method with Example

Html project ideas – Best HTML Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners | Latest HTML Practice Project Topics to Learn

HTML Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners

HTML project ideas: For those who have even a little bit of interest in programming, creating the very first HTML project is definitely exciting and something to look forward to. Those who are newbies to coding often wonder what sort of project they can work on to be able to either start their development business or to impress their colleagues, college mates, or even their employers.

Most people start with the most basic ways to code when they’re just joining, and that is by learning HTML and CSS. There are many HTML Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners that you can start out with when they’re just learning. The path for every beginner with coding always begins with these two elements, which means that if you want to make something that is creative, you need to have something that will stand out and be innovative.

Getting the right HTML Project Topics is not the easiest thing in the world, which is why we have a few ideas here that can help you out if you’re a beginner with HTML. You can practice these HTML Topics for Students and even save them as a part of your coding portfolio.

What is HTML?

HTML website ideas: HTML is a markup language, also called a coding tool, that is used for website development. HTML and CSS are used together to make websites which means that learning HTML is important if you want to work in the niche of web development.

HTML has a very simple learning curve, so you can easily pick it up even if you don’t have any prior programming experience. If you know the basics, then it’s even easier to master this coding language.

It may seem daunting and very challenging in the beginning, but remember that baby steps also mean progress, and this is how you can get better. The best way to learn is to keep practicing, which means that trying out different HTML Practice Project Ideas for Beginners that can help you build your portfolio.

HTML Practice Projects for Beginners

html ideas: If you’re a beginner with HTML, then these are some HTML Projects for Students that can help you build up your portfolio and also polish your skills.

Technical Documentation Page

html beginner projects: Even if you’re a beginner with HTML and know the basics of CSS and JavaScript, you can very easily make a technical documentation page. The idea behind this is to make a page where you can click on any one of the topics on the left side of this page, and the associated content will automatically be loaded on the right side.

The making of a technical documentation page is a process that is simple and straightforward with no complexity at all. You need to divide up your webpage into two parts to be able to build this HTML project.

The left side of the page, as mentioned, will have a menu that has all the topics listed from top to bottom, and the right side will have the content that is the documentation that corresponds with each of the topics. You can use JavaScript or CSS bookmark if you want to put in the click function.

Tribute Page

If you’re a beginner with HTML, then this is one of the simplest ideas that you can work on. Now, a tribute page, as the name suggests, is a page where you show respect or honor to someone that has inspired you or someone that you look up to and admire. To make a page like this, all you need is some fundamental HTML concepts, and you’re good to go.

The first thing you need to do is to make the webpage itself. Then you need to add in the picture of the person this page is about, and all in all the details you wish to, like their personal details, history, achievements, and such. You can also have a section where you write some words of respect for this person and how they’ve helped you if you’d like.

If you want to use CSS for this project, you can, since it will be helpful for you to be able to put in different layouts and styles. Make sure that the page is visually appealing as well with good backgrounds. You can go for pastels or earthy tones, and it’s best to stay away from bright contrasting and loud colors for this, but the choice is ultimately yours.

Event Page

html projects for beginners: This is a great project even if you’re a beginner with HTML, and you can even experiment with it. You need to have both CSS and HTML skills for this one. Here you need to create a static page where all the details of an event (product launch, webinar, conference, etc.) are being displayed.

The layout of an event page is very simple too. The header section is where all the names and images of the various speakers with the links will be displayed along with the schedule and the venue of the event. You also need to have a section where the purpose of the event is being described. This is where you will say what the event is for and who is the audience that this is targeted at.

Then section off the page into smaller chunks so that it looks neater and not chaotic. You also need to choose the background color, font color, and font style for the different sections on the page. But be sure that everything complements each other. And add a registration button where people can go ahead and register if they are interested in the event.

Parallax Website

Building a parallax website is very easy and can be done in a day by someone who is well-versed in HTML concepts, even if they’re beginners. A parallax website in one wherein the background you will see a fixed image, and you can scroll up or down on that page and be able to see different sections of that image. This is a way to give a website a unique and beautiful effect.

You need to section out the page into about three to four parts to make a parallax website. Then choose some background images, align all of them on the page in the various section with the text that is relevant. THen set in the padding and the margin, after which you need to integrate the background-position. To add more stylish elements to the page, you can use CSS.

HTML lays a strong foundation for Web Development which is why we have listed Web Development Project Ideas for Beginners for your reference.

Survey Form

Many different websites have forms that they use as a strategy to get customer data. A survey form that is well-made can help you get all the relevant information that you need from the target audience, like the pain points, preference, taste, location, job, age, and more.

This is one of the HTML Project Ideas that is a great way for you to test what you know about it while you design a form and structure a webpage. Building a survey form isn’t very easy, but it’s not so complex that it can’t be done. You just need to know the basic tags/input fields and such that are needed to make a form.

Then just use the tags to make text fields, dates, radio buttons, checkboxes, and all the other elements that a form needs. You can use CSS here as well so that your webpage and form have a better look and feel.

Music Store Page

If you’re a music lover, then a music store page is the perfect experiment for you. You need to know the basics of CSS3 and HTML5 if you want to build this page. The first thing you need to do to make this page is to add a background image that is appropriate and add in a short description of all that you can find on the page.

The header section of the page also needs to have menus that list out songs based on the album, artist, year, genre, and so on. You also need the important and relevant buttons like rewind, stop, start, forward, etc. Add in links and images that are appropriate for the collection of songs available.

On the footer, put in contact details, as well as trial options, subscription packages, in-store purchases, and links for registration.

Do Refer: React Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners

Restaurant Website

This is a great project that will give you loads of chances to showcase all of your creativity. A website for a restaurant needs to have several functionalities while also being detailed and elaborate.

Firstly, you need to make a webpage layout that is aesthetic and captivating, and you need to also have various elements there. This means online reservation options, contact information, social media buttons, good images of the different dishes, prices, small descriptions of the food items, a list of the food items themselves, and all the other details that are important.

You can align all of the different beverages and food items with the prices in a grid by using CSS. When you’re making a website for a restaurant, you need to focus on a combination of colors that is eye-catching, neat font styles, and a stylish layout.

If you want to take this up a notch, you can have a photo gallery that has sliding images of all of the various items of food. You can also have the relevant links on this website so that the audience has an easier time navigating through the site.

Landing Page

This is not really a project that will be best for you if you’re a  beginner with HTML since a strong knowledge of CSS and HTML is needed. But, this is really good practice and will be a great addition to your coding portfolio. Landing pages have a lot of vital elements, and so you need to combine your creativity with the HTML knowledge that you have to make it.

You need to make columns and margins, edit images (resize and crop), make separate sections for the site/content elements, add header and footer, and align the items that are in the columns to make the landing page.

Apart from all of this, you need to also pick the right colors for the page. The colors that you pick have to be ones that complement each other, and each section can have different colors if that is what you want. Just be sure that the page elements aren’t clashing with each other when you use CSS for layout and styling.

Personal Portfolio Page

You need to be well-versed in CSS3 and HTML5 if you want to make a personal portfolio page. Here you need to make a webpage that has all the standard information you would find in a work portfolio like your interest, niche skills, name, projects, and image. You can also add your CV here and host the entire portfolio on GitHub using your account.

The portfolio page should have two sections, that is the header and the footer. The former will have a menu that highlights all of your personal information, work as well as contact information. You can also add an image of yourself on top of the page and have a short summary of your interests and professional career.

Below all of this, add in a few samples of the work that you’ve done. The footer section will then have all of your social media handles where people can reach you.

Photography Website

To make a photography website, you need to work with both CSS3 and HTML5 so that you can add in all the needed elements. You need to make a one-page responsive photography website here with those skills.

You need a landing page on top of which you need to add the name and logo of the brand as well as a description of the site. You can put in a gallery with a view button so that the users on the page can go to the section with the images and slide to view all of them.

There are different viewing layouts that you can add in, like a list, grid, and more. Then add in the padding and margin for the page and pick the color combination that you want along with the image size and font style. Use a flexbox for media queries to get a responsiveness quotient.


HTML and CSS are both the highlights of all of these projects that have been listed out. We recommend that you get a good grasp of both of these before switching to something more complex like Python, PHP, or Python. You need to be comfortable with making HTML projects before you can go ahead and work with more complex projects for development.

You need to keep practicing and working to be better. This is why we have HTML Project Ideas listed here for you. These projects can put all that you’ve learned into practice, and you can highlight them in your CV or even use them to get better opportunities. Once your basics and foundations are right, you can start working on real-world projects that are much bigger and keep challenging yourself as you keep growing.

Numerical methods lecture notes – Numerical Methods Lecture Notes and Study Materials PDF Free Download


Numerical Methods Lecture Notes: Understanding of numerical methods is essential for all engineering students in order to develop a skill set for solving complex real world problems. If you are planning to have a career in the field of engineering, you need to understand the term numerical methods and acquire the best notes on Numerical Methods. It will help the students to score better marks in engineering. The Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF includes a complete study method, all-important information and time-table. Students will get information about the latest Reference Books, Syllabus, and Important Questions Lists for Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF.

The Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF and Study Materials are the essential study resources. The reference materials nurture and develop better preparation and assist students in obtaining good grades. Students can refer to the Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF as per the latest updated syllabus from this article. Students can refer to the Big Data Lecture Notes For CSE as per the latest and updated syllabus from this article.

The article given below helps the students access the best Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF as per the latest curriculum.

Introduction to Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF

Numerical methods lecture notes: Numerical methods are sets of mathematical techniques and tools used for the purpose of solving complex numerical problems. These methods are useful in efficiently tackling mathematical problems for which getting an exact solution is difficult. Algorithms are used to draw numerical approximations for complex world problems. Numerical methods are a type of “trial-and-error” process. Numerical methods involve finding basic problem solutions of integration and linear equations to advance problem solving for “finite element method”.

Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF and Study Material Free Download

Candidates pursuing Engineering Courses can avail the notes of Numerical Methods from the Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF and Study Materials updated in this article. Students can download the study materials and notes and use them as a reference during the revision or preparation process. Aspirants can start their preparation with all the ultimate tools to help them score better marks in the exam.

The students can refer and use the Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF and Study Materials as a reference. Students pursuing a graduate degree can also download Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF.

Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF Reference Books

Reference books for Numerical Methods are an imperative source of information. It provides necessary information about the topics with essential explanations.Students can receive a solid foundation when they refer to notes that subject experts’ recommend. Candidates would understand the topics more precisely if they consult the latest version that introduces the updated syllabus. Here is a list of the best-recommended books for Numerical Methods.

Books  Author
The Algebraic Eigenvalue Problem J H Wilkinson
Matrix Computations G E Golub and C F Van Loan
Numerical Methods Shishir Gupta and Shukhendu Dey
Numerical Methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation Mahinder Kumar Jain
Numerical Methods in Science and Engineering: with Programs in C++ and C BS Grewal
Numerical Methods in Science and Engineering S Rajasekaran
Dynamical Systems Method and Applications S Hoang
Numerical Methods and Software Tools in Industrial Mathematics Morton Dahlen

Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF Syllabus

The best way to commence your preparation is to understand the syllabus and the topics of the subject. Keeping in mind every student’s requirements, we have presented a comprehensive view of the Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF Syllabus. The Numerical Methods Syllabus Notes PDF aims to present the students with a brief idea of what to study, the unit-wise breakup of the topics and how to allot time to each subject. Applicants must make sure that they are aware of the course Syllabus to prevent unnecessary waste of time on unnecessary topics.

Here is an updated list of the Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF syllabus :



Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations – Gauss elimination method – Pivoting – Gauss Jordan method – Fixed point iteration method – Newton Raphson method – Solution of linear system of equations – Iterative methods of Gauss Jacobi and Gauss Seidel – Eigenvalues of a matrix by Power method and Jacobi’s method for symmetric matrices.


unequal intervals Interpolation  – Lagrange’s interpolation – Newton’s divided difference interpolation – Cubic Splines – Difference operators and relations – Interpolation with equal intervals – Newton’s forward and backward difference formula.


Numerical integration using Trapezoidal, Simpson’s 1/3 rule – Derivatives using interpolation polynomials – Romberg’s Method – Two point and three point Gausian quadrature formulae – Evaluation of double integrals by Trapezoidal and Simpson’s 1/3 rules.


Modified Euler’s method –  Taylor’s series method – Euler’s method – Single step methods –Fourth order Runge – Kuta method for solving first order equations – Multi step methods – Milne’s and Adams – Corrector methods for Bash forth predictor for solving first order equations.


Difference methods for solving finite second order – Difference techniques for the finite methods for solving second order – Finite difference techniques solution of two dimensional Poisson’s equations and Laplace on rectangular domain – point linear boundary value problems – One dimensional heat flow equation by explicit and implicit (Crank Nicholson)

methods – Dimensional wave equation by explicit method.

List of Numerical Methods Important Questions

Candidates can refer to the list of all the essential questions stated below for the Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF. All the questions are aimed to help the aspirants to excel in the examination. Here is a list of some important questions of Numerical Methods Lecture Notes that will help the students to have a better understanding of the subject.

  • Describe the convergence of the Newton-Raphson method.
  • Define (i) the iteration formula and (ii) the Newton-Raphson.
  • Define an adequate condition for the Gauss-Seidel method to converge.
  • How will you find the smallest eigenvalue of a square matrix, by power method?
  • When does the power method work satisfactorily?
  • Define the Fixed point theorem.
  • Define Newton’s formula for interpolation.
  • What is Newton’s divided difference interpolation formula?
  • Describe the Lagrange’s interpolation formula for unequal intervals.
  • Define the term inverse interpolation?
  • State the  formula for the cubic spline polynomial a(x).
  • State any two properties of divided differences.
  • Give two properties for cubic spline function.
  • What do you mean by numerical integration?

Frequently Asked Questions on Numerical Methods Lecture Notes

Question 1.
Define the term Numerical Methods.

Numerical methods are sets of mathematical techniques and tools used for the purpose of solving complex numerical problems.

Question 2.
What are the importance of Lecture Notes ?

Lecture notes outline a short and comprehensive framework of the most relevant points and ideas, particularly those considered most important by our teacher or professor.

Question 3.
What are the strategies to prepare for Numerical Methods?

Candidates preparing for engineering should make notes on all related questions and study materials for smooth preparation. They should practice more test series, mock tests and explore more books for preparation of exams. They should also practice the updated version of books on Numerical Methods.

Question 4.
What are the types of Numerical Methods?

Answer: Numerical methods are a type of “trial-and-error” process. There are three types of Numerical Methods: Bisection method, Newton’s method and Secant method


The Numerical Methods Lecture Notes PDF and Study Materials presented above are aimed to assist the students at the time of exam preparations. They are reliable and have authoritative references focused to help graduates and improve their knowledge and understanding of the subject during the time of preparation of the exam. Students can refer and practice from the provided notes for Numerical Methods and important questions from this article.

Java project ideas for beginners – Best Java Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners | Simple Java Project Topics List To Try on in 2021

Java Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners

Java project ideas for beginners: When it comes to programming languages, one of the most in-demand and popular ones is Java. Java is practically the staple programming language in the IT and software sectors because of the multi-platform support and platform independence that is offered.

Companies in this field are always looking for skilled Java developers that can develop Java projects that are innovative. This means that if you are a beginner at Java, your next step is to gain experience by working on projects that are real-time.

It is understood that only a practical approach can help in a real-time work environment, and going in with only theoretical knowledge is not enough. In this article, we will be looking at some Simple Java Project Ideas for Beginners that you will find interesting and will enjoy working on.

Why One Should Work on Java Projects in Real Time?

Java programming project ideas: Beginners can work on these projects and thereby put the theoretical knowledge that they have to the test. You will find that working on these Java Project Topics is a great way to get hands-on experience. But before going into the ideas, it is important to understand why it is vital to work on Java projects.

Aspiring developers need to know that to have a promising career in software development, it is important for them to work on their own projects. The best way to hone your skills and see your theoretical knowledge be practical is to work on real-world projects to practice and improve.

There is cut-throat competition in this niche which is why aspiring developers need to have hands-on experience with Java projects that are real-world. This is because one of the primary recruitment criteria for many employers is this very aspect.

You will be able to gauge your strengths and where you need to improve when you start working on these projects, and you will also get the exposure that will serve to boost your career in this field.

Simple Java Projects for Students | Java Project Topics List

Java project ideas for intermediate: If you’re a beginner or an intermediate level, or an expert, you will be able to find an idea that will be able to help you. These Java Project Ideas for Engineering Students will help you with all the practicalities that you need to be able to grow and succeed in your career in this path.

If you’re a final-year student looking for Java Project Ideas, then you too will be able to get help with that. So here are twelve of the best ideas that you can work on as a Java project.

Email Client Software

One good way to implement your skills is to make an impressive project that is based on the email system. This is a project that is an email program whose main purpose is to send and receive electronic mail. You will be using standard sockets and networking alongside the Java Mail API in this project. The two main protocols that you need to use in this project are POP3 and SMTP. This is a project that even beginners can attempt to work on.

Generally, the conventional email client software conduct emails through web browsers like Google, Yahoo, Hotmail, etc. But these systems use HTTP port 80 for access to the emails, which means that it’s not the best means of sending or receiving data that is sensitive or confidential. Hackers can hack into the software system very easily and then misuse or violate the data there.

One way to explain the functioning of the project is to say that the ISP’s (Internet Service Provider) mail server is what handles all the emails that are sent from an ISP. The emails that are sent all first come to the mail server, and only then are they processed and then forwarded to the destination of the collectors where there is another mail server. The incoming emails are received and sorted into the inbox electronically by the mail server that is on the side of the collectors. After all this, the recipient can view the received emails by using the email application.

The entire translation mentioned here occurs through a direct connection to the mail server that is through the program. This, in turn, makes it an application that is a lot safer when compared to the email client software that already exists.

Stock Management System

This is one of the Java projects that is trending and is, therefore, very popular. This is a web-based application that is made to manage stocks for organizations and companies while also handling the sales and purchases of their products. This is a system that has many different modules and features so that items can be added, edited, viewed, and deleted in the system database.

Generally, the pen and paper method is the one that manual stock management runs on, and this is something that is time-consuming and very labor-intensive. This is an approach that lacks a proper data organization structure and can result in other risks that have to do with mismanagement of data.

The stock management project here gives an approach to stock data management that is efficient and improved. It saves time and also is more reliable and secure as compared to the manual method of stock management.

In the application, you will see that the login page is what makes the system module. The module can be used by the admin to log in to the system using a user ID and password that is unique and valid. These are the features that the admin has control over after logging in:

  • Entering stock.
  • Viewing stock.
  • Dispatching stock.
  • Moving stock.

The admin can update and also monitor all of the information that is necessary and associated with stock management that includes supplier details, stock sales payments, stock entries payments, stock entries, stock sales, stock purchase, stock details, customer details, category, and a whole lot more.

The application also includes other functions like viewing sales reports and purchase reports, printing payment receipts, and more.

Smart City Project

The Smart City project is a software application that is web-based and whose purpose is to store the important details of a city. Cities and urban areas see massive waves of people coming from all over looking for a better or higher education, jobs, and even a better standard of living.

In the first few days after moving, people may be lost as they don’t know the services, attractions, and the main facilities that are offered in the city. This is the issue that this smart city project seeks to address by making an integrated platform where all the important and relevant information will be stored, and this can help all the newcomers that enter the city.

This is an application that will give job seekers, students, and visitors the necessary information like emergency helplines, landmarks, shopping areas, airline ticker booking, healthcare services, transportation services, renting facilities, hotels, and all such information that a newcomer would need to survive in a city. This would be a guide of sorts for newcomers and visitors.

Users that want to access this application can connect to it through the internet and go through the smart city web pages to get all the information that they need. They will also be able to see a map of the city with all the important landmarks and locations marked out. This will make it easier for people to move across the city and do what they need to do. This particular smart city application consists of five modules, and they are:

Administration Module: This module is the central controller of the entire application. This is where all the new information can be uploaded on the site, user profiles can be authenticated, and the maintenance of the other four modules is supervised.

Tourism Module: As the name itself conveys, this is a module that is responsible for handling all of the tourism-related operations that take place in the city like theatres, ATMs, tourist attractions, restaurants, hotels, etc. Any user that has been authenticated by the administration module, as mentioned above, is a primary user of the tourism module.

Student Module: This is a module that is aimed to help students move across the city with ease. It has all the information that is academic-related to help the students, and this includes the locations of the colleges, universities, technical colleges, coaching centers, libraries, the best educational institutions, and a lot more.

Jobseekers Module:  All the necessary information pertaining to job opportunities available in the city is found in this module. Users access all the information that is job-related across different industries. The aim of this module is to assist the city administration to combat the issue of unemployment in the city.

Business Module:  The last module on this list focuses on giving the users all the business-related opportunities, information, and news in the city. The users get access to the information on the business and trade centers as well as the industries that are in the city.

Do Refer:

Data Visualization Software

Data visualization is one of the Java project ideas that is also a vital element in the modern industry today that is driven by business analytics, business intelligence, and data science.

This is another one of the projects that a beginner at Java can try. This project refers to the process of visualizing data, and this can be in a pictorial format or in a graphical format. The project aims at giving an overview of the implementation techniques and the design involved in data visualization. The purposes of this particular Java project are:

  • Be aesthetically pleasing while also being functional.
  • Stimulate the engagement and the attention of the viewer while also communicating information that is accurate.
  • To convey ideas effectively and give insights that are relevant for complex datasets.
  • Use appropriate pictorial or graphical representations to deliver communication of the insights that are in the data in a manner that is effective yet precise.

This software will display the node connectivity in the form of data visualization in networking. To locate it at various locations, you can use a trackpad or a mouse. The best part about this entire process is that you can choose which software features and functions you want to tweak or enhance as you feel is necessary. Working on these types of projects is important because your resume will then look a lot better as compared to other resumes.

Online Bank Management System

This is one of the rather interesting Java project ideas that you can work on. The focus of this project is to develop and build an online banking system. The main purpose of this is to make an online banking platform that will be accessible to customers from any location.

This way, customers don’t have to physically go to the bank branches for the routine banking operations that they have to do like balance inquiry, money transfer, money withdrawal, and other such activities.

Visiting the physical branches of banks often can be hectic because of the waiting time and the long queues, which makes the entire process very time-consuming. Alongside this, there is also the unnecessary burden that comes on the bank staff if people have to keep going to the bank for very minor issues.

All of these issues can then be resolved by having an online banking system where customers get prompt and seamless banking services. But users must be registered with the system to avail of these services. So, the users would need a unique user name and a secure password so that they can safely log in to the application to use it.

The online banking management application in question will be able to perform the following services to the registered users:

  • The amount of cash deposited or withdrawn will be displayed alongside the date when this transaction took place.
  • Customers can also check the transaction history and all the necessary information that goes with it, like the amount, type, as well as the time the transaction took place.
  • Account details like the credit or debit statements, interest rates on available loans, the available balance, the type of account, etc., can all be viewed by the customer no matter where they are located.

Network Packet Sniffer

A network packet sniffer is basically a packet analyzer software whose main purpose is to monitor network traffic. This is a web-based Java application where the web-based monitoring of network packets that are traveling through the system network is facilitated.

The admin can use this software application to capture the network packets and also analyze all the data that is being received and sent to or from the network. The software assists in the capturing of the source of the network packets alongside the destination addresses.

The main purpose of this Java project is to be able to establish a set of rules for runtime so that hackers can be prevented from attacking the system software with malware and viruses. Standard network hosts usually only track the traffic that is sent to them alone, but this application can capture every packet and then decode it for analysis as the data streams flow through the network.

Some of the excellent features that these software offers are:

  • Packet decoding is comprehensive.
  • The packet-level analysis is automatic.
  • There is complex network analysis.
  • Protocol analyzing is advanced.
  • Packet capturing in real-time.
  • Network monitoring is 24×7.

e-Healthcare Management System

One project that even a Beginner in Java can work on is making an e-healthcare management system. This is a web-based project that, as the name itself suggests, seeks to help with making the management of medical data of patients and employee data at a hospital or clinic better and more efficient.

The main aspect that lies at the core of this particular project is the data mining techniques that consist of two different modules that are the client module and the administration module. The administration module has a lot to do with medicare management, and this includes clerks, the ward, nurses, doctors, and the healthcare departments.

The client module, on the other hand, is mainly for the patients that come for treatment. These days, it is well-known that business intelligence is something that is playing a role in revolutionizing healthcare.

An e-healthcare management system is one that has features that can do the following:

  • Eliminates all the issues with incorrect or missing data.
  • Leverages the CRISP-DM, which is the standard cross-industry process for data mining, and this, in turn, makes a management system that is effective and accurate.
  • The usage percentage of the hospital resources like medicines, administration, bed occupation ratio, laboratory equipment, etc., are analyzed accurately.
  • A clear line of communication and contact is established between the patients and the doctors.

These are very important features, and it is through these that the e-healthcare management system that you’re working on will be able to help overcome the challenges and drawbacks that the existing healthcare management system is facing. It will help establish smooth management for the staff at the hospital while quickening the process of the delivery of the healthcare services to the patients.

Course Management System

This is a Java project that any Java Beginner can work on. The project is basically working on an online management software application that is specifically made for educational institutions.

The main aim of this project is to facilitate seamless interaction between the instructors at universities, colleges, and schools and the students themselves in terms of getting feedback from the instructors and submission of thesis, assignments, and projects. There are three interlinked modules that are there in this particular project:

Administrator Module: This model is made specifically to manage administrative functions such as the payroll, managing employees, coding all the subjects, creating the curriculum, making accounts for the instructors and the students, and other similar functions. This is the module that lays the foundation for the other two modules in this project.

Students Module: This is a module that has been made for students to be able to use. They can use this to log in to their accounts to be able to get feedback from their instructors, submit the projects, and also to be able to view their coursework and a lot more.

Instructors Module: This is a module for instructors to be able to use to log in to their accounts, and then they can use it to offer guidance to the students, communicate with them, and also check the projects that have been submitted. As said earlier, the main aim of this project is to facilitate the sharing of information in a seamless manner via the internet between the students and the instructors.

Library Management System

This is a software project that is to be implemented in Java through the MS Access database design. It is made to manage and maintain libraries through an integrated computerized system in any educational institution. This is a library management system where librarians can operate in a more productive manner as they handle the daily tasks in the library.

Everything is done manually in traditional library management systems. All the operations and records of the library include records of students that have returned or issued books, names of the books, genres of books, number of books, etc., are all done and kept using pen and paper.

This is why this process takes such a long amount of time and also a lot of human resources and a great deal of effort. The purpose of this project is to solve the challenges that come along with working in the traditional library management system. It eliminates the need to keep records manually since all the library records are stored and managed in a computerized database.

The software also has many different modules, and each one of them is in charge of handling and managing certain library operations. The librarians and the students don’t need to search through the entirety of the library to get the books they need if they just use this software.

All that they need to do is enter in the name and the author of the book, and the list of all possible books related to that search phrase or keyword will be listed out.

Airline Reservation System

One of the best ways that a Beginner with Java can start experimenting is to work on projects like this one which is basically an airline reservations system. This system is a project that is web-based and is built using Java.

It is meant to be a comprehensive passenger processing system, and it includes all of the online transactions, e-ticker operations, fares, and inventory. The main features of this particular airline reservation system that you will be working on include the following:

  • Maintenance of all of the passenger records and reports on the business transactions that happen daily.
  • Quick responses to the customers.
  • Routing functions and transaction management can be performed.
  • The airline system functions are automated.
  • Airline tickers can be reserved as well as canceled.

This is an airline reservation management application that is integrated and has an open architecture to encourage the addition of any new functionalities and systems. This means that you can easily tweak and make changes to the application to keep up with any changes in the business. This is a very good project that you can add to your resume as well.

There are four key modules that have been incorporated into the VRS software suite, and those are cancellation, reservation, login, and user registration. This is one of the important projects that any beginner can work on. The app allows for communication to happen through a TCP/IP network protocol, so in this way, the usages of the internet and intranet communications are facilitated globally.

Go through our page on Java Programming Language Tutorial to get enough exposure to the programming language as well as new ideas for your Projects.

Online Medical Management System

This is one of the Java Project Topics List that is web-based is this one where the aim is to make a direct line of communication between the patients and the doctors. It is also called the ‘Virtual Medicine Home’.

Patients can use this application to book appointments online with the doctors that they prefer, and the doctors can use it to view the patient’s lab reports, medical records, offer e-prescriptions, healthcare suggestions, and a lot more. The application also has features where users can look for blood and eye donors and also connect with them when needed.

All medical management operations are done manually in conventional healthcare service systems. This problem becomes more significant in rural and remote areas that do not have access to sophisticated medical equipment, qualified healthcare professionals, and proper medical infrastructure.

What’s more, is that there are also often no provisions for staff to be able to record and store medical data. The online medical management system that this project aims to make can help with all of these problems by linking together the patients and doctors directly.

There are two main modules in this application that is the doctor module and the admin module. The admin module is where the online software system is managed, and the doctor module is how the doctors can engage with the patients. Through the internet, anyone can access the services that this app provides regardless of their location.

Electricity Billing System

This is a project that gives you a modernized version of the traditional system of electricity billing. The main focus of this particular project is to make the electricity billing system more efficient, accessible, and efficient by computerizing it.

The software will calculate the number of units that get consumed in a particular time frame, and then the money that is to be paid for all those units is then calculated accordingly. This is, therefore, a great project for you if you are a beginner at Java as well. These are the features that will make this billing system more straightforward and service-oriented:

  • The necessary debugging provisions have been included.
  • There are high-security measures and controls in place for protection.
  • There is seamless sharing of data between the customers and the electricity office.
  • There is high-performance speed here with great accuracy.

This computerized software is different from conventional billing systems as there is no need for a lot of human employees to be able to handle and manage the entire process of generating the bills.

Once the software has been installed in the system, the units consumed as well as the bills will be calculated automatically from time to time and also give the meter readings to each one of the customers. You can also add in more features as and when they are needed to the system and also when there is a change in the user requirements.


These are a few different Simple Java Projects for Students that they can work on to improve their skills. In this article, we looked at the best projects in Java that you can work on. There are projects for those who are beginners with Java, along with ones for those who are on an intermediate or expert level.

You can easily find a project that suits your skillset, present knowledge and difficulty level the best. You can start with something that you find easy and then slowly move on ahead till you get to something that is advanced and challenging and then keeps going. You will see that your skill level and expertise level will automatically go up.

el in java – JSP Expression Language (EL) | Definition, Syntax, JSP EL Implicit Objects with Examples

JSP Expression Language (EL)

el in java: The major aim of Expression Language (EL) is to explain the way of accessibility of the data stored in the Java bean component and other objects like request, session, and application, etc. Learn more about JSP EL like definition, syntax, operators, implicit objects, etc. from this ultimate tutorial.

This Tutorial of JSP Expression Language (EL) includes: 

JSP Expression Language (EL)

jsp $ expression: In JSP standard action and custom, action tags reduce java code from a JSP page. The main aim of the JSP expression language is to analyze the accessibility of data stored in the java bean component. It is also provided to reduces the java code from a JSP page in some areas. With the Expression language, we can reduce the java code in the following areas.

  • Reading Request parameter,
  • Reading cookies,
  • Reading attributes,
  • Accessing bean business method, etc.

The Expression Language is still determined within the JSP 2.1 specification. It now has its own independent specification document. The addition of the EL to the JSP technology gives much of the writing of script-less JSP pages. These pages can use EL expression but can’t use java scriptlets, java expressions, or java declaration elements.

Syntax of Expression Languages in JSP pages.

There are two constructs to define EL Expression. They are as follows:

  1. $ {Expression}
  2. # {Expression}

An EL Expression that is evaluated immediately is represented in JSP with the syntax $ { }.

An EL expression whose evaluation is deferred is represented with the syntax # { }.

Do Check:

Reserve words in EL

Here is the table where you can see several reserve words in the Expression Language. They are as such:

lt le gt ge
eq ne true false
and or not instanceof
div mod empty null

JSP EL Implicit Objects

There are some implicit objects that can be presented in the EL. These objects permit access to any variables, which are included in the appropriate JSP Scopes.

The implicit objects cover page Scope, request Scope, session Scope, and Application Scope. All these scope objects discussed here are nothing but Maps that map the respective scope attributes names to their values.

The following table summarized the available implicit objects:

JSP Expression Language (EL) 1

JSP EL param Example:

JSP Expression Language (EL) 2

JSP Expression Language (EL) 3


JSP Expression Language (EL) 4

JSP Expression Language (EL) 5

EL applicationScope in JSP Example:

JSP Expression Language (EL) 6

JSP Expression Language (EL) 7


JSP Expression Language (EL) 8

JSP Expression Language (EL) 9

EL sessionScope Example in JSP:

JSP Expression Language (EL) 10

JSP Expression Language (EL) 11

JSP Expression Language (EL) 12


JSP Expression Language (EL) 13

JSP Expression Language (EL) 14

JSP Expression Language (EL) 15

Basic Operators in EL JSP

JSP Expression Language implements the support for any type of relational, logical, or arithmetic operator, which you will require to perform. Revive, all results will be boolean values.

In order to guide you on how to use these operators, we have presented the following table:

JSP Expression Language (EL) 16

Functions in JSP EL

JSP Expression Language lets you to make use of the functions in expressions also. These EL Functions are defined in the custom tag libraries. One of the function has the following syntax:

${ns:func(param1, param2, ...)}



  • ns is the function namespace,
  • func is the name of the function,
  • param1 is the first parameter value.

For instance, the function fn:length, is the part of the JSTL Library. And the function can be utilized as follows to get the string length.

${fn:length("Get my length")}

In order to apply any tag library, you need to install that library on your server and should involve the library in your JSP with the help of the <taglib> directive as discussed in the JSTL tutorial.

Change chrome shortcuts – Change Chrome Keyboard Shortcuts | How To Customize Google Chrome Shortcuts?

Change Chrome Keyboard Shortcuts

Change Chrome Keyboard Shortcuts: One can easily change their Chrome shortcuts as per their convenience. Google Chrome has plenty of hotkeys or keyboard shortcuts that they can press to quickly enter their options. Though the Chrome browser has a limited number of built-in hotkeys in the customization option, one can add many more to Chrome so that they can further configure its keyboard shortcuts.

  1. It is not difficult to create your keyboard shortcuts on their computer. They can create it with the following steps.
  2. But if they want to change the default shortcuts, they need to access the task manager to use an alternative search tool called the AutoHotKey.

Adding chrome Keyboard shortcuts or modifying them can make you skilled in using the search engine. One can quickly navigate through the pages and do their job in lesser time if they learn to add new Chrome Keyboard Shortcuts as per their liking.

Wondering How to explore & learn Shortcut Keys for various Operating Systems, Computer Software Programs, Social media applications Keyboards? Here is the one-stop destination for all Keyboard Shortcuts, just take a look & memorize regularly for better performance in competitive exams & real-time situations.

Table of Content

How to Change Chrome Keyboard Shortcuts

Change chrome shortcuts: One can quickly customize their shortcuts with their keyboards by checking out the link chrome://extensions/shortcuts. All they are required to actually do is type it into their browser and press enter.

Shortcut manager is the free extension for Google Chrome that lets one edit the browser’s default keyboard shortcuts and create new ones that can perform various operations and can execute bookmark code or JavaScript. If one already has Shortcut Manager installed, they can add an icon to the toolbar. When they click it, they can see all the currently active hotkeys. If they navigate onto the advanced configuration page, they can get the option to create and edit new shortcuts.

  1. A distinctive trait of this tool is that one can assign site-specific hotkeys for a site.
  2. It means that one can add a hotkey that performs a function on one side, while the same on a different site can do another task or nothing at all.
  3. A shortcut page with open immediately and there will be many options available to close or opens the tabs.
  4. They can navigate through the pages, scroll through them, open new windows and perform much more tasks.
  5. One can find out what they need to do before downloading any extensions.

An example of the default available shortcuts on Google Chrome is as follows

Key Name Edit
Alt+ Left Select the left tab Edit
Alt+ Right Select the right tab Edit
Alt+ e Open extension Edit
Alt+ c Capture the current tab Edit
Alt+ Up Upper directory Edit

Shortcuts on Google Chrome

Extensions for Changing and Creating New Hotkeys and Shortcuts

Edit chrome shortcuts: Chrome has a popular shortkeys option with the help of which people can customize the hotkeys.

  1. Step 1: One can check it out and download it from the Shortkeys extension page.
  2. Step 2: Once they find an option they like, they can add it to the browser by tapping on the Add to Chrome option provided beside it.
  3. Step 3: Next, they can find a Shortkeys button on the toolbar on the top right corner of the page.
  4. Step 4: Then, they can press the Manage Extensions button or type chrome://extensions into the browser search bar and hit enter. Then they will be able to see a new page.
  5. Step 5: On the new page, one can click the Details button for the Shortkeys extension and a new page will open.
  6. Step 6: If one scrolls down the page, they can see the Extension options and click on them. A new window will open again.
  7. Step 7: The shortkeys extension page has a list of all the saved Shortkeys keyboard shortcuts. One has the ability to create new ones and import or expertise them as keyboards shortcuts.
  8. Step 8: Before pressing the Add shortcut button, one needs to enter their desired keyboard shortcut. For example, one can input Ctrl+j as a shortcut.
  9. Step 9: Then, they have to click inside the Label text box to name the shortcut they just input.
  10. Step 10: Finally, by clicking on the dropdown menu to open a list of potential options as the hotkey, they can select any option such as Open Settings Page, Open History Page, etc. and press the Add Shortcut button to save the hotkey and its function and Save Shortcuts to save it.

Note: After they have saved a new shortcut, they can try out the new hotkeys in any of the page tabs. It’s worth noting, though, that one has to refresh the page tabs that were already open in the Chrome browser for the new hotkeys to work in them.

  1. Another important point is that a hotkey might not work if it is a default hotkey in the Chrome keyboard shortcut.
  2. If one wants to use a default shortcut for other purposes, then they need to delete the pre-existing ones by pressing the Delete button beside them on the Shortkeys Option tab from earlier.
  3. Now, one can quickly set up customized Hotkeys for a variety of Chrome options with the Shortkeys extension.

Auto Control in Shortcut Manager

How to edit chrome shortcuts: Google Chrome has another extension called Auto Control Shortcut Manager for customization of the browser’s hotkeys. It is similar to the extension we discussed above, but this one allows for all kinds of hotkeys and mice to be customized. The steps to control it are:

  1. One can select the Add to Chrome button to download the extension.
  2. Some antivirus programs can flag this as a harmful program, but you can decide for yourself about the warning.
  3. The procedure is nearly comparable to the process we mentioned above. Hence, you can go over the topic above for further details.
  4. An added bonus that complements this process is that one can gain almost complete control of their browser shortcuts with this extension.
  5. Even if you are not a pro coder, you can easily modify and improve the browser settings.
  6. The efficiency of your work will increase greatly if you can handle it.
  7. Regardless of how you want to customize the Google Chrome hotkeys, you have an option available for you.
  8. You can check out your browser settings or the Google Chrome extensions to get started on the project.
  9. If the hotkey one has chosen is already saved in the shortcut manager or already exists, then you will be notified with a warning message stating that there might be some undesired effect.
  10. The extension also has an export option with which one can import all their hard-worked customization setting onto another computer. Shortcut manager is a great extension for keyboard shortcuts.


Chrome keyboard shortcuts extension: It is another process of using shortcuts and adding new ones in Windows 10. You have to create scripts for every shortcut key that you wish to replace. The process has become pretty easy, thanks to AutoHotKey. It is a script creator tool that people can use for all kinds of creative purposes and especially to change the default Windows shortcuts.

  1. Once you have found out the basic Auto Hotkey representations, you can click on the Windows desktop, right-click any empty space and select New and Auto Hotkey script.
  2. Then you can right-click the script you created and click Edit Script. You can now enter the shortcut you want.
  3. First, enter the shortcut you want to use and then follow it with Send.
  4. Then you can press space and the shortcut you want as your custom shortcut to replace.
  5. Since the Esc key is a command rather than a standard key, it is different.
  6. With any of the keyboard shortcut replacements, it is best to add a second line to the script with the text. It will block the Auto Hotkey tray icon from popping up and ensure that the entire process remains in the background.

Once the script is ready, you can close and save it, then double click on the script to run it and test the keyboard shortcuts and see if it does what you want it to do.

Change Program Shortcut

We can try to redirect the default Windows Search Shortcut by pressing Win + S to an alternative search tool called Search Everything. For example, in s:: run, C: Program Files EV, the:: separates the hotkey from the action you want it to perform. The portion before it is the hotkey that one enters, which is Win + S in this case, and the portion after run is the command we want to open in the Search Everything app.

Run Shortcuts During Windows Start up

It is a fact that the shortcuts can start working as soon as one boots their Windows and moves the .ahk script to their system startup folder in the file explorer-

C: Program Data Microsoft Windows Start Menu Program Startup

If one does the same for all their keyboard shortcut replacements, then these will all start working as soon as they boot their PC. Though it takes a bit of effort to do it for all the shortcuts, it certainly works marvellously to change the default keyboard shortcuts in Windows. Another plus point is that one can learn the absolute basics of the Auto Hotkey, which is a handy tool capable of running scripts that are more complex than the ones we mentioned before.

How to install selenium for python – How to install Selenium in Python | Installing Selenium WebDriver Using Python and Chrome

Selenium Python – Installation and Setup

How to install selenium for python: In this chapter, we will learn how to prepare our system with the required software so that we are able to write our test automation scripts and execute them. We will note to have Python, Java Runtime Engine (JRE), Eclipse IDE, PyDev. After setting up this software for creating scripts, we will need to set up Selenium in the system and download the browser drivers for execution on the individual drivers.


  • Installation and setting up
  • Installing Selenium Python module
  • Installing JRE
  • Installing Eclipse IDE
  • Setting up PyDev
  • Installing different drivers for Chrome, Firefox, and IE browser
  • Running the very first program on three browsers


How to install selenium for python: This chapter will help us to understand the steps to setup Selenium and Eclipse IDE on the Windows system

Installation and setting up

Install selenium python windows: Before we start to learn to write scripts to automate browsers using Selenium WebDriver, we have to prepare our system with a few software. We will require the following:

  • Python setup:
    [download the latest version] [3.7]
  • Java JRE: downloads/jre8-downloads-2133155.html, and install it on the system.
  • Eclipse IDE:

After we have installed and set up the above software in our system, we need to install PyDev in the Eclipse environment. To setup PyDev in the Eclipse environment, we have to perform the following actions:

  1. Open Eclipse.
  2. Click on Help | Install New Software. ;
  3. Provide in there, URL:

The following screenshot shows the same:

Selenium Python - Installation and Setup chapter 4 img 1

Now the Eclipse environment is ready to create Python projects and understand Python syntax as well. The next step is to install the Selenium Python module.

Installing Selenium Python module

The modules of Python are available on the website (http://www. From here, we will search the module for Selenium and use the pip install command.
1. Open the URL:
The above URL provides information about the Selenium module of Python, the command to install it, and the documentation available with it.
2. To install the module, open the Command Prompt and type pip install selenium, shown as follows:
SSI Command Prompt

Microsoft Windows [version 10.0.17134.706]
(c) 2018 Microsoft corporation. All rights reserved.

C:\users\write>pip install selenium

3. The preceding command will install the Selenium Python module, and the environment will now be ready to accept Selenium commands to automate the browser.

Creating Python project in Eclipse

We will now perform the steps to create a Python project in Eclipse and write down our first script to open the browser with the URL of our demo site application and close it. We will perform it for all three browsers: Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Chrome.
Let’s see in a step-by-step manner:
1. Go to File | Create New Project. In that window, select PyDev project. Refer to the following screenshot:

Selenium Python - Installation and Setup chapter 4 img 3

2. Provide a name to the project, select Python interpreter, it is advisable to choose Quick Auto Config. Refer to the following screenshot:

Selenium Python - Installation and Setup chapter 4 img 4

3. Click on Next, and then Finish. Eclipse may ask you to open the Python perspective, select Yes.

We are now ready to write down scripts in Python to automate the browsers.

Automating Chrome browser

To automate the Chrome browser, we first need to download the Chrome driver. Depending on the Chrome browser version we have on our system, and the operating system we are using, we need to download the suitable driver. It is advisable to ensure that you have the latest version of the browser.
1. To download Chrome driver, visit the link:
2. Drivers are available as per the operating system type for download:

Selenium Python - Installation and Setup chapter 4 img 5

3. Here, we are taking an example of the Win32 system. So we download the Win32 ChromedriverZIP folder and extract the. exe file from it.
4. In Eclipse, where we create our project, we create a folder there, called drivers. We copy this chrome driver. exe file into that folder. So finally our project would look as follows:

Writing the first script

We will now write our very first script to automate the Chrome browser, where we will launch the browser, open the application, and then close the browser.

Selenium Python - Installation and Setup chapter 4 img 6

Let us understand the above script. The first statement from the Selenium import web driver will import Selenium classes in the file. This will allow usage of the Selenium commands in the script. So basically, we can create an object of WebDriver, and call different methods associated with it to handle the browser. It will fail if the Selenium module is not imported. The next statement initializes the browser object by creating an instance of the Chrome object and passing the path of the executable driver. With the Selenium WebDriver, every browser requires its own WebDriver to automate them.

The get method allows the browser to be launched with the URL that has been provided, and the quit method closes all the instances of the browser opened from this script.

Automating Firefox browser

To automate the Firefox browser, we need to download the gecko driver. The geckodriver is the API which allows us to automate the Firefox browser. It acts as a bridge between Selenium and the browser. Flere as well, we need to select the driver version based on the operating system and the Firefox version. To download the driver, we need to visit the link: geckodriver/releases

Select the driver according to your system; here we select for win64 from the following list:

Refer to the following script:

from selenium import web-driver

browser =webdriver.Chrome (executable_path=r \Ectipse\BPB\seleniumpython\Selenim&thPython\drivers\chromedriver.exe}
browser.get{'http://practice. bpbonline,com/catolog/index.php'}

Once we download the geckodriver for win64, we extract the geckodriver. exe file from the zip folder and put it in the driver’s folder in the Python project of Eclipse. Now we are ready to create the script which will open the application on the Firefox browser and close it:

Selenium Python - Installation and Setup chapter 4 img 8

Automating Internet Explorer

To automate the Internet Explorer browser, we have to download the IEdriverserver. exe file. This file is available on the https://www. website.

Depending upon the operating system we are using, we will download that particular IE driver. Once the. exe file is downloaded, we will save it in the driver’s folder of our project, and write the following script to open the application in the IE browser:

The Internet Explorer Driver Server

This is required if you want to make use of the latest and greatest features of the WebDriver IntemetExplorerDriver, Please make sure that this is available on your $PATH (or %PATH% on Windows} in order for the IE Driver to work as expected.

Download version 3.14.0 for (recommended) 32 bit Windows IE or 64 bit Windows IE CHANGELOG


So, in this chapter, we have learned how to set up our system, create projects and automate the three browsers. The official documentation of Selenium Python bindings is available here: https://seleniumhq.
Now our system is ready for us to write down our Selenium tests for the multi-browser support available with Python programming languages, aiding the manual testers by automation and reducing the workload. In our next chapter, we will learn how to work with different types of WebElements, understand the concept of synchronization, and parameterization, which forms the basic building blocks for automation.

Related Articles:

Equals case sensitive java – How to compare two Strings using equalsIgnoreCase() Method in Java?

How to compare two Strings using equalsIgnoreCase Method in Java

Equals case sensitive java: In the last tutorial, We have learned how to compare two strings using the equals() method. But there is one limitation of the equals() method. By default equals() method checks the content including the case also i.e. The comparison is case sensitive. If the comparison is case insensitive it returns false. To overcome this problem we can use the equalsIgnoreCase() method in Java. Let’s first see the example of, what the problem to use the equals() method.

class StringCompare{
public static void main(String args[]){
String str1 = "Javastudypoint";
String str2 = new String("JAVA");
String str3 = new String("Javastudypoint");
String str4 = "Java";
System.out.println(str1.equals(str3)); //true
System.out.println(str2.equals(str4)); //false
System.out.println(str1.equals(str2)); //false



The problem with the above code is it check the case also. In the above code, the str2 and the str3 have the same content but the case is different therefore the equals() method returns false.

equalsIgnoreCase() in Java Definition & Usage

Java .equalsignorecase: To overcome the above problem, we can use the equalsIgnoreCase() method. This method is used to perform the comparison that ignores the case differences. When it compares two strings, it considered A-Z the same as a-z.

Syntax: The syntax of the equalsIgnoreCase() is given below:

public boolean equalsIgnoreCase()

Also, Read: How to compare two Strings in Java using equals() Method?

Pictorial Representation of Comparison of Strings using equalsIgnoreCase() Method

How to compare two Strings using equalsIgnoreCase() Method in Java

How to Compare two strings in Java Using the method equalsIgnoreCase()?

Let’s understand the equalsIgnoreCase() method in Java with an example.

class StringCompare{
public static void main(String args[]){
String str1 = "Javastudypoint";
String str2 = "javaSTUDYpoint";
String str3 = "JAVASTUDYPOINT";
String str4 = "Java Tutorial";
//true because content and case are same
//false because content and case are not the same.
//true because content and case are same


How to compare two Strings using equalsIgnoreCase() Method in Java

Example Illustrating Use of .equalsIgnoreCase in String Comparison

// Java program to demonstrate
// use of .equalsIgnoreCase operator in Java

class GFG {
public static void main(String[] args)

// Get some Strings to compare
String s1 = "A";
String s2 = "A";
String s3 = "a";
String s4 = new String("A");

// Compare s1 and s2
// It should return true as they both
// have the same content
System.out.println(s1 + " .equalsIgnoreCase " + s2
+ ": " + s1.equalsIgnoreCase(s2));

// Compare s1 and s3
// It should return true as they both
// have the same content being case insensitive
System.out.println(s1 + " .equalsIgnoreCase " + s3
+ ": " + s1.equalsIgnoreCase(s3));

// Compare s2 and s3
// It should return true as they both
// have the same content being case insensitive
System.out.println(s2 + " .equalsIgnoreCase " + s3
+ ": " + s2.equalsIgnoreCase(s3));

// Compare s1 and s4
// It should return true as they both
// have the same content
System.out.println(s1 + " .equalsIgnoreCase " + s4
+ ": " + s1.equalsIgnoreCase(s4));


A .equalsIgnoreCase A: true
A .equalsIgnoreCase a: true
A .equalsIgnoreCase a: true
A .equalsIgnoreCase A: true

SQL project examples – Simple SQL Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners | List of SQL Project Topics for Students

SQL Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners

SQL project examples: In recent times, there has been an increased demand for data-driven decision-making. One of the areas of the data silos is the programming language SQL. There are many reasons for you to learn SQL and how much it can benefit your life. One of the most important reasons for learning SQL is that it’s one of the languages used in every website or web application.

If you are an aspiring computer science student, you must learn SQL. You need to know important SQL Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners when trying to learn SQL. In this article, you will find some exciting and fun ideas that you can use to create projects when you learn SQL. Building a database, you must design it around real-life applicability to boost your problem-solving skills. Therefore, you need to know some of the Best SQL Project Examples.

SQL Projects for Practice

A Voice-based Transport Enquiry System

SQL projects for beginners: This is one of the ideas which will help you save time while traveling. One of the common problems at a transport controller’s office at the public transport station is the long queue. The office is where people inquire about the transport facilities available in the station. In this situation, something which will be helpful and essential would be a voice-based transport inquiry system.

This is one of the SQL project ideas that can save a lot of time and effort. Through this system, you can quickly develop an automated system for bus stands, railway stations, and other forms of public transportation. The system will function based on the voice commands it receives and answer them in a voice-based format.

Carbon Emissions Calculator

sql project ideas: One of the things which you can develop is a Carbon Emissions Calculator. A Carbon Emissions Calculator is one of the best SQL project ideas. The environment has become a primary concern all over the globe, and countries are continuously trying to find ways to be more environmentally conscious. A way in which you can contribute to the cause is by developing a project which calculates carbon emission.

You can create a website that measures the carbon footprints of things like buildings. In this calculator, things like floor area and workdays per annum will be collected as data for the calculator to work. The Carbon Emissions Calculator can help you know what your carbon contribution is. You can make changes to the building and make changes in your life to make changes in your life.

Art Gallery Management Database

SQL project example: Another one of the SQL project ideas is creating an Art Gallery Management Database. You can use various features of the management databases, which can help the functioning of the gallery better. The Art Gallery Management Database features include a section that will have all the essential information about the artists whose work is displayed in the gallery.

Among the information in the database will be information like the name of the artist, age, birthplace, and lastly, the artist’s style of work. Another feature of the database will be to have all the essential information about a piece. It will include the name of the artist, which year it was made, years of making, style of art, price, and lastly, the piece’s title. This SQL project can help anyone who runs an art gallery. They will be able to work efficiently and properly with the help of the Art Gallery Management Database.

Cooking Recipe Portal

Database projects for students in sql: The following SQL idea for a project which you can develop as a beginner is the Cooking Recipe Portal. It’s one of the ideas that will be helpful to anyone new to cooking and everyone who likes cooking. This is one of the SQL project ideas which belong in the culinary field.

You can develop a model of a web portal which will contain the stored process of cooking recipes. One of the unique features of the webpage is that you can keep the different categories like different cuisines. In the Cooking Recipe Portal, you can store the recipes under sections like ‘Recipe of the Day. You can add many features to the webpage which can make it functional and according to how you want the web portal.

Payroll Management System

Beginner sql projects: The Payroll Management System is one of the SQL projects ideas which will be an instant hit with the industry. It’s a system that will be used extensively and excessively by every company in the industry. A management system needs to calculate things like monthly pays, taxes to be paid, and the security of the employees of a company.

You need to be aware of all these details when you are creating a Payroll Management System. The system needs to compute the salaries of the employees every month on a specific date. It also needs to include the employees’ attendance records and have information about the dates that the employees have taken a leave.

The Payroll Management System needs to be software that generates output. This output is generated through bank files and the payslips of the employees. Additionally, it creates a tax file for the tax office and stores it in the system’s database.

Hospital Management System

Database projects topics: One of the best SQL project ideas you can try as a beginner is developing a Hospital Management System software. It’s a system that will help in the functioning of a hospital and make it simple. The Hospital Management System works for other organizations which have a medical setup.

There are many different features of the Hospital Management System. The web page will be able to store data like records of patients, doctors, and the hospital staff. Additionally, it will have all the information about the rooms, and the hospital administrator will monitor the database. All the doctors and patients of the hospital have unique information which will be stored in the database.

The database will give everyone a unique id, and new information will continuously get added to the database when new treatments or plans are made for them. The Hospital Management System will have different categories under which information will be saved in the database. Patients will have a separate section, doctors a different one, and the other like groups will have different areas. Additionally, it will contain information like the duties of nurses and ward boys, patient records and discharge summaries, and information about the pharmacies.

Railway System Database

SQL projects for practice: One of the SQL project ideas is creating a Railway System Database. You need to include all the trains, their schedules, and every detail about the trains in the database. The Railway System Database will help everyone know all the information on the train they want to travel into their destination.

The Railway System Database will have all the information regarding the unique ids of the train, the schedule of the trains, passenger information, and connecting stations. This might seem like a challenging project. However, there are ways to simplify the task, like assuming that all the trains run every day. When you are focusing on a particular thing, then you can go about your project. You can store data on the system according to things like when the train arrives at a station when it’s leaving the station and the train’s order.

Also, Refer:

Inventory Control Management

Inventory Control Management is another SQL Project idea which you can develop as a beginner. It is a system that records a business’s data, which makes sure that there is an adequate stock of materials. This stock of material should be enough to meet the demands of the consumers without any delays. Through Inventory Control Management, you can maintain a constant supply of material.

Overstocking and understocking of material are bad for business. They will not contribute to maximizing profits for the company. It’s essential to have an optimum level of cloth to have a profit-making enterprise. Hence, Inventory Control Management is one of the best databases which can help you maximize your profits. It would focus on holding the fixed quota of items, increasing the inventory turnover, and storage costs, among other things.

Student Database Management

One of the best SQL project ideas is the Student Database Management project. It is a database project which will instantly become a hit with educational institutions. The Student Database Management will be a record of the students in an educational institute. Student Database Management is a database that will contain all the essential details about a student.

These details include the name of the student, address, contact information, class, admission number, attendance record, marks card, fee slips, and scholarships details. When educational institutes have a Student Database Management, then the process of applying for university becomes easy. The process gets streamlined, and all the records of a student are stored in one place.

Library Management System

A library management system is one of the best projects which you can develop using SQL. It’s one of the ways in which you can make a library user-friendly because you can organize it under different sections. You can have information related to the book’s name, author, when it was written, author, and genre of the book.

The Library Management System can be used by educational institute’s libraries as well as public libraries. This makes the system of borrowing and returning books efficient and well-organized. Each book will have a unique id, making it easy to know all the essential information about the books. This unique id will help you understand who borrowed the book and other copies of the book.


Projects are the best to boost your knowledge about a subject. It’s a place where you can use your theoretical knowledge practically and make good use of it. You can use projects to think critically and use the best methods to find solutions for the problem you want to solve through the project.

You can use and apply many different SQL Project Ideas to create and develop an outstanding database. SQL Projects are spaces where you can use the knowledge you have to the utmost capacity. There’s no limit in what you project; you can use SQL and see how amazingly it works.

Adobe premiere ripple delete shortcut – Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts | List of Keyboard Shortcuts for Premiere Pro

Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts

Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts: If you are a professional editor or a newbie who works with video editing or want to learn video editing, then knowing about Adobe Premiere Pro keyboard shortcuts is absolutely necessary. Understanding all of these different commands will help you work faster and become a more productive editor.

This article will help you learn the different keyboard shortcuts to speed up your workflow with a few compressive Premiere Pro keyboard shortcuts lists. The basic shortcuts lists and the manual changes that you can make in this software, which are discussed in this article, will make you a pro editor in no time.

Wondering How to explore & learn Shortcut Keys for various Operating Systems, Computer Software Programs, Social media applications Keyboards? Here is the one-stop destination for all Keyboard Shortcuts, just take a look & memorize regularly for better performance in competitive exams & real-time situations.

Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts

Some of the Most Useful Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts

Adobe premiere ripple delete shortcut: If you are a Premiere Pro user, these basic yet the most useful keyboard shortcuts in Premiere Pro will surely make your life a lot easier. The list of the most common and useful shortcuts which will make your video editing journey smoother is given below:

Functions For Windows For Mac OS
New Project Ctrl + Alt + N Opt + Cmd + N
New Sequence Ctrl + N Cmd + N
Import Media Ctrl + I Cmd + I
Export Media Ctrl + M Cmd + M
Save Ctrl + S Cmd + S
Save As Ctrl + Shift + S Cmd + Shift + S
Play/Stop Space Space
Shuttle Left J J
Shuttle Right K K
Render Effects in Work Area Enter Return
Selection Tool V V
Razor Tool C C
Ripple Edit Tool B B
Ripple Trim Previous Q Q
Ripple Trim Next W W
Ripple Delete Shift + Del Shift + Del
Extend Selected Edit to Play head E E
Speed/Duration Ctrl + R Cmd + R
Zoom In = =
Zoom Out
Undo Ctrl + Z Cmd + Z
Redo Ctrl + Shift + Z Shift + Cmd + Z
Copy Ctrl + C Cmd + C
Cut Ctrl + X Cmd + X
Paste Ctrl + V Cmd + V
Insert , ,
Overwrite . .

Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts

Shortcuts for Tools in Premiere Pro

Premiere pro shortcut cheat sheet pdf: For editing a video in the Premiere Pro, the shortcuts listed below come extremely handy for creating the high-quality videos that you want to get. These are even more useful as all the shortcuts are the same for both Windows and Mac OS users, so even if you switch your computer system or OS, you don’t have to memorize it all over again. The list for the tools shortcuts is given below:

Functions For Windows For Mac OS
Selection Tool V V
Track Select Forward Tool A A
Track Select Backward Tool Shift + A Shift + A
Ripple Edit Tool B B
Rolling Edit Tool N N
Rate Stretch Tool R R
Razor Tool C C
Slip Tool Y Y
Slide Tool U U
Pen Tool P P
Hand Tool H H
Zoom Tool Z Z

Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts 2

Shortcuts for Commands in Premiere Pro

Premiere pro shortcuts pdf: The command shortcuts in Adobe Premiere Pro are related to the File menu options (the list below the Window title bar). Without having to click and scroll through the File dropdown menu, you can quickly press a combination of keys to get your job done. Using these existing shortcuts, which are listed below, you will not have to go through the File menu every time, and that will save up a lot of your time.

Functions For Windows For Mac OS
New Project/Production Ctrl + Alt + N Opt + Cmd + N
New Sequence Ctrl + N Cmd + N
New Bin Ctrl + B Cmd + B
Title Ctrl + T Cmd + T
Open Project/Production Ctrl + O Cmd + O
Browse in Adobe Bridge Ctrl + Alt + O Opt + Cmd + O
Close Project Ctrl + Shift + W Shift + Cmd + W
Close Ctrl + W Cmd + W
Save Ctrl + S Cmd + S
Save As Ctrl + Shift + S Shift + Cmd + S
Save a Copy Ctrl + Alt + S Opt + Cmd + S
Import from Media Browser Ctrl + Alt + I Opt + Cmd + I
Import Media Ctrl + I Cmd + I
Export Media Ctrl + M Cmd + M
Get Properties for Selection Ctrl + Shift + H Shift + Cmd + H
Exit/Quit Adobe Premiere Pro Ctrl + Q Cmd + Q

Shortcuts for Navigation in Premiere Pro

In Premiere Pro, the navigation shortcuts let you review the playback and move through a video. You will need these shortcuts a lot of time while reviewing the edits. These shortcuts, too, just like the shortcuts for tools, are the same for both Windows and Mac OS users.

Functions For Windows For Mac OS
Play/Stop Toggle Space Space
Step Back Left (←) Left (←)
Step Forward Right (→) Right (→)
Go to Next Edit Point Down Down
Go to Previous Edit Point Up Up
Mark In Point I I
Mark Out Point O O
Clear In & To Out Ctrl + Shift + X Opt + X
Go to In Point Shift + I Shift + I
Go to Out Point Shift + O Shift + O
Shuttle Left J J
Stop K K
Shuttle Right L L
Snap (Turn On/Off) S S

Shortcuts for Clipboard in Premiere Pro

Keyboard shortcuts premiere pro: In Premiere Pro, when you need to make a bulk change or copy something throughout your project, these shortcuts will be your best buddy to get the job done. Primarily, clipboard shortcuts make editing a little easier and are very similar to the functions on a word document. These shortcuts are easy to remember, and they are listed below:

Functions For Windows For Mac OS
Undo Ctrl + Z Cmd + Z
Redo Ctrl + Shift + Z Shift + Cmd + Z
Cut Ctrl + X Cmd + X
Copy Ctrl + C Cmd + C
Paste Ctrl + V Cmd + V
Paste Insert Ctrl + Shift + V Shift + Cmd + V
Paste Attributes Ctrl + Alt + V Opt + Cmd + V
Clear Delete Forward Delete
Clear In & Out Ctrl + Shift + X Opt + X
Ripple Delete Shift + Delete Shift + Forward Delete
Duplicate Ctrl + Shift + / Shift + Cmd + /
Select All Ctrl + A Cmd + A
Deselect All Ctrl + Shift + A Shift + Cmd + A
Find Ctrl + F Cmd + F
Edit Original Ctrl + E Cmd + E

How to Add, Delete or Sync a Shortcut in Premiere Pro?

Along with the default shortcuts in Premiere Pro, you can also add your own shortcuts. The manual changes that can be done for shortcuts come in handy if you are left-handed or even if you want to have more control over your preferred workflows. Either way, this option is helpful, and adding custom shortcuts is so easy that even it has its own shortcut that is:

  • For Windows: Ctrl + Alt + K
  • For Mac: Cmd + Opt + K

After these commands, a virtual keyboard interface appears on the screen. You can add, change, sync, or delete shortcuts in this virtual keyboard. The user interface or virtual keyboard is very easy to use and comes with a drag and drop feature, which is pretty intuitive. You can easily modify the shortcuts according to your preferences and bring that flow to your editing.

Conclusion on Premiere Pro Keyboard Shortcuts

Finally, as you can see, these simple shortcut keys will save up a lot of your time and effort and make your video editing process seamless. This article will always help you overcome the difficulties while editing and make you fall in love with the process of editing even more.