Compiler Design Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Compiler Design Notes

Compiler Design Notes: Getting notes provides a tremendous opportunity for students preparing for the compiler design exam to highlight key points and details. Taking notes not only help students retain more information but also serves as the key to boosting their productivity. It helps students to set aside their stress and focus on the task at hand. Students will get information about the latest Reference Books, Syllabus, and a List of Important Questions for Compiler Design Notes.

Compiler Design Notes help aspirants to become the best in the field of technology. These Lecture Notes are helpful for students to convert it into a to-do list and create quality reference materials. Compiler Design notes don’t allow candidates to leave what’s crucial through the cracks for qualifying for the exam.

This article given below helps the aspirants access the best-Compiler Design Notes as per the latest curriculum.

  • Compiler Design Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download
  • Compiler Design Reference Books
  • Compiler Design Syllabus
  • List of Compiler Design Important Questions
  • FAQs on Compiler Design Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Compiler Design Lecture Notes

Compiler Design is a part of computer design that provides a comprehensive view of the translation plus optimization process. It involves a basic translation mechanism along with error detection and recovery. It would be a daunting task for computer programmers to write codes in a binary format so that the computer system can understand it. That’s why; compilers are used to write such codes. The main objective of the compiler is to convert a program written in source or high-level language to machine or low-level language.

Compiler Design Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

In the Compiler Design Notes Pdf, students will the basic terms used in the computer world. It covers cross compiler, source-to-source compiler, language processing systems using compiler, assembly language, interpreter, and more. With the help of these notes, students can understand how a program code written in high-level language gets converted into a target or absolute machine language. The notes cover critical information regarding the developments in the field of programming languages by going through Compiler Design notes. Students can secure a good percentage in their exam by considering efficient study material for the Compiler Design exam.

Candidates can refer and use the Compiler Design Notes Pdf to cover various topics like NFA, regular expressions, ambiguities, grammar, and different techniques to deal with uncertainties.

Compiler Design Reference Books

Reference books for Compiler Design are a crucial source of information that covers the most recent developments in the field of programming language design. These books cover a description of all the phases of a compiler that include parsing, lexical analysis, tree machine instruction selection, register allocations, and more.

Aspirants would understand the topics more efficiently if they consult the up-to-date version, including the latest syllabus. Here is a list of the topmost recommended books for Compiler Design.

  • Compiler Design by Chattopadhyay
  • Alfred V Aho- Principles of Compiler Design
  • Compiler Design by O G Kakde
  • Express Learning- Principles of Compiler Design by ITL ESL
  • Alfred V Aho and Monica S Lam- Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools
  • Operating System Concepts by Gagne and Galvin
  • Holub and Allen I- Compiler Design in C
  • Engineering a Compiler by Keith D Cooper and Linda Torczon
  • Richard M. Stallman and The GCC Developer Community- Using The GNU Compiler Collection

Compiler Design Syllabus

The most efficient way to prepare for the Compiler Design exam is to understand the syllabus and all the vital topics. Students can go through with the entire syllabus of Compiler Design to acknowledge all the critical concepts and start preparing accordingly.

Well-organized and detailed notes let students review the key points discussed in the chapter. Here is the latest list of topics of the Compiler Design Notes:

Introduction to Compilers

  • Structure of a Compiler
  • Lexical Analysis
  • Role of Lexical Analyzer
  • Input Buffering
  • Recognition of Tokens
  • Specification of Tokens
  • Finite Automata
  • Regular Expressions To Automata
  • Minimizing DFA

Syntax Analysis

  • Role of Parser
  • Error Handling
  • Context-free Grammars
  • Top-Down Parsing
  • General Strategies Recursive Descent Parser Predictive Parser
  • Introduction To LALR Parser
  • Error Handling and Recovery in Syntax Analyzer

Intermediate Code Generation

  • Syntax Directed Definitions
  • Intermediate Languages
  • Evaluation Orders for Syntax Directed Definitions
  • Translate of Expressions
  • Types and Declarations
  • Type Checking
  • Three Address Code

Run-Time Environment and Code Generation

  • Stack Allocation Space
  • Storage Organization
  • Heap Management
  • Access to Non-local Data on the Stack
  • Issues in Code Generation
  • Design of a simple code Generator

Code Optimization

  • Principles Sources of Optimization
  • DAG- Optimization of Basic Blocks
  • Peephole optimization
  • Global Data Flow Analysis
  • Efficient Data Flow Algorithm

List of Compiler Design Important Questions

B.Tech students can go through with the ultimate question bank of Compiler Design in the pdf format. Here is the list of some vital questions that will help students to have a better understanding of the topic. The questions discussed are the most asked in the annual examinations. Apart from it, going through with these questions help candidates to prepare for GATE and other competitive exams.

  1. Explain the principle of the compiler.
  2. What are the phases of the analysis part?
  3. Discuss the two parts of a compilation.
  4. Explain the different types of compiler classifications?
  5. How a language processed? Explain diagrammatically.
  6. Explain the linear analysis.
  7. Discuss the several phases of a compiler.
  8. Mention the front-end phases of a compiler.
  9. Describe various compiler construction tools.
  10. Differentiate between patterns, lexeme, and tokens.
  11. Explain the function of hierarchical analysis.
  12. What is the role of a semantic analysis?
  13. Explain the parser concept.
  14. Define the various issues in parsing.
  15. Define context-free grammar?
  16. Explain the derivation concept.
  17. Discuss the properties of LR parser.
  18. Write an algorithm for FOLLOW and FIRST.
  19. What is ambiguous grammar?
  20. Discuss different operations on languages.
  21. What are the different operations of languages?

Compiler Design Notes Conclusion

The Compiler Design Notes and Study Material mentioned above are well-designed to assist the students at the time of exam preparations. The notes are consistent and comprehensive to help graduates and enhance their understanding of various concepts. Candidates can refer and practice from the provided notes and important questions for Compiler Design from this article.

Frequently Asked Questions on Compiler Design Notes

Question 1.
Is Compiler Design hard to study?

Compiler Design and implementation of various programming codes are difficult. It’s because the subject combines every critical knowledge from the entire curriculum of computer science in under-graduation. Students first have to understand the problem space occupied by compilers to understand the compiler design better.

Question 2.
Why study Compiler Design?

Compiler educates students on how to design real-world applications along with their working. Understanding the topic Compiler Design offers students both theoretical as well as practical knowledge that is vital to implement a programming language.

Question 3.
How can Compiler Design notes help in exam preparation?

Reading assigned study material and crucial notes help students to understand the subject effortlessly. Candidates can look up vocabulary words and can make vital notations about concepts and material which they don’t understand. Approaching notes with a positive attitude enables students to get the most out of the information presented.

Question 4.
What is the best strategy to crack the Compiler Design exam?

Paying close attention to the content and knowing the important questions will help candidates to crack the Compiler Design exam on the first attempt. Apart from it, students can prepare adequate notes that help them to achieve better learning results.

Internet Programming Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Internet Programming Notes

Internet Programming Notes: Wishing to get hold of the Internet programming Study Material and Notes can get to the best notes for their planning cycle or to have a correction of basic ideas.

The Internet programming Notes and Study Materials goes about as the chief examination material and Lecture Notes that cultivate and improve better planning and assist understudies with scoring better evaluations. Understudies can allude to the Internet programming Notes according to the most recent educational program from this article.

Internet programming Notes give a head start as they will likewise gain the most recent Syllabus, Reference Books, and Important Questions List for Internet programming over normal notes.

Members can profit from the Internet programming Notes PDFs and Reference Books from this article and ace the arrangement techniques with the best and refreshed examination assets and accomplish better evaluations.

  • Internet programming notes and study material PDF free download
  • Internet Programming Reference Books
  • Internet Programming Curriculum
  • List of Internet Programming Important Questions
  • FAQ on Internet programming Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Internet Programming Lecture Notes

Internet programs are the programs that are used for accessing services as well as data from the Worldwide Web or Internet. Here we are going to have an overview of Internet programming which is widely used as open source general purpose programming and is more suited for web development, which is for writing web applications. There are few objectives and prerequisites behind studying this course. These are mentioned as follows:

  1. Objectives:
  • Learn core PHP, Server Side scripting language.
  • Learn PHP database handling
  1. Prerequisite:
  • HTML

The Server Side scripting language is the scripts that are employed on the server to view customized responses according to the client’s requests. In Database Handling, we would study how the data is stored using the database management system and how to access those data using the PHP programs. But to know more about this course we should have knowledge about HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language). Because web pages are developed using the HyperText Mark-up language. The main objective of the subject is to make you create highly sophisticated web applications using these languages, technologies and tools.

Internet Programming Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Students who want to start off with internet Programming and are at a nascent stage can refer to the notes’ link mentioned below for their further guidance. This would also help in your future career prospect as each job role these days demands a decent control over Internet programming Language. These are easily available online and you can access free of charge too. So whenever you feel like starting off with Internet programming, here’s a list to reduce your workload of hunting:

Internet Programming Reference Books

These books of Internet Programming unites immensely significant, crucial and, critically, related ideas inside the bounds of one book. Pretty much every point has been managed, which will make these books a treat for anyone with a significant software engineering foundation, who has an enthusiasm for web programming. In any case, it is principally conceptualized for understudies of Internet programming. Experts in systems administration, webspace and related fields will locate this a helpful reference asset. On account of the books handy application direction, the understudies and experts will discover learning a connecting with and charming experience.

Below is the list of names of books that you can refer to if you want to prepare for an Internet programming course. These are easily accessible and consist of knowledgeable content that would be helpful for students in every way possible.

  • Internet Programming by Dr. V. Latha Jothi
  • Internet programming by Pankaj B. Brahmankar
  • Internet Programming by S. Sharanya
  • Essentials of Internet Programming by Shriram K. Vasudevan
  • Learning PHP, MySQL & JavaScript: With JQuery, CSS & HTML5 by Robin Nixon
  • JavAnswer: The Complete Reference by Patrick Naughton, Herbert Schildt
  • Head First HTML5 Programming: Building Web Apps with JavaScript by Eric Freeman, Elisabeth Robson
  • Head First JavaScript by Michael Morrison
  • Canvas Pocket Reference: Scripted Graphics for HTML5 by David Flanagan
  • Learning CSS3 Animations and Transitions by Alexis Goldstein
  • JavaScript in 24 Hours, Sams Teach Yourself by Phil Ballard
  • PHP Cookbook by David Sklar, Adam Trachtenberg
  • Beginning PHP and MySQL: From Novice to Personal by W Jason Gilmore
  • Javascript and DHTML Cookbook by Danny Goodman
  • JavaFX For Dummies by Dough Lowe
  • JavaScript Web Applications by Alex MacCaw
  • Simply JavaScript: Everything You Need to Learn JavaScratch From Scratch by Kevin Yank, Cameron Adams
  • Beginning Cake PHP: From Novice to Professional by David Golding

Internet Programming Curriculum

Having a detailed description of the contents contained in the course is an important step to move further with the course. Therefore we have prepared the detailed study syllabus of the course Internet programming so that it benefits the students the most in every possible way. Course Curriculum will give understudies an away from what to examine, and the unit-wise separation gives themes under every unit cautiously and distributes time to every subject.

Understudies must cover all the subjects before endeavoring the Computer Network test with the goal that the paper is sensibly agreeable at the hour of the test. Up-and-comers must guarantee attention to the Computer Network Syllabus as it keeps you from squandering pointless energy on excess themes. The detailed curriculum for the course Internet Programming is mentioned below:

Unit Topics
Prerequisite Introduction to Web Technologies:

Introduction to OSI Layers

Client Side Programming ·   Basic of HTML:

Ø  Web System Architecture and N tier Architecture


Ø  Domain name system

Ø  Overview of HTTP and FTP

Ø  Cross Browser Compatibility Issues

Ø  W3C validators

Ø  Formating and Fonts

Ø  Anchors, Images, Lists, Tables, Frames and Forms

·   Introduction to CSS

Ø  Evolution of CSS

Ø  Syntax of CSS

Ø  Exploring CSS Selectors

Ø  Inserting CSS in HTML document

Ø  Defining Inheritance in CSS

·   Introduction to javaScript

Ø  JavaScript Language Constructs

Ø  Objects in JavaScripts- Built in Browser Objects and DOM Objects

Ø  Event Handling

Ø  Form Validation and Cookies

HTLM5 and Responsive Web Design with CSS3 HTML5:

  • Fundamental Syntax and Semantics
  • Native Audio and Video
  • MicroData and Custom Data
  • Accessibility
  • Geo Location
  • Canvas

CSS3 and Responsive Web Design:

Media Queries-

  • Supporting Differing Viewports
  • Embracing Fluid Layout


  • Selectors
  • Typography and Color Modes
  • Stunning Aethetics with CSS3
  • CSS3 Transitions
  • Transformations with Animations
  • Conquer Forms HTML5 and GSS3
Rich Internet Application (RIA)
  • Characteristics of RIA
  •  Introduction to AJAX:

Ø  AJAX Design Basics

Ø  AJAX vs Traditional Approach

Ø  Rich user Interface using AJAX

·   Working with JavaScript Notation (JSON):

Ø  Create Data in JSON Format

Ø  JSON Parser

List of Internet Programming Important Questions

  1. How java is stage free?
  2. Separate a vector and an exhibit in Java.
  3. Step by step instructions to make two-dimensional exhibit in Java
  4. Is there any mistake in the given Java Statement? Examine: singe [] string = “abcdef”;
  5. Record the basics of Exception dealing with.
  6. Characterize Multithreaded Programming.
  7. What are the two different ways for making a Thread? 8. What is static in Java? Give its employments.
  8. Notice the motivation behind the catchphrase “last”.
  9. Can a theoretical class in Java be launched? Give an explanation.
  10. What is the contrast between constructors and techniques?
  11. What is the distinction between strategy over-burdening and abrogating?
  12. How do you characterize an interface?
  13. What is conclude() and Garbage Collection?
  14. How does a radio catch in java vary from a check box?
  15. Why do you need run () and start () strategy both?
  16. What is a Stream? Which class permits you to pursue protests straightforwardly from a stream?
  17. What is Polymorphism in Java? Clarify how Polymorphism is upheld in Java?
  18. Mention the subclasses of the AWT Event class.
  19. Code a Graphics strategy in Java to draw the String “Hi World” from the directions (100,200).

FAQs on Internet Programming Notes

Question 1.
What are various kinds of access modifiers (Access specifiers)?

Access specifiers are catchphrases that decide the sort of admittance to the individual from a class. These catchphrases are for permitting benefits to parts of a program, for example, capacities and factors. These are: public: Anything announced as open can be gotten to from anyplace.

Private: Anything pronounced as private can’t be seen outside of its group.

Ensured: Anything pronounced as secured can be gotten to by classes in a similar bundle and subclasses in the three bundles.

Default Modifier: Can be gotten to just two classes in a similar bundle.

Question 2.
Characterize Java.

Java is a programming language explicitly intended for use in the appropriated climate of the Internet. It was intended to have the “look and feel” of the C++ language, however, it is easier to use than C++ and upholds an item situated programming model.

Question 3.
What is strategy over-burdening and technique superseding?

Strategy over-burdening: When a technique in a class having a similar strategy name with various contentions is supposed to be strategy over-burdening.

Strategy abrogating: When a technique in a class having a similar technique name with same contentions is supposed to be strategy superseding.

Question 4.
What is an Object?

Item is an occasion of a class. It has state, conduct and character. It is likewise called as an occurrence of a class.

Internet Programming Notes Conclusion

Contemplating Internet Programming languages may even empower you to comprehend and partake in energizing scholastic and expert conversations, both at meetups and on the web.

Associate with scientists in etymology, programming dialects, and individuals inspired by correspondence, comprehend inside jokes, similar to this one, this one, and this one, increase a little popularity, and maybe have any kind of effect on the planet, with a programming language you plan yourself, dazzle your companions with elusive, quirky, fun, and here and there hidden information.

Discrete Mathematics Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Discrete Mathematics handwritten Notes

Discrete Mathematics Notes: Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF If you are looking for Discrete Mathematics handwritten notes PDF, then you have come to the right place. This is where you will find free and downloadable notes for the topic.

Discrete Mathematics handwritten notes PDF are incredibly important documents for the study of this subject. All the students who wish to pursue careers in programming and computer science must use the discrete mathematics handwritten notes PDF to their full advantage.

These Lecture Notes will help you in your exams by providing you with efficient notes and will also help ease some nervousness and anxiety that may arise from the need to do well in exams.

  • Discrete Mathematics reference books
  • Discrete Mathematics curriculum
  • List of Discrete Mathematics important questions
  • FAQs about Discrete Mathematics
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Lecture Notes PDF

Discrete Mathematics is an important subject in the fields of mathematics and computer science. It is differentiated from continuous mathematics, such that the numbers are starkly different from each other. They can be used to create various programs, algorithms and software, and is also used in the field of cryptography and for proving theorems.

Discrete structures in mathematics can be either finite or infinite, depending on its properties. Also, combinatorics or combinations, set theory, logic statements and graphs are all important components of discrete mathematics.

Here are some notes for Discrete Mathematics:

  • Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF
  • Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Lecture Notes
  • Lecture Notes on Discrete Mathematical Structures
  • Notes for Discrete Mathematics – DMS
  • Discrete Mathematics Note PDF Download

BSc Computer Science Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF – Free Download

Computer Science is the subject of study which incorporates discrete mathematics to the fullest. It is one of the most important subjects in Computer Science because Discrete Mathematics is what we use to formulate many components:

  • Algorithms
  • Programming languages
  • Various software
  • Set theory
  • Logical statements
  • Graph theory
  • Computability

Discrete Mathematics Reference Books

Reference books are some of the best tools to utilise for our studies because they have not only important questions and answers but also accurate notes to refer to when studying.

Discrete Mathematics reference books are of utmost importance to students, especially those who are pursuing computer science. The subject can be confusing, but discrete mathematics reference books take the confusion away by providing discrete mathematics handwritten notes as well as printed notes for the subject.

The following is a list of the best reference books available out there for the preparation of students for Discrete Mathematics studies.

  • Introduction to Counting & Probability by David Patrick
  • Intermediate Counting & Probability by David Patrick
  • Elements of Discrete Mathematics by C.L. Liu
  • Discrete Mathematics and Application by Kenneth Rosen
  • Concrete Mathematics by Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth and Oren Patashnik
  • Discrete Mathematical Structures with applications to Computer Science by J.P. Tremblay and R. Manohar
  • Graph Theory by Frank Harary
  •  The Art of Computer Programming (Vol. 1) by Donald Knuth
  • Combinatorial Problems and Exercises by Laszlo Lovasz
  • Discrete Combinatorial Mathematics Applied Introduction by Grimaldi
  • A Course in Combinatorics by van Lint and Wilson
  • An Invitation to Discrete Mathematics by Jiri Matousek & Jaroslav Nesetril
  • Introduction to Discrete Mathematics by S.V. Yablonsky
  • Discrete Mathematics with Applications by Susanna Epp

Discrete Mathematics Curriculum

The best way to do any kind of work is first to formulate a skeleton or a structure for the work you would like to do. This same concept carries over to when we have to study or prepare for an examination. It is best to create a structure of study before we start studying and to do this, it is important to know the Discrete Mathematics curriculum like the back of your hand.

The following is the unit-wise and topic-wise curriculum for the subject Discrete Mathematics.



Sets and Sequences: Data Models

  • Finite sets
  • Power sets
  • The cardinality of finite sets
  • Cartesian Product
  • Properties of sets
  • Vector implementation of sets

Describing Sets:  Logic & Proofs

  • Introduction to logic
  • Propositional logic
  • Truth tables
  • Deduction
  • Resolution
  • Predicates & Quantifiers
  • Infinite sets
  • Countable & Uncountable sets
  • Cantor’s diagonalisation
  • Mathematical Induction
    • Weak induction
    • Strong induction

Relational Structures on Sets: Relations & Graphs

  • Relations
  • Equivalence Relations
  • Functions
  • Bijection
  • Binary relations & Graphs
  • Basics of Trees
  • Posets & Lattices
  • Hasse Diagrams
  • Boolean Algebra

Sizes of Sets: Counting & Combinatorics

  • Counting
  • Sum & Product Rule
  • Principle of Inclusion Exclusion
  • Pigeon Hole Principle
  • Counting by Bijections
  • Double Counting
  • Linear Recurrence Relations – Methods of Solutions
  • Generating Functions
  • Permutations & counting

Structured Sets : Algebraic Structures

  • Structured sets with respect to binary operations
  • Groups
  • Semigroups
  • Monoids
  • Rings
  • Fields
  • Vector Spaces
  • Bases

List of Discrete Mathematics Important Questions

While studying, one of the most important parts of preparing to the best of our abilities is looking at the important questions for the subject. Similarly, when preparing for an exam for Discrete Mathematics, looking at Discrete Mathematics important questions is vital for the best level of preparation.

We understand how necessary it is to look at Discrete Mathematics important questions. Thus, for your benefit, we have listed down some Discrete Mathematics important questions for you to utilise to the maximum.

Graphical questions about the Euler path or Euler circuit

  1. Find the Euler path or an Euler circuit, if it exists, from the given graphs that follow.
  2. Establish an isomorphism between the 2 following graphs.


  1. State and prove Lagrange’s theorem.
  2. State and prove Cayley’s representation theorem.
  3. State and prove the fundamental theorem of a group homomorphism.
  4. State and prove the isotonic property, distributive inequality and modular inequality.
  5. Prove that if a graph H has not more than two vertices of odd degree, then there can be an Euler path in G.
  6. State and prove De Morgan’s Laws in lattices and Boolean Algebra.
  7. In a distributive lattice, prove that the complement of an element, if it exists, is unique.
  8. In Boolean algebra, show that ab1+ a1b=0 if and only if a=b.
  9. Use mathematical induction to prove that n3+2n is divisible by 3 for all integers n1.
  10. State and prove the pigeonhole principle.
  11. State and prove the generalized pigeonhole principle.

FAQs about Discrete Mathematics Notes

Question 1.
What is Discrete Mathematics?

Discrete Mathematics is a subject of study which is incredibly pertinent in the subject of Computer Science. Discrete Mathematics focuses on graphs, combinatorics, sets, logical statements, etc. It uses logical notions to mathematically define and reason with fundamental data types and structures that are used to formulate algorithms, systems, software, etc.

Question 2.
What are the best Discrete Mathematics reference books?

There are various Discrete Mathematics reference books that students can refer to. The best books out of these which most students prefer to refer to are “Discrete Mathematics and Application” by Kenneth Rosen and “Concrete Mathematics” by Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth and Oren Patashnik.

Question 3.
What are the basic units which are studied in the Discrete Mathematics course?

The basic units which are part of the Discrete Mathematics course are as follows:

  • Sets & Sequences : Data Models
  • Describing Sets: Logic & Proofs
  • Relational Structures on Sets: Relations & Graphs
  • Sizes of Sets: Counting & Combinatorics
  • Structured Sets: Algebraic Sets

Question 4.
What are some of the Discrete Mathematics important questions?

There are various Discrete Mathematics important questions that pertain to graphical questions as well as questions where proofs are required. Here are some Discrete Mathematics important questions:

  1. State and prove Lagrange’s theorem.
  2. In a distributive lattice, prove that the complement of an element, if it exists, is unique.
  3. Establish an isomorphism between the 2 following graphs.
  4. State and prove the isotonic property, distributive inequality and modular inequality.

Other important questions about Discrete Mathematics have been listed above.


To conclude, we would like to let you know that the Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF will be beneficial for you. They have been compiled with the utmost care for the student to do exceptionally well in their exams. It is always useful to have some extra help with studying, especially during the preparations for examinations. Hopefully, our provided Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF have been helpful for you to learn. Do download them free of cost and utilise them in the best way possible.

Computer Application Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Computer Application Notes

Computer Application Notes: The computer is one of the greatest inventions of all time. We use the computer in our everyday life, and it will be tough for us to live without a computer. In every industry, you will find computers performing various kinds of tasks. So, the computer has been accepted as a subject by most of the institutions all over the world. Computer application provides information about different parts and usage of the computer. Computer application provides knowledge about software, hardware, and networking of computers. If you have an interest in using the computer, it will be easier for you to study computer applications. In this article, you will get complete details of computer application subject like its syllabus, study materials, reference books, and Lecture Notes.

  • Introduction to Computer Application
  • Computer Application Study Material Free PDF Download
  • Computer Application Reference Books
  • Computer Application Curriculum
  • List of Computer Application Questions
  • FAQs on Computer Application Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Computer Application

Computer applications are groups of programs specially created to do different kinds of tasks. Computer application is studied in different classes like class 10, 11, and 12. There are specialised bachelor’s and master’s programs on computer application. The focus of this subject is to give information about the computer and its applications. Subjects from the science group, especially Mathematics, help in the understanding of concepts of computer application. Computer applications provide more practical skills than theoretical knowledge. However, you must choose the right reference books and study materials to score well in this subject.

Computer Application Notes and Study Material Free PDF Download

Study materials are essential to score well in computer applications. The study materials of computer applications are different for different classes. However, the concepts are the same. We have discussed here the essential study materials of computer application that will help you to understand the basic concepts of the subject.

Business Organization Download
Computer Basics and PC Software Download
Basic Mathematics Download
Computer Basics and PC Software Lab Download
Accountancy-1 Download
Problem Solving and Programming Download
Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming Download
Discrete Mathematics Download
Communication Skills Download
Assembly Language Programming Lab Download
C Language Programming Lab Download
Systems Analysis and Design Download
Data and File Structures Download
Introduction to Database Management Systems Download
Programming in C++ Download
C++ Programming Lab Download
Data and File Structures Lab Download
DBMS Lab Download
Statistical Techniques Download
Object-Oriented Technologies and Java Programming Download
Fundamentals of Computer Networks Download
Introduction to Algorithm Design Download
Internet Concepts and Web Design Download
Java Programming Lab Download
Statistical Techniques Lab Download
Algorithm Design Lab Download
Introduction to Software Engineering Download
Network Programming and Administration Download
Web Programming Download
Computer Oriented Numerical Techniques Download
Business Communication Download
Network Programming and Administration Lab Download
Web Programming Lab Download
Computer Oriented Numerical Techniques Lab Download
Operating System Concepts and Networking Management Download

Computer Application Reference Books

The theoretical part of computer application is very crucial. Without understanding the theory correctly, it will be difficult for you to gain practical skills. To delve deeper into the concepts, you must choose some good books. Many students get confused to choose the best reference books. So, we have listed some of the best books on a computer applications that will help you to understand the subject. Some of the important books on computer application are given below:

  • Gernot A Fink’s Markov Models for Pattern Recognition: From Theory to Applications (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition)
  • Rob Napier and Mugunth Kumar’s iOS 7 Programming Pushing the Limits: Develop Advance Applications for Apple iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch.
  • Hong Cheng’s Sparse Representation, Modeling and Learning in Visual Recognition: Theory, Algorithms and Applications (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition)
  • Ling Shao and Caifeng Shan’s Multimedia Interaction and Intelligent User Interfaces: Principles, Methods and Applications
  • Wolfgang Reisig and Grzegorz Rozenberg’s Lectures on Petri Nets II: Applications: Advances in Petri Nets: 002 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
  • Stepan D Ivasyshen and Anatoly N Kochubei’s Analytic Methods In The Theory Of Differential And Pseudo-Differential Equations Of Parabolic Type
  • Sanjay Singhal and Sameer Mishra’s UGC Computer Science and Application
  • Deo and Narsingh’s Graph Theory with Applications to Engineering and Computer Science
  • Prabhakar Gupta’s Computer Application in Management
  • Parameswaran R’s Computer Applications in Business

Computer Application Curriculum

Various kinds of courses are available for computer applications. So, the syllabus of the computer application varies depending on the type of course. But it is essential to know the syllabus before starting the course. If you get a good idea about the curriculum before starting the course, it will be easier for you to understand the subject. We have tried to give an idea of the syllabus for Computer Programming below. However, the actual syllabus of a particular course may differ from this.

Hardware Lab (CIA Only) Case Tools Lab (CIA Only)
Creative English Communicative English
Foundational Mathematics Basic Discrete Mathematics
Statistics I For BCA Operating Systems
Digital Computer Fundamentals Data Structures
Introduction To Programming Using C Data Structures Lab
C Programming Lab Visual Programming Lab
PC Software Lab
Interpersonal Communication Professional English
Introductory Algebra Financial Management
Financial Accounting Computer Networks
Software Engineering Programming In Java
Database Management Systems Java Programming Lab
Object-Oriented Programming Using C++ DBMS Project Lab
C++ Lab Web Technology Lab
Oracle Lab Language Lab(CIA Only)
Domain Lab (Cia Only)
Unix Programming Design And Analysis Of Algorithms
OOAD Using UML Client-Server Computing
User Interface Design Computer Architecture
Graphics And Animation Cloud Computing
Python Programming Multimedia Applications
Business Intelligence Introduction To Soft Computing
Unix Lab Advanced Database Management System
Web Designing Project
Graphics And Animation Lab
Python Programming Lab
Business Intelligence Lab

List of Computer Application Questions

Computer application is a vast subject. It covers various things about a computer. The complexity level of the question depends on the type of course. However, we have listed some fundamental questions of computer application to give you a better idea of the subject.

  • What is the hardware?
  • What type of document is used by Microsoft Word 2007?
  • Explain the USB stick.
  • What is the difference between the worksheet and workbook?
  • What is a San Serif font?
  • How can you insert a row?
  • What is the purpose of brainstorming?
  • Briefly explain clipart.
  • Write a short note on the DVD.
  • What is the usage of the Graphical User Interface?

FAQs on Computer Application Notes

Question 1.
Can I do a computer application course after completing class 12?

Yes, you can do Bachelor’sBachelor’s of Computer Application (BCA) after completing class 12.

Question 2.
Is computer application a challenging subject?

Computer application is best suited for people who have an interest in computers. However, students from a Mathematics background are best fitted for this subject.

Question 3.
Name some popular uses of computer applications.

Some of the popular uses of computer applications are a business application, banking application, medical application, education application, and engineering application.

Question 4.
Name five well-known computer applications.

Five well-known computer applications are Embedded System, Web Application, Web Service, Computer Application, and Windows Application.


In the article, we have tried our best to provide you with complete information about computer application. If you have any other queries regarding the study material of the computer application, please let us know through the comment section.

Computer System Architecture Lecture Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Computer System Architecture Lecture Notes

Computer System Architecture Notes: Computer System Architecture notes provide the student with the most updated notes on the subject and provide reference books that are up to the curriculum. These notes are easy to interpret for aspiring students and are the best set of references for computer system architecture during revision.

These notes can save students from the hassle of going through different books to understand the basic concepts required for Computer System Architecture. By using these Lecture Notes, students can determine concepts which are more relevant for them and save time.

By using computer system architecture notes, aspiring students can identify a good structure on how to start their preparation process for the subject. This article provides students with the most up to date curriculum, reference books and essential questions for computer system architecture notes.

Students can use this article for their Computer System Architecture notes and use the reference books so that they can get the best scores.

  • Computer System Architecture reference books
  • Computer System Architecture curriculum
  • List of Computer System Architecture important questions
  • FAQs on Computer System Architecture notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Computer System Architecture

The computer system architecture provides us with a detailed understanding of how a computer software system and a computer hardware system interact with each other to form the entire computer system. What a computer system architecture entails is the design of the computer system and how it functions with the various categories that are microarchitecture, instruction set architecture and system design, all these categories are what constitute the basic CPUs architecture, and it is the key in the function of the computer as a whole.

If we were to break down the entire process, the computer system first receives the information, decodes the information, transfers the data and then executes the data. This whole process is completed with the help of input unit, output unit, storage unit, arithmetic logic unit, control unit. A good Computer system architecture which can carry out all the above processes the quickest in a sense it should be able to recognize the information fast and be able to process it quickly.

B.Tech Computer System Architecture Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Bachelor in technology can get updated and revised notes provided in the article. These notes offer students the best of knowledge in computer system architecture in the most condensed form without leaving any important information on the subject. The notes provide the most concise information, and it is straightforward for students to interpret the material. Using the notes provided by this article will help students better prepare for the subject by giving them in-depth knowledge and help in scoring better grades. Students can download all these notes easily from the internet for free. The following are a list of notes for Computer System Architecture notes for aspiring B.Tech students-

  • Computer System Architecture lecturer notes pdf.
  • Computer organization and architecture lecturer notes pdf.
  • Computer system Architecture 6th-semester notes
  • Computer System Architecture lecturer notes by Buddhitha Hettige

Computer System Architecture Reference Books

To have a better overview of the subject and to do some proper fact-checking it is always recommended to use good reference books. A topic like a Computer system Architecture required students to understand the basics of computer systems and to understand the function of almost every component of the computer system. Students can use these reference books and study sources for a more thorough preparation of computer system architecture.

The following is the list of reference books which come highly recommended from experts in the field from which students can use to prepare –

  • Computer Architecture and Design Books from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
  • Synthesis Lecture on Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture by Daniel J. Sorin
  • Computer Architecture: From Microprocessors to Supercomputers, Oxford, 2005 – Textbook for an upper-division undergraduate course, with 28 lecture-size chapters, 491 problems, and extensive downloadable PowerPoint presentations (ISBN 0-19-515455-X)
  • Virtual Machines – Versatile Platforms for Systems and Processes
  • Macintosh Technology in the Common Hardware Reference Platform by Apple Computer Inc.
  • PowerPC Microprocessor Common Hardware Reference Platform by Apple Computer Inc., International Business Machines, Inc., and Motorola Inc.
  • The Designer’s Guide to VHDL by Peter J. Ashenden
  • High Performance Cluster Computing Vol 1 and 2 by Rajkumar Buyya
  • Reasoning About Parallel Architectures by William W. Collier
  • Parallel Computer Architecture – A Hardware/Software Approach by David Culler and Jaswinder Pal Singh
  • Distributed and Parallel Computing by Hesham El-Rewini and Ted Lewis
  • The MIPS Programmer’s Handbook by Erin Farquhar and Philip Bunce
  • Computer Architecture: Pipelined and Parallel Processor Design by Michael J. Flynn
  • Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Second Edition by John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson – web component
  • Readings in Computer Architecture edited by Mark D. Hill, Norman P. Jouppi, and Gurindar S. Sohi – web component
  • The PowerPC Architecture: A Specification for a New Family of RISC Processors by International Business Machines, Inc.
  • RISC System/6000: PowerPC System Architecture by International Business Machines, Inc.
  • High-Performance Mass Storage and Parallel I/O Hai Jin, Toni Cortes, and Rajkumar Buyya, Editiors
  • Computer Arithmetic Algorithms by Israel Koren
  • Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, and Hypercubes by F. Thomson Leighton
  • Scalable Shared-Memory Multiprocessing by Daniel E. Lenoski and Wolf-Dietrich Weber
  • Distributed Algorithms by Nancy A. Lynch
  • Parallel Processing from Applications to Systems by Dan I. Moldovan
  • Advanced Compiler Design and Implementation by Steven Muchnick
  • Computer Arithmetic Systems by Amos R. Omondi
  • The Microarchitecture of Pipelined and Superscalar C

Computer System Architecture Curriculum

Here the subject provides a vast array of information on computer system architecture, and it is important for students to know which topics to study and which to discard. Students must be able to structure their syllabus so that they can better prepare for future exams, and here this curriculum will provide students with a detailed understanding of the subject. Therefore here, the curriculum has been broken down into different units and topics, thereby allowing students to plan out their preparation much better. Students should be aware of the updated syllabus so that they don’t waste time on topics that don’t matter. The updated computer system architecture syllabus is as follows-

Unit 1: Abstractions, Technology and Performance Computers  1.1. Introduction

1.2. Architecture of a computer system.

1.3. Performance in a computer system

1.4. Perspective and evolution of technology

Unit 2: Segmented Processors 2.1. fundamentals of designing a processor 2.1.1. The instruction set

2.1.2. single cycle

2.1.3. Data path and control

2.2. The technique of segmentation (pipeline)

2.2.1. ideal operation

2.2.2. Associated Concepts: Latency and Performance (Throughput)

2.3. Design a processor with pipeline

2.4. Limitations of the pipelined instructions channel

2.4.1. Causes of performance loss due to stop of pipeline Conflicts structural constraints Conflicts over control risks Data dependency conflicts

2.4.2. Techniques to avoid halts Internal forwarding Branch prediction

Unit 3: Memory Organization and Structure: Caches and Virtual Memory 3.1. Memory Hierarchy

3.2. Basic principles of the cache

3.2.1. Multi-level cache

3.2.2. Organizations: fully associative, direct-mapped and set associative

3.2.3. Operating schemes. Write Through with assignment in writing (Fetch on write) and no assignment in writing. Post-write or writeback

3.2.4. Replacement algorithms

3.2.5. cache coherence

3.2.6. Examples of caches

3.3. Virtual Memory

3.3.1. Operation of virtual memory: paging, segmentation, paged segments

3.3.2. Translation of virtual addresses to physical or real addresses

3.3.3. Memory Management Unit (MMU)

3.3.4. Translation Look-aside Buffer (TLB)

3.4. Integration of the memory: the TLB and cache

3.4.1. Cache system with real or virtual cache

Unit 4: Storage and other aspects of the I / O 4.1. Reliability and availability

4.2. Flash disk storage

4.3. Measures of performance in I / O

4.4. Parallelism and I / O

Unit 5: Advanced Techniques of Parallelism 5.1. Instruction level parallelism (ILP)

5.2. superscalar processors

5.2.1. Policies in Instruction Issue

5.2.2. Register renaming

5.2.3. Superscalar Implementation, reorder buffer, unit retirement

5.3. VLIW processors.

5.3.1. Planning by the compiler

5.3.2. Comparison Superscalar vs VLIW processor.

5.4. Multicore, multiprocessors and clusters

5.4.1. The difficulty of parallel programs

5.4.2. Shared memory multiprocessors

5.4.3. Clusters and another message-passing multiprocessor

5.4.4. Introduction to graphics processors

List of Important Questions for Computer Systems Architecture

  1. What do you understand by the term Computer Architecture?
  2. Is Computer Architecture different from a Computer Organization?
  3. What are the various Interrupts in a Microprocessor system?
  4. What are the standard Components of a Microprocessor?
  5. What do you know about MESI?
  6. Are you aware of Pipelining?
  7. What do you know about Cache Coherence?
  8. What is cache miss?
  9. What do you know about Virtual Memory?
  10. What are the five stages of the DLX pipeline?
  11. What is Branch Prediction, and how can it control Hazards?
  12. Can you calculate the number of sets given with its size and way in a cache?

FAQs on Computer System Architecture Notes

Questions 1.
What is Computer System Architecture?

The computer system architecture provides us with a detailed understanding of how a computer software system and a computer hardware system interact with each other to form the entire computer system. What a computer system architecture entails is the design of the computer system and how it functions with the various categories that are microarchitecture, instruction set architecture and system design, all these categories are what constitute the basic CPUs architecture, and it is the key in the function of the computer as a whole.

Question 2.
What are the best books for Computer System Architecture?


  • Computer Architecture and Design Books from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
  • Synthesis Lecture on Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture by Daniel J. Sorin
  • Computer Architecture: From Microprocessors to Supercomputers, Oxford, 2005 – Textbook for an upper-division undergraduate course, with 28 lecture-size chapters, 491 problems, and extensive downloadable PowerPoint presentations (ISBN 0-19-515455-X)
  • Virtual Machines – Versatile Platforms for Systems and Processes

Question 3.
What is the importance of computer system architecture?

Computer System Architecture is a hardware-centric study which gives students a better understanding of logic design. The subject is essential for software students as well because without understanding the hardware of the computer, you cannot make software developments since the development of software of hardware go hand in hand.

Question 4.
List a few of the important questions in Computer System Architecture


  1. Is Computer Architecture different from a Computer Organization?
  2. What are the various Interrupts in a Microprocessor system?
  3. What are the common Components of a Microprocessor?
  4. What do you know about MESI?
  5. Are you aware of Pipelining?


This article provides users with the most up to date information of computer System Architecture with the right notes, most resourceful books, curriculum and essential questions. By using all the resources provided in this article, users can easily prepare for any exam on the subject.

Lecture Notes for All Branches | Department Wise Lecture Notes for Preparation

Lecture Notes: Not every student can make effective Notes during their Class. To help all such students of B.Tech we have provided the Branch wise Notes of all the departments in an organized way. Those who are good at taking Lecture Notes during the class can score really well. Make use of them during your preparation and score max. marks in the exam. You can download the respective subject notes you want to prepare free of cost through the quick links available. Click on them and enhance your subject knowledge.

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Question 3.
Where do I get All Departments Lecture Notes for Exam Preparation?

You can get All Departments Lecture Notes for Exam Preparation on our page.

Question 4.
How do you effectively study and memorize the concepts of all subjects?

Prepare from the Branchwise Lecture Notes available and quickly revise the concepts in the subjects effectively. Practice them on a regular basis to retain for a long time.


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