Tribology Notes | Syllabus, Reference Books and Important Questions

Tribology Notes: Tribology is an important topic for the students of mechanical engineering and also other branches of the field. The course covers many vital concepts like the designing of tribology system, interfaces between different bodies, and other fundamental topics too like different characters of surfaces, mechanisms for metals, lubrications and others.

Tribology has some variations as nano-tribology and macro-tribology, and the course also covers these concepts and relationships between them. Students can refer to the Big Data Lecture Notes For CSE as per the latest and updated syllabus from this article.

The article carries all the vital details and descriptions that are necessary for understanding every concept deeply and get the best practice and preparation for them. Starting from the notes and reference books and moving on to the curriculum and important questions, the article contains all the matters with updated descriptions.

Every content available in this article for Tribology is precisely and expertly designed by the top professionals of the subject available with us. These professionals go through harder test series and interview procedures to get selected and prove their skills to be part of our team. We understand the needs of the students to have the best study materials and books for preparing everything finely and get the best results in the examination. Thus, we make sure that the content we provide has everything catering to their needs.

Furthermore, all the available contents mentioned in this article will boost up the entire learning process for the students and make them the champions of tribology subject and all of the included basic and advance level concepts.

Here is a list of all the contents available in this article:

Introduction to Tribology

Tribology is the concept of science that deals with friction, wear and lubrication for the surfaces. It covers the contents of how the interacting surfaces and some tribo-elements react in the presence of relative motion in artificial and natural environments. The subject also contains brief about the lubrication and bearing designs.

It is not an isolated concept of science and is a more complex one. It is a wider and multidisciplinary endeavour in which the advances begin by collaborated efforts of the researchers from mechanical engineering, material science and engineering, manufacturing, chemical engineering, and other related fields.

Wear and friction are not types of material properties. They are mainly the responses to certain tribology systems, that includes a combination of the shaft, bearing, and lubricants. Many other factors also influence them.

The entire tribological system contains operational or stress inputs, loss and functional outputs, and the system structure. The collective stress also includes physical and technical load parameters, including the sliding speed, load, and duration apart from the temperature conditions and the movement details. The system structure is also determined by some specific properties of substantial elements, including the opposing body, ambient, and the base.

Tribology is a vast subject and contains many other concepts that are briefly described in the provided notes and books in the article.

Tribology Notes and Study material PDF Free Download

Tribology notes and study materials contain brief descriptions about all the basic and advance level concepts related to the entire subject. The notes and study materials are professionally designed concepts to help the students in getting the best preparation and learning material for the topics and get the best results in all the examinations.

Tribology is a vast topic with many difficult and confusing topics, and the study materials are precisely designed, making sure that the students of all the skill-levels easily understand all the concepts.

The study materials also carry examples and solved questions related to different topics of the subject, apart from the brief descriptions of them, and thus are essential for the students.

Furthermore, these materials are beneficial for all the types of learning, starting from the institutional level to the competitive level and real-life application-based learning. The notes are available in the easily downloadable pdf formats, making it easier for the students to access them anytime and anywhere.

Tribology Reference Books

Reference books also play a key role in the entire learning and preparation process of the students. Some highly certified and credited global experts of the subject compiles these books using all their experience and thus ensures that the students can get everything related to a subject complied up at a single place. Manu of these reference books also has their different updated versions according to the changing global needs of the syllabus.

Mentioned Tribology reference books are the most recommended ones for the global students, and they are preferred even by several professionals to get more assistance on several related concepts.

Tribology reference books also carry many other things apart from just the basic descriptions of several topics, like the related and supporting examples, solved and unsolved problem statements, real-life applications, syllabus, and many more things.

Here is a list of some top reference books that the students must consider while preparing for Tribology:

  • “Introduction to Tribology”, B. Bhushan, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2002
  • “Engineering Tribology”, Prasanta Sahoo, PHI Learning Private Ltd, New Delhi, 2011.
  • “Engineering Tribology”, J. A. Williams, Oxford Univ. Press, 2005.
  • “Introduction to Tribology in bearings”, B. C. Majumdar, Wheeler Publishing.
  • “Tribology, Friction and Wear of Engineering Material”, I. M.Hutchings, Edward Arnold, London,1992.
  • “Engineering Tribology”, G. W. Stachowiak and A. W. Batchelor, Butterworth-Heinemann,1992.
  • “Friction and Wear of Materials”, Ernest Rabinowicz, John Wiley & sons,1995.
  • “Basic Lubrication Theory”, A. Cameron, Ellis Hardwoods Ltd., UK.
  • “Handbook of tribology: materials, coatings and surface treatments”, B.Bhushan, B.K. Gupta, McGraw-Hill,1997.

Tribology Curriculum

Tribology Curriculum and syllabus contains the description of the included topics and concepts in the right sequence. This content if the article is essential for the students to know about all the included topics and the right sequence to be followed for preparing them.

The syllabus is highly useful in the lives of the students learning mechanical engineering who will have the most use of the concepts of Tribology in their future lives. It helps them to understand everything well without any confusion and also understand the related concepts well while following a proper sequence.

Given below is the updated syllabus of Tribology as accepted by many top institutions and Universities:

Module-1: Introduction to Tribology
  • Historical background
  • Practical importance, and subsequent uses in the field
  • Lubricants: Types and specific applications
  • Properties of lubricants
  • Viscosity and its measurement
  • Effect of temperature and pressure on viscosity
  • Lubrication types
  • Standard grades of lubricants
  • Selection of lubricants.
Module-2: Friction and Wear
  • Origin of Friction
  • Friction theories
  • Measurement methods
  • The friction of metals and non-metals.
  • Classification and mechanisms of wear
  • Delamination theory
  • Debris analysis
  • Testing methods and standards
  • Related case studies.
Module-3: Hydrodynamic journal bearings
  • Friction forces and power loss in lightly loaded journal bearings
  • Petroff’s equation
  • Mechanism of pressure development in the oil film
  • Reynold’s equation in 2D.
  • Introduction to idealized journal bearing
  • Load carrying capacity
  • Condition for equilibrium
  • Sommerfeld’s number and its significance
  • Partial bearings
  • End leakages in journal bearing
  • Numerical examples on full journal bearings only.
Module-4: Plane slider bearings with shoe
  • Pressure distribution
  • Load carrying capacity
  • Coefficient of Friction
  • Frictional resistance in a fixed/pivoted shoe bearing
  • Center of pressure
  • Numerical examples.
Module-5: Hydrostatic Lubrication
  • Introduction to hydrostatic lubrication
  • Hydrostatic step bearings
  • Load carrying capacity 
  • Oil flow through the hydrostatic step bearing
  • Numerical examples.
Module-6: Bearing Materials
  • Commonly used bearings materials
  • Properties of typical bearing materials
  • Advantages and disadvantages of bearing materials.
  • Concept and scope of surface engineering
  • Surface modification 
  • Transformation hardening, surface melting, thermochemical processes
  • Surface Coating
  • Plating, fusion processes, and vapour phase processes
  • Selection of coating for wear and corrosion resistance.

List of Tribology Important Questions

Important questions also add up while practising and preparing the concepts of any subject. In Tribology too they play a vital role as they help the students in getting a clear idea about the right way in which the questions are created from several included topics and how they must prepare themselves to answer all the questions and get the best outcomes successfully.

There are many important questions provided the certified boards for the students to have the best-supported assistance. Here is a list of some of the important questions of Tribology to help the students practice well according to the mentioned and previously asked questions:

  • Explain Tribology.
  • Write the fundamentals of Tribology.
  • Explain the primary challenges faced by the top Tribologists.
  • Describe friction and wear.
  • What are the outcomes of applying Tribology to the bearing design?
  • Explain the role of Tribology in ensuring measurable product enhancement.
  • Explain how Tribology improves efficiency and extends the servicing life of the bearing
  • materials.
  • Write some examples of advancements in bearing technology and research.
  • Explain the applications and uses of Tribology.
  • What does an Engineer must consider while designing the products or wear and friction experiments?
  • Explain the GGB’s approach to deliver the best bearing solutions with Tribological expertise.
  • Explain some of the achievements of GGB in Tribology.
  • How is Tribology effective in reducing the requirement of liquid lubricants?
  • What are the impacts of the shaft and transfer layer on the performance of Tribology?
  • What are the essential factors of Tribology in the bearing selection? What are the effects of these factors on bearing selection?

Frequently Asked Questions on Tribology Notes

Question 1. 
Explain the main challenges faced by the tribologists.

The main challenge that the Tribologists face is that they wear vale and the friction value are not transferred easily from one system to the other. Comparison between the calculated and measured values is also not feasible when taken under consideration for the similar Tribological systems. The Tribological behaviour for different materials can be estimated only for some specific applications based on simulation testing and modulation.

Question 3.
How is Tribology effective in reducing the requirement of liquid lubricants?

Lubricants are a vital part of the entire Tribology subject. However, in certain scenarios, the lubricant is generated by the tribo-system components and the materials.

Thus, the material designers come up with some specific materials for the dryer lubrication conditions and achieving a better Tribological performance in terms of wear and friction with a reduction of the liquid lubricants.


This article contains the best lecture material and reference books for the students of mechanical engineering who need to learn the subject of tribology and understand dealing with friction, lubricants, and wear. The article also contains some important questions to help the students get a brief about the problems types and get the best practice for the subject. This is an important article for all mechanical engineering students worldwide.

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