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Python Programming – Modules and Packages
As the program gets longer, it is a good option to split it into several files for easier maintenance. There might also be a situation when the programmer wants to use a handy function that is used in several programs without copying its definition into each program. To support such scenarios, Python has a way to put definitions in a file and use them in a script or in an interactive instance of the interpreter.
A module is a file containing Python definitions and statements. The file name is the module name with the suffix .py appended. Definitions from a module can be imported into other modules. For instance, consider a script file called “fibo.py” in the current directory with the following code.
# Fibonacci numbers module def fib ( n ) : # write Fibonacci series up to n a , b=0 , 1 while b<n : print b , a, b=b , a+b def fib2 ( n ) : # return Fibonacci series up to n result= [ ] a , b = 0 , 1 while b<n: result . append ( b ) a , b=b , a+b return result
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Now on the Python interpreter, import this module with the following command:
>>> import fibo
Within a module, the module’s name (as a string) is available as the value of the global variable
>>> fibo.___name___ ' fibo '
Use the module’s name to access its functions:
>>> fibo . fib ( 1000 ) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 >>> fibo . fib2 ( 1000 ) [ 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 8 , 13 , 21 , 34 , 55 , 89 , 144 , 233 , 377 , 610 , 987 ]
If it is intended to use a function often, assign it to a local name:
>>> Fibonacci=fibo . fib >>> Fibonacci ( 500 ) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377