Digital Electronics Notes | Digital Electronics Lecture Notes & Study Material PDF

Digital Electronics Notes

Digital Electronic Notes: You are a witness of how the digital world is overshadowing our lifestyle. Digital Electronic has invaded every aspect of the human world.  Students who have opted for Digital Electronics courses have made an intelligent decision. However, clearing the Digital Electronic course needs a lot of dedication towards the subjects and studying the Digital Electronics Notes thoroughly.

Students who have doubts or harbour confusion will get all the genuine information here. From Digital Electronics Lecture Notes to Digital Electronics course syllabus, students have easy access to all the study material at one place. With the help of these Digital Electronics Notes PDF Free Download, Study Material, and Best Book For Digital Electronics students can ace the examination and earn good grades.  We have also circumferenced the latest Digital Electronics Course Syllabus to enable students for targeted study. The list of Digital Electronics Question Bank with Answers PDF will boost students confidence and help students evaluate their preparation. Below you will find the followings-

Introduction to Digital Electronics

Modern technology is collaborating with Digital Electronics to simplify our lives. According to a layman, Digital Electronics are our everyday utility items, such as remote control, laptop, smartphone, dishwasher, and more. The most complex Digital Electronics is the computer.

However, for design engineers and electronics engineers, Digital Electronics is beyond appliances. The term Digital Electronics branches out from engineering devices that require the study of circuits, electronics, and digital signals.   It is a chain of digital operations put through a series of successive operations by electrical switching circuits to accomplish logical designs.

The contribution of Joseph Henry’s invention of the electronic circuit or electronic gate in 1835, the world is gradually moving towards the digital age. The invention gave birth to several gadgets and electronic devices. The microprocessors and Integrated circuits are the best results of digital electronics.

Digital Electronics is a broad concept, which deals with digital systems and signals. Science students study Digital Electronics to understand the working of semiconductor chips and devices, such as Photocell, Diode, Phototransistor, etc. Students must grasp the fundamentals of Digital Electronics to understand the concept of a digital system.

Digital Electronics Notes PDF Free Download and Study Material

Digital Electronics is a core component in the third semester of the engineering programme. Furthermore, it is an integral part of B.Sc. 1st-year curriculum. Computer Science students cannot neglect the Digital Electronics topic.  Our lucid and well-explained Digital Electronics Notes PDF Free Download builds a strong foundation.

Students pursuing their Bachelor’s Degree can take advantage of Digital Electronics PDF Notes to score better marks in their exam. We have assembled easy-to-understand Digital Electronics Lecture Notes from eminent professors to initiate a deep learning process.

We facilitate aspirants with easy access and free download of Digital Electronics PDF Notes according to their course programme-

  • Digital Electronics Notes for the 3rd Sem  PDF
  • Digital Electronics Notes PDF Free Download
  • Digital Electronics Notes for B.Sc. 1st year PDF
  • Digital Electronics Notes for CSE
  • Digital Electronics Lecture Notes
  • Digital Electronics Notes PPT
  • Digital Electronics PDF Notes
  • Digital Electronics Tricky Questions
  • Digital Electronics Question Bank with Answers PDF
  • Digital Electronics Solved Problems PDF
  • Digital Electronics Questions PDF

Best Book For Digital Electronics

Apart from high-quality Digital Electronics PDF Notes, engineering and computer science students are lucky to find a compiled list of Best Books for Digital Electronics here. Some Digital Electronics books are hardcover books whereas few of them are eBooks which students can avail online. Engineering students extensively use all the books mentioned here. University professors recommend these books to their students to enable them a clear understanding of the Digital Electronics topic.

  • Digital Logic and Computer Design by M. Morris Mano (Pearson Education 2004)
  • Digital Fundamentals by Morris and Mano (PHI Publications)
  • Digital Electronics Book by John Morris (Routledge, 2013)
  • Digital Fundamentals by Floyd and Jain (Pearson’s Publications)
  • Fundamental for Digital Circuits Book by A. Anand Kumar (Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.Ltd 2014)
  • Fundamentals of Logic Design by Charles H. Ruth Thomson
  • Digital Electronics: Principles and Integrated Circuit by Anil K. Maini (Wiley 2007)
  • The Art of Electronics- The Third Edition by Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill (Cambridge University Press 2015)
  • Digital Electronics: An Introduction To Theory And Practice by William Gothmann H (Prentice Hall)
  • Digital Fundamentals- The Eleventh Edition by Thomas L. Floyd (Pearson 2015)
  • Modern Digital Electronics by R. P. Jain
  • Digital Principles and Applications by Malvino (McGraw Hill Education 2014)
  • Pulse and Digital Circuit by A. Anand Kumar
  • Digital Design by M. Morris Mano (Pearson 2012)

Digital Electronics Course Syllabus

Students will find Digital Electronics Notes PDF Free Download easy to understand. Our Digital Electronics PDF Notes and Digital Electronics Lecture Notes covers the entire Digital Electronics Course Syllabus.  The syllabus aims to impart Digital Circuit knowledge and its applications.  The curriculum wants to draw the attention of the students to electronic circuits.

The Digital Electronics Course Syllabus is the updated version that eliminates redundant topics. Thus, students can save ample time while preparing for their Digital Electronics Course Syllabus.

Unit Course Content Topics
I Introduction to Digital Systems Introduction to Digital Electronics

Binary Digits

Digital and Analog Signals and Systems

Digital Waveforms Logic Systems-Positive and negative

Logic Levels

Combinational and Sequential Logic Functions

Logic Operations

Programmable Logic

Fixed-Function Logic Devices

II Number Systems and Codes Introduction to Number Systems

Types-Binary, Decimal, Hexadecimal, Octal

Binary Arithmetic Operations

Conversion from one number system to another

Representation of Negative Numbers

Complement arithmetic

1’s complement and 2’s complement

Digital Code-Excess-3 code, BCD code, and Gray Codes

ASCII code

Binary to Excess -3 code conversion and vice versa

Error Detection Codes

EBCIDIC code

III Logic Gates Logic Gates-Basic Gates

Logical Operators

Active high and Active low concepts

Gate Performance Characteristics and Parameters

Universal Gates and realization

IV Boolean Algebra Laws and Rules of Boolean Algebra

Boolean Expressions and Truth Tables

De Morgan’s Theorems

Standard SOP and POS forms

Canaonical representation of Boolean expressions

Minterm and Maxterms

Simplification of Boolean Expressions

Duality Theorem

Minimization Techniques for Boolean Expressions using Karnaugh Map and Quine McCluskey Tabular method

V Combinational Circuits- Part 1 Introduction to combinational Circuits

Subtractors- Half and Full Subtractor

Adders-Half-Adder and Full-Adder

Ripple Carry and Look-Ahead Carry Adders

Parallel adder and Subtractor

Vi Combinational Circuits- Part 2 BCD adder and subtractor

Multiplexer

Parity Checker/Generator

Demultiplexer

Decoder

BCD to Seven segment Display Decoder/Driver

Encoder

Priority Encoder

LCD Display

Comparators

VII Sequential Circuits Introduction to Sequential Circuits

Flip -Flops

Kinds of Flip Flops – RS, D, T, JK

Flip-Flops Conversions

Flip-Flops Triggering

Master- Salve JK

VIII Shift Registers Basic Shift Register Operations

Shift Registers Introduction

Kinds of Shift Registers

Shift Registers Counters

Bidirectional Shift Registers

PRBS Generators

Typical ICS for Shift Registers

IX Counters Counters Introduction

Counter Coding

Kinds of Counters- Synchronous and Asynchronous counters, Cascaded Counters, and Up/Down Synchronous Counters

State Table

Excitation Table Concepts

Typical ICS for counters

Asynchronous and synchronous counters’ Design

Counter Applications

X A/D and D/A Converters Digital to Analog Converter, Weighed Register: R-2R Ladder Network: Analog to Digital Conversion, Successive Approximation Type, Dual Slope Type.
XI Programmable Logic Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLDs)

Simple Programmable Logic Devices (SPLDs)

Field-Programmable Gage Arrays (FPGAs) Programmable Logic Software

XII Computer Concepts Basics of Computer Systems

Hardware and Software concepts

Microcontrollers and Embedded Systems

Operating Systems

Digital Signal Processor (DSP)

Digital Signal Processing,

XIII Memory and Storage Semiconductor Memory Basics

Types of Semiconductor- RAM, ROM, Flash Memory

Programmable ROMs, Memory Expansion,

Magnetic and Optical Storage

Special Types of Memories

XIV Logic Families Terms of parameters-current voltage parameters, Fan in, Fan out, Noise Margin, Propagation Delay, Power Dissipation.

Transistor as a Switch

Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL)

Transistor Logic(RTL)

Resistor

Typical TTL

The function of the Input Transistor

Diode Transistor Logic (DTL)

Volt-Ampere Characteristics

NAND Gate

Output Stages: Totem Pole and Modified Totem Pole

Open collector outputs

Integrated Injection Logic (IIL) and MOS-logic

Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)

Integrated Injection Logic (IIL) and MOS-logic Comparison of Various Logic Families

List of Digital Electronics Question Bank with Answers PDF

Candidates pursuing engineering and computer science courses as their integral part of the bachelor’s degree, need to be abreast with the Important Questions Digital Electronics to prepare for the examination.

Digital Electronics is a three hours written paper.  It includes 70 marks of theoretical evaluation, 30 marks for IE, and 20 marks for CIA. The total marks for Digital Electronics subject are 120 marks. We urge the students to practice the Digital Electronics Question Bank with Answers PDF to get excellent scores in the semester exam.

  1. Explain why 0.5, 1, 2 are not a digital logic.
  2. Describe ‘minterm’ and ‘maxterm.’
  3. How will you change the decimal number to base 3, base 4, base 7, base 8, and base 16?
  4. Discuss Binary Synchronous Counter.
  5. Explain using an example, how control logics work in the presence of sequence register and decoder.
  6. Establish that the all minterms logical sum of a Boolean function of 2 variables is 1.
  7. If Y=A+BC′+AB+A′BC Y=A(B+B′)(C+C′)+(A+A′)BC′+AB(C+C′)+A′BC Y=ABC+ABC′+AB′C+AB′C′+ABC′+A′BC′+ABC+ABC′+A′BC Y=ABC+ABC′+AB′C+AB′C′+A′BC′+A′BC, then how will you change Y=A+BC′+AB+A′BC into canonical form?
  8. Name any three Theorems of Boolean Algebra and verify using logic gates and truth tables in each case.
  9. Construct a circuit which takes a 4-bit hexadecimal number as input and returns its square as output.
  10. State De Morgan’s Theorem and give an example.
  11. How does a JK Flipflop work? Example by giving a suitable logic diagram. How is it different from RS Flip Flop?
  12. What is the full form of SOP and POS expression? Also, give an example in each case.
  13. Write the steps required to analyze a sequential clock circuit.
  14. Write the truth table and logic symbol for the logic gates given below.

(i) Three input AND gate

(ii)Two input NOR gate

(iii)EX-NOR gate

(iv)Three input EX-OR gate

FAQs on Digital Electronics Notes

Question 1.
What is Digital Electronics?

Answer:
The term Digital Electronics branches out from engineering devices that require the study of circuits, electronics, and digital signals. It is a chain of digital operations put through a series of successive operations by electrical switching circuits to accomplish logical designs.

Question 2.
List a few of the best books for Digital Electronics courses?

Answer:
University professors recommend these books to their students to enable them a clear understanding of the Digital Electronics topic.   Top scorer students study from the given list of books.

  • Digital Logic and Computer Design by M. Morris Mano (Pearson Education 2004)
  • Digital Fundamentals by Morris and Mano (PHI Publications)
  • Digital Electronics Book by John Morris (Routledge, 2013)

Question 3.
What is the strategy of studying the Digital Electronics course programme?

Answer:
Digital Electronics course programmes need students to have a strong physics and mathematics base in school.  Students can score well in the subject if they prioritise their studying strategy.  Students can get a good start if they chalk out a realistic study schedule.  We have provided Digital Electronics Notes to help students with the study material. Apart from high-quality Digital Electronics PDF Notes, engineering and computer science students are lucky to find a compiled list of Best Books for Digital Electronics here. Moreover, we have listed the best books for Digital Electronics, which is widely used by engineering students and professors.  Practising the Digital Electronics Question Bank with Answers PDF will assure students of excellent scores in the semester exam.

Question 4.
Where can I find essential questions for the Digital Electronics course programme?

Answer:
Here you will find all the essential questions for the Digital Electronics course programme that will help you prepare for the examination.

  1. Describe ‘minterm’ and ‘maxterm.’
  2. How will you change the decimal number to base 3, base 4, base 7, base 8, and base 16?
  3. Discuss Binary Synchronous Counter.

Digital Electronics Notes Conclusion

The information on Digital Electronic Course Programme is dependable. Students who want to excel in the exam and get a firm grip of the Digital Electronic Concept should study from our high-quality Digital Electronics PDF Notes. Besides, our Best Books for Digital Electronics and eBooks will help engineering and computer science students save their valuable time. Students should practice the Digital Electronics Question Bank with Answers PDF to get excellent scores in the semester exam.

Advanced Java Notes | Download Advanced Java Notes and Study Material PDF

Advanced Java Notes 

Advanced Java Notes: Students searching for advanced Java notes can find sufficient study material and notes here on the subject.

Here the Advanced Java notes can act as primary guides for participants studying the subject as it covers most of the important topics on the subject which can help students to get a brief overview of the subject. These notes can help any aspiring students to enhance their preparation so that they can get better grades.

Students will find in this article different Lecture Notes on the subject which are free, recommended reference books and a list of important questions that will help students be more prepared for their exams.

These notes are prepared to mainly help students to get a thorough preparation for their exam and so that they can achieve better scores in Advanced Java.

Introduction to Advanced Java Notes

Advanced Java covers everything that core java does like the APIs that are defined in JAVA Enterprise, including web services, the persistence API, Selvet programming etc.

Here in this programming language, it allows users to be platform-independent, which allows them to develop applications on any operating system. In Advanced Java, you will be able to work on web and Application servers which will allow you to understand the communication over HTTP protocol unlike in core Java.

Advanced Java has another advantage over core Java, and that is it provides a library that helps you better understand client servers architecture.

B.Tech Advanced Java Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Students studying their Bachelor in technology will find the following article helpful in their preparation for the subject. The subject gives students a detailed look into how Advanced Java can help bring in better Web applications and how easier they are to run on various operating systems.

So instead of using different tutorials online students studying B.Tech can use the notes provided in these articles to understand better different concepts and they can enhance their preparation with these topics. These notes can act as a reference when preparing for the subject and also can help during revision.

The following are a list of important notes for Advanced Java that are available online for free and can be downloaded any time during the preparation of the subject

  • ADVANCED JAVA PROGRAMMING NOTES
  • ADVANCED java lecture notes
  • Advanced java programming notes PDF
  • Advanced Java Programming lecture notes PDf free
  • Advanced java and core Java notes

Advanced Java Reference Books

Books allow its readers to materialize the concepts better it goes over so that readers firstly get a more in-depth view of the subject and help them go over the specifics. Here students can avail the best-recommended books on Advanced Java and use them to their advantage by preparing better for any exam.

Here the books that students can use to refer to for Advanced Java are recommended by subject experts. Students can use the books and other study material to prepare for Advanced Java.

The following are the list of highly recommended books for students pursuing to study Advanced Java-

  • Core Java Volume II: Advanced Features
  • Java Performance: The Definitive Guide, O Reilly
  • Key Java: Advanced Tips and Techniques
  • Java Concurrency in Practice
  • The Well-Grounded Java Developer
  • Thinking in Java by Bruce Eckel
  • Java 8 in Action: Lambdas, Streams, and functional-style programming by Raoul-Gabriel Urma
  • Optimizing Java
  • Effective Java by Joshua Bloch
  • Java Concurrency in Practice by Brian Goetz
  • Java By Comparison: Become a Java Craftsman in 70 Examples
  • Head First Design Pattern
  • Refactoring by Martin Fowler
  • Test-Driven
  • Functional Programming in Java

Advanced Java curriculum

Students need to have a structure when preparing for their exams, keeping in mind every student’s requirements, we have provided a detailed view of the Computer Network curriculum.

UNIT TOPIC
Unit 1
  • CORE JAVA
  • Introduction to Java
  •  Data types
  •  Variables
  •  Operators
  •  Arrays
  •  Control Statements
  •  Classes & Method
  •  Inheritance
  •  Exception Handling
  •  Multithreading
  • Collections
  •   I/O streams
Unit 2
  • Connecting to a Server
  •  Implementing Servers
  •  Sending E-Mail
  •  Making URL Connections
  •  Advanced Socket Programming DATABASE NETWORKING: The Design of JDBC. The Structured Query Language
  • JDBC Installation
  •  Basic JDBC Programming Concepts,
  • Query Execution
  •  Scrollable and Updatable Result Sets
  • Metadata
  • Row Sets
  •  Transactions.
Unit 3
  • Lists
  •  Tree
  •  Tables
  •  Styled Text Components
  •  Progress Indicators
  •  Component Organizers The Rendering Pipeline
  • Shapes, Areas
  • Strokes, Paint, Coordinate Transformations
  • Clipping
  • Transparency and Composition
  •  Rendering Hints
  •  Readers and Writers for Images
  •  Image Manipulation Printing.
  • The Clipboard, Drag and Drop.
Unit 4
  • Beans
  •  The Bean-Writing Process
  •  Using Beans to Build an Application
  • Naming Patterns for Bean
  •  Components and Events Bean Property
  •  Tubes Bean info Classes
  •  Property
  •  Editors, Customizes.
Unit 5
  • Introduction to JSP
  •  JSP built in object
  • Tags
  •  Servlets
  •  Mapping
  •  a web application

List of Important Questions for Advanced Java

  1. List different services provided by JNDI. Explain how basic lookup is performed in JNDI.
  2. Explain about lookup operations in LDAP with examples.
  3. Explain different layers in RMI architecture
  4. Discuss parameter passing in RMI, with examples
  5. What is introspection in java beans? Explain how BeanInfo interface helps in introspection of beans
  6. List and briefly explain any four classes in Java Beans API.
  7. What is an EJB container? Explain how EJB invocation happens.
  8. What is a stateless EJB? Explain with an example
  9. Present and explain the life cycle of a servlet
  10. Discuss different security issues with web servers
  11. Write the procedure for the deployment of JSP in the Tomcat server.
  12. Discuss JSP error handling and debugging.
  13. Explain how to deploy java beans in a JSP page, with an example.
  14. What is the structs framework? How is it different from other frameworks?
  15. What are horizontal web services? Explain with examples. Also, list other types of web services.

Present the features of SOAP and also write how to develop web services with SOAP.

FAQS on Advanced Java Notes

Question 1
What is Advanced Java?

Answer
Advanced Java covers everything that core java does like the APIs that are defined in JAVA Enterprise, including web services, the persistence API, Selvet programming etc.

Here in this programming language, it allows users to be platform-independent, which allows them to develop applications on any operating system. In Advanced Java, you will be able to work on web and Application servers which will allow you to understand the communication over HTTP protocol unlike in core Java.

Question 2
What are good books to study Advance Java from?

Answer

  • Core Java Volume II: Advanced Features
  • Java Performance: The Definitive Guide, O Reilly
  • Key Java: Advanced Tips and Techniques
  • Java Concurrency in Practice
  • The Well-Grounded Java Developer
  • Thinking in Java by Bruce Eckel
  • Java 8 in Action: Lambdas, Streams, and functional-style programming by Raoul-Gabriel Urma

Question 3
What are the most frequently asked questions in Advanced Java?

Answer

  1. List different services provided by JNDI. Explain how basic lookup is performed in JNDI.
  2. Explain about lookup operations in LDAP with examples.
  3. List and briefly explain any four classes in Java Beans API.
  4. What is an EJB container? Explain how EJB invocation happens.
  5. Explain different layers in RMI architecture
  6. Discuss parameter passing in RMI, with examples
  7. What is introspection in java beans? Explain how the BeanInfo interface helps in introspection of beans?

Advanced Java Notes Conclusion

So in these notes on Advanced Java, the information provided is reliable and genuine, and the notes and books mentioned above are provided to help enhance students performance in the subject. Therefore students can use this article to help prepare for any upcoming exam on the subject.

Software Engineering Notes for MCA Students | Download SE Books, Study Materials, Notes PDF for free

Software Engineering Notes for MCA

Software Engineering Notes for MCA: Are you an MCA student, and are you searching all over to get a hold of the Software Engineering Notes?

This article provides you with the best and credible Lecture Notes and study materials to access and ace your preparation process of all the essential concepts.

The Software Engineering Notes and Study Materials for MCA are important reference sources that foster and ensure better preparation and also help students secure a high rank. Graduates can avail the best Software Engineering Notes for MCA course programme as per the latest syllabus update from this article.

Software Engineering Study Materials and Notes For MCA gives students an advantage. Students get updates on what you will acquire from the latest unit-wise breakup of the Syllabus, detailed Notes, recommended Reference Books, and Study Materials for MCA course programme over regular class notes.

Students can avail and download the Software Engineering Notes For MCA PDF Free Download from this article.

  • Software Engineering Reference Books for MCA
  • Software Engineering Updated Syllabus for MCA
  • List of Software Engineering Important Questions for MCA
  • FAQs on Software Engineering Notes For MCA
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Software Engineering Notes for MCA

Software Engineering deals with the creation of large software pieces comprising a thousand lines of codes.  Software Engineering for MCA is a Computer Science discipline that deals with the development of large applications. Software Engines is not only about the technical creation of building software systems, but also deals with management issues, including budgeting, directing programming teams, and managing.

Software Engineering is a problem-solving activity, a modelling activity, a rationale activity, and a knowledge acquisition activity. The scope of Software Engineering holds a broad aspect- Team Development, Historical, Maintenance, Economic, and Requirement, Analysis, and Design Aspects.

Software Engineering Notes and Study Materials for MCA PDF Free Download

Students pursuing their Masters in Computer Application (MCA) can avail from the Software Engineering Notes and Study Materials briefed in detail in this article. Graduates can construct and better your preparation through the Software Engineering Notes For MCA as they function as a fundamental tool to help students secure a higher rank.

Students can download the PDF form of the study materials and notes on Software Engineering Notes For MCA and refer to them during the revision or preparation process. Reference and utilisation of the Software Engineering Notes For MCA course programme will assist graduates in getting a better grasp of all the important concepts and topics and helping to change their score chart.

Here, are a list of a few important Software Engineering Notes For MCA PDFs graduates can download and refer for a thorough preparation of the course programme-

  • Software Engineering Concept-based Notes For MCA PDFs
  • Software Engineering Notes For MCA PDFs
  • Software Engineering Handwritten Notes For MCA PDFs
  • Software Engineering Question Paper For MCA PDFs
  • Software Engineering PPT Notes For MCA PDFs
  • Software Engineering Past Years Question Paper Solutions for MCA PDFs

Software Engineering Reference Books for MCA

Books are an abundant source of information. They contain full-fledged detailed descriptions and well-researched information put forth by subject experts in their respective field. However, graduates must consult before referencing any books that provide excellent conceptual background. Students can avail the best books for Software Engineering For MCA course programme as per the subject expert’s recommendations from this article. You can refer to these books and study materials during your preparation.

The list of best and highly recommended books for Software Engineering Notes For MCA course programme are as follows, and graduates should ensure to select the book that meets their knowledge and prepare accordingly.

  1. MCS-034- Software Engineering (IGNOU MCA HelpBook) by Dr DK Sukhani
  2. Software Engineering Book for MCA Students by R. Kaur and A. Jindal
  3. Data & Network Communications by Miller, VIKAS Publications
  4. Computer Organization and Design by Pal Chowdhury, PHI Publications
  5. The Tenth Edition of Software Engineering Book by Ian Sommerville
  6. Book on Software Engineering- Design, Reliability and Management by M.L. Shooman
  7. The Fourth Edition of Fundamentals of Software Engineering by Rajib Mall
  8. The Second Edition of Software Engineering- Theory and Practice Book by S.L. Pfleeger
  9. The Fourth Edition of Object-oriented and Classical Software Engineering by Stephen R. Schach
  10. The Eight Edition of Software Engineering- A Practitioner’s Approach by R.S Pressman
  11. The Third Edition of Software Engineering Principles and Practices by Hans Van Vliet

Software Engineering Updated Syllabus for MCA

The best way to enhance your preparation is by having a basic overview and idea of the Software Engineering Notes For MCA Syllabus. A syllabus is a planning tool that helps every student organise, prepare, and structure all the study materials and notes for the exam. Keeping in mind every student’s requirements, we have provided a detailed view of the Software Engineering latest and updated syllabus for MCA.

Course Syllabus gives students a clear cut of all the important concepts, what to study, how to study, and more. The unit-wise breakup of the Software Engineering syllabus for MCA course programme will give students a comprehensive understanding of each unit and enough preparation time for each topic.

Students must ensure to cover all the essential concepts before making an attempt at the Software Engineering For MCA course exam so that the paper is reasonably answerable at the time of the exam. Graduates must also ensure to stay aware and updated of the essential concepts falling under the Software Engineering segment For MCA course programme Syllabus as it prevents you from squandering unnecessary time on redundant topics.

The updated unit-wise breakup of the Software Engineering Syllabus for MCA course programme is as follows-

UNIT-I- Software Engineering Basics

Introduction to Software Engineering Basics, Product Life Cycle, Software Engineering Technologies, Project Life Cycle- The Waterfall Model, The Reusable Software Model, The Spiral Model and the Evolutionary Prototyping Model.

UNIT-II- Software Engineering Methodologies

Introduction to Software Engineering Methodologies, Components of Software Engineering, and Software Development Models- Rapid Application Development Models, Capability Maturity Model, and Incremental Model.

UNIT-III- Adaptive Versus Predictive Approaches to SDLC

An Introduction, Separation of Design and Construction, Traditional Predictive Approaches to SDLC, Unpredictability of Requirements and Adaptive Approaches to SDLC.

UNIT-IV- Agile Programming

An Introduction, Agile Manifesto, Flavours of Agile Development, and Limitation of The Agile Process.

UNIT-V- XP- Extreme Programming

Introduction, XP Values, Developer Effectiveness, Assuming Sufficiency- Sufficient time and resources, Freedom to Experiment, and XP Equation, and Constant Change of Cost

UNIT-VI- Extreme Programming Practices

An Introduction, Developer Practices, Coding Practices, and Business Practices.

UNIT-VII- XP Events

An Introduction to XP Events, Iteration Planning- Iteration, Estimates and Schedules, Releasing, First Iteration, and Stories and Tasks.

UNIT-VIII- Extreme Programming Practices

An Introduction, Bullpens, Task Cards, and Story Cards.

UNIT-IX- Roles in Extreme Programming

An Introduction, Supplementary Roles, Developer’s Roles, and Customer’s Roles.

UNIT-X- Coding XP Style

An Introduction, Elimination of Repetition, Balance of Functionality with Simplicity, and Implementation of Only the Needed Features.

UNIT-XI- Adopting XP

An Introduction to Adopting XP, Elimination of Fear and Working Together, Comprising Customers and Managers, Before Commencing XP, and Starting Feedback.

UNIT-XII- Agile Modelling with XP

An Introduction to Agile Modelling with XP, Agile Modelling and Comparing XP, and Scrum Methodology- Advantages and Roles of the Scrum

UNIT-XII- Dynamic Systems Development Methodology

Introduction to Dynamic Systems Development Methodology, Core Techniques used in DSDM, An Overview of DSDM, Phases of DSDM, and Basic Principles of DSDM

UNIT-IX- XP Tools

An Introduction to XP Tools, Open Sources of Toolkits, JAVA and XP, and Philosophies and Tools.

List of Software Engineering Important Questions for MCA

Candidates pursuing the Masters in Computer Application (MCA) course programme can go through the list of all the important questions on Software Engineering Notes. All the listed important questions aim to help postgrads excel in the examination. However, candidates must ensure to refer and practice the questions to secure good grades.

  • Write short notes on Human-Computer Interface Design.
  • With a neat labelled diagram, elucidate on the Spiral Model to develop s/w.
  • Elucidate on the importance of Design Models and Analysis
  • List and briefly explain any four challenges for managing web-based projects.
  • Design with a neat labelled diagram the Applications of Software.
  • Elucidate the various activities occurring in the Spiral Model and Iterative Waterfall for Software life cycles.
  • Describe the features along with examples on Java Device Test Suite (JDTS)
  • Briefly explain Unit Testing.
  • What are Risk Components?
  • Demonstrate Risk Manager Tool with a neat-labelled diagram
  • Enlist the types of Software Myths.
  • Define s/w matrices and state a few common examples on s/w measures. Briefly explain the parameters of s/w measurements.
  • Write a short note on Increment Model.
  • Explain the two prototyping approaches in the software process.
  • Elucidate on Smoke Testing.

FAQs on Software Engineering Notes for MCA

Question 1.
What is the importance of Software Engineering in MCA course Programme?

Answer:
Software engineering is a highly important and specific software required in almost every business, industry, and function. It is important software that fixes student’s application, effective and efficient fix, portfolio, and a quick fix that fixes immediately. Therefore, Software Engineering plays an important role in MCA course programmes.

Question 2.
What are the various SOftware Engineering Methodologies taught in an MCA course programme?

Answer:
Students learn about – Introduction to Software Engineering Methodologies, Components of Software Engineering, and Software Development Models- Rapid Application Development Models, Capability Maturity Model, and Incremental Model.

Question 3.
Why are reference books an important aspect of Software Engineering in MCA course Programme?

Answer:
Books are a rich source of information and knowledge. They contain full-fledged detailed descriptions and well-researched information put forth by subject experts in their respective field. However, graduates must consult before referencing any books that provide excellent conceptual background and must ensure to cover all the essential concepts before attempting the Software Engineering For MCA course exam so that the paper is reasonably answerable at the time of the exam.

Question 4.
Name a few important questions for Software Engineering in MCA course programmes.

Answer:

  • With a neat labelled diagram, elucidate on the Spiral Model to develop s/w.
  • Elucidate on the importance of Design Models and Analysis
  • List and briefly explain any four challenges for managing web-based projects.
  • Design a neat labelled diagram for the Applications of Software.
  • Elucidate the various activities occurring in the Spiral Model and Iterative Waterfall for Software life cycles.

Conclusion

The data on Software Engineering Notes For MCA is credible and reliable, and the Books and Study Materials mentioned above aim to help and amplify student’s knowledge and understanding of the subject matter during preparations and at the time of examination. Graduates can refer and practice from the provided Software Engineering Notes, Books, Study Materials, and Important Questions for MCA course programme from this article.

Operating System Lecture Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Operating System Notes: Are you looking for Operating System (OS) Lecture Notes and Study Materials? Then, this article is your lifesaver as you can avail of the best notes, reference materials, and the list of essential questions for your preparation process with all the essential concepts.

The Operating System Lecture Notes and Reference Materials is a predominant tool that fosters and amplifies your preparation, helps students score better grades, and gives a brief comprehension of all the essential concepts falling under Operating Systems. Students can refer and avail the Notes and Reference Study Materials on Operating Systems as per the latest curriculum from this article.

Graduates hold a significant advantage with Operating System Lecture Notes as you will acquire the latest and updated Syllabus, Reference Books, and the list of all the Important Questions for Operating System Lecture Notes over regular class notes.

Students can avail from the Operating System Lecture Notes PDFs and Reference Books from this article and use compatible preparation approaches with the best and updated study resources and achieve high ranks.

  • Operating System Lecture Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download
  • Operating System Lecture Notes Reference Books
  • Operating System Lecture Notes Updates Syllabus
  • List of Operating System Lecture Important Questions
  • FAQs on Operating System Lecture Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Operating System Lecture Notes

Operating Systems is a software which acts as an affiliate between the computer hardware and the end-user. Every Computer system must have at least one Operating System like Microsoft Word, or Chrome or Games so that it fosters an environment that performs the task.

Operating Systems platforms communication between the user and the device and helps the user understand the programming language. A user can’t operate a computer devoid of an Operating System.

A few examples of Operating Systems are iOS (15.44), Windows Phone OS (0.06), windows(40.36), Chrome oS (0.14), Android (37.95), etc.

Operating System Lecture Notes and Study Materials- PDF Free Download

Students can avail the Operating System Lecture Notes and Study Materials updated in this article. Students can aid your preparation with the ultimate preparation tools to help you procure better marks.

Students can download the study materials and notes and read through them during the revision or preparation process. The utilisation of the Operating System Lecture Notes and Study Materials as a source of reference will help graduates get a better overview of the concepts and topics and help you change the score game.

Here, are a list of a few all the essential notes for comprehensive preparation of the Operating System course program

  • Operating System Lecture Notes for CSE PDF
  • Operating System Lecture Notes PDF
  • Operating System Previous Year’s Question Papers PDF
  • Operating System Handwritten Lecture Notes PDFs
  • Operating System Programme Question Paper PDFs
  • Operating System Lecture PPT Notes PDFs

Operating System Reference Books

Books are a rich and abundant load of information, and graduates should ensure that you confer to select the right books that provide excellent conceptual background. Students can avail the best sources of reference books for Operating Systems as per the subject experts’ recommendations.

Graduates can refer and read through the Operating Systems Books and other sources that assist you during your preparation.

The list of most recommended and best books for Operating Systems preparation are as follows, and students can select the book that meets their knowledge to prepare accordingly.

  • Book on Operating System Concepts by Avi Silberschatz and Peter Galvin
  • Operating Systems- A Modern Perspective Book by Gary J Nutt
  • William Stallings’s Book on Operating Systems- Internals and Design Principles
  • Book on Operating Systems by Archer J Harris
  • Operating Systems- A Concept-Based Approach Book by D M Dhamdhere
  • Andrew S Tanenbaum’s Book by MODERN OPERATING SYSTEMS
  • Book on Design of the Unix Operating Systems by Maurice Bach
  • James Farber and Ken Rosen’s Book on Unix – The Complete Reference
  • Operating System Concepts- The Sixth Edition of Windows XP Book Update by Silberschatz Galvin Gagne
  • Book on Operating System- A Design-oriented Approach Book by Charles Crowley
  • Tom Carpenter’s Book on Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

Operating System Updates Syllabus

The best way to make your preparation effective is with an initial idea and an outline of the Computer Network Syllabus. Keeping in mind every student’s requirements, we have provided a detailed view of the Computer Network curriculum.

Course Curriculum will give students a clear idea of what to study, and the chapter-wise break up gives topics under each unit carefully and allot time to each topic.

Students must cover all the topics before attempting the Computer Network exam so that the paper is reasonably comfortable at the time of the exam. Candidates must ensure awareness of the Computer Network Syllabus as it prevents you from wasting unnecessary time on redundant topics.

The updated chapter-wise breakup of the Computer Network Syllabus is as follows-

Chapter 1- An Overview of Operating Systems

  • A Brief History of Operating Systems
  • An Introduction to Operating Systems

Chapter 2 – Basics and Background of Operating Systems

  • The Structures of the Operating System
  • Basics of Operating Systems- Multi programmed Batch, Batch, and Timesharing
  • The Structures of Computer System
  • A Review of Computer System- Instruction Cycle, Architecture, and Process Control Block

Chapter 3 – Processes of Operating Systems

  • Definition of processes
  • Various Threads
  • Process Structures- PCB and Components
  • Process States- The Five States Model
  • Operations on Processes

Chapter 4 – Computer Process Unit (CPU) Scheduling

  • Algorithms- Priority Scheduling, The First Come First Serve Concept, Round Robin, and Shortest Job First
  • I/O Burst Cycle
  • Scheduling Criteria
  • Context Switching
  • Scheduling- Long Terms and Short Terms

Chapter 5 – Process Synchronisation

  • Two Process Solutions- Algorithm Part I, Algorithm Part II, Algorithm Part III, and Bakery Algorithm
  • Deadlocks and Starvation
  • Critical Section Problem- Races and Mutual Exclusion
  • Classic Synchronisation problems- Dining Philosophers and Readers or Writers
  • Synchronisation Hardware- Swap and Test and Set
  • Semaphores

Chapter 6 – Deadlocks

  • Resource Allocation Graphs
  • System Model
  • Handling of Deadlocks- Avoiders, Banker’s Algorithm, and Prevention
  • All necessary Conditions for a Deadlock- No Preemption, Mutual Exclusion, Circular Wait, and Hold and Wait

Chapter 7 – Memory Management

  • Thrashing
  • Address Binding- Compile Time, Execution Time, and Load Time
  • Swapping- Contiguous Allocation- Multiple Partition (Worst Fit, First Fit, and Best Fit), Internal and External Fragmentation, and Single Partition
  • Virtual Memory and Paging- Page Replacement Algorithms- FIFO (Belady’s Anomaly), MFU, Optimal, and LRU; Demand Paging, Basics, and Page Replacement

Chapter 8 – Storage

  • Protection
  • Files- Operations, Access methods, Attributes, File Types, Structures, and Operations
  • Directory Structure

Chapter 9 – File System Implementation

  • Free Space Management
  • Allocation methods

Chapter 10 – Secondary Storage Structure

  • Disks- Scheduling and Structures- FCFS, SCAN, and SSTF

List of Operating System Important Questions

Students can refer and read through the list of essential and crucial questions mentioned below for the Operating System course program. All the given review questions aim to help the graduates excel in the examination through comprehensive preparation.

  1. State the difference between a process and a Job.
  2. Please write a short note on Time Slicing and state how its duration affects and impacts the overall working process of a system.
  3. Explain in detail the relationship factor between Computer Hardware and Operating Systems.
  4. Name a few crucial advantages of Multiprogramming.
  5. Explain in detail the different allocation algorithms.
  6. Write a short note on Semaphores
  7. State a few user inconveniences faced during the interaction with a Computer System that is devoid of Operating Systems.
  8. Build a comparison between Multiprogramming and Multiprocessing.
  9. Explain the HRN- Highest Response Ratio Next Scheduling.
  10. The contrast between Segmentation and Paging.
  11. State the main differences between Time-Sharing System and Real-Time System
  12. Write a short note on how Buffering improves the performance of a Computer System.
  13.  Explain Process Scheduler and write a brief on the characteristics of a good Process Scheduler.
  14. What is Pseudo-Parallelism and write a short note on the process model that eases the working of the model.
  15. State the primary differences between a Distributed operating System and a Network Operating System.

FAQs on Operating System Lecture Notes

Question 1.
What is the importance of Operating Systems?

Answer:
An Operating System is a necessary software used to run the Computer. It allows users to communicate with the Computer irrespective of the complex programming languages.

The Operating Systems manage the software and hardware along with the Computer’s processes and memory.

Question 2.
How do reference books boost knowledge on Operating Systems?

Answer:
Books are an essential source of information, and graduates should ensure that you choose the right reference books to acquire excellent conceptual background. Students can avail the best sources of reference books for Operating Systems as per the subject experts’ recommendations to refer and read through and assist in your preparation.

Question 3.
What is the difference between an Operating System and an Application Software?

Answer:
The primary difference between an Application Software and an Operating System is that an Operating System is a system software program that works well as an interface to the hardware and the user, whereas, an Application Software is a program that performs specific tasks.

Question 4.
What are a few crucial questions that help during the exam?

Answer:
Important questions aim to help graduates excel in the examination through comprehensive preparation.

  • Name a few crucial advantages of Multiprogramming.
  • Explain in detail the different allocation algorithms.
  • Write a short note on Semaphores
  • State a few user inconveniences faced during the interaction with a Computer System that is devoid of Operating Systems.
  • Build a comparison between Multiprogramming and Multiprocessing.

Conclusion

The information on Operating System Lecture Notes is credible and reliable sources that aid knowledge and understanding of the subject during revisions or preparations at the time of examination. Students aiming to excel well and score high grades in their examination can refer and practice from the provided Operating System Lecture Notes, Books, Study Materials, and Important Questions from this article.

Compiler Design Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

Compiler Design Notes

Compiler Design Notes: Getting notes provides a tremendous opportunity for students preparing for the compiler design exam to highlight key points and details. Taking notes not only help students retain more information but also serves as the key to boosting their productivity. It helps students to set aside their stress and focus on the task at hand. Students will get information about the latest Reference Books, Syllabus, and a List of Important Questions for Compiler Design Notes.

Compiler Design Notes help aspirants to become the best in the field of technology. These Lecture Notes are helpful for students to convert it into a to-do list and create quality reference materials. Compiler Design notes don’t allow candidates to leave what’s crucial through the cracks for qualifying for the exam.

This article given below helps the aspirants access the best-Compiler Design Notes as per the latest curriculum.

  • Compiler Design Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download
  • Compiler Design Reference Books
  • Compiler Design Syllabus
  • List of Compiler Design Important Questions
  • FAQs on Compiler Design Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Compiler Design Lecture Notes

Compiler Design is a part of computer design that provides a comprehensive view of the translation plus optimization process. It involves a basic translation mechanism along with error detection and recovery. It would be a daunting task for computer programmers to write codes in a binary format so that the computer system can understand it. That’s why; compilers are used to write such codes. The main objective of the compiler is to convert a program written in source or high-level language to machine or low-level language.

Compiler Design Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

In the Compiler Design Notes Pdf, students will the basic terms used in the computer world. It covers cross compiler, source-to-source compiler, language processing systems using compiler, assembly language, interpreter, and more. With the help of these notes, students can understand how a program code written in high-level language gets converted into a target or absolute machine language. The notes cover critical information regarding the developments in the field of programming languages by going through Compiler Design notes. Students can secure a good percentage in their exam by considering efficient study material for the Compiler Design exam.

Candidates can refer and use the Compiler Design Notes Pdf to cover various topics like NFA, regular expressions, ambiguities, grammar, and different techniques to deal with uncertainties.

Compiler Design Reference Books

Reference books for Compiler Design are a crucial source of information that covers the most recent developments in the field of programming language design. These books cover a description of all the phases of a compiler that include parsing, lexical analysis, tree machine instruction selection, register allocations, and more.

Aspirants would understand the topics more efficiently if they consult the up-to-date version, including the latest syllabus. Here is a list of the topmost recommended books for Compiler Design.

  • Compiler Design by Chattopadhyay
  • Alfred V Aho- Principles of Compiler Design
  • Compiler Design by O G Kakde
  • Express Learning- Principles of Compiler Design by ITL ESL
  • Alfred V Aho and Monica S Lam- Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools
  • Operating System Concepts by Gagne and Galvin
  • Holub and Allen I- Compiler Design in C
  • Engineering a Compiler by Keith D Cooper and Linda Torczon
  • Richard M. Stallman and The GCC Developer Community- Using The GNU Compiler Collection

Compiler Design Syllabus

The most efficient way to prepare for the Compiler Design exam is to understand the syllabus and all the vital topics. Students can go through with the entire syllabus of Compiler Design to acknowledge all the critical concepts and start preparing accordingly.

Well-organized and detailed notes let students review the key points discussed in the chapter. Here is the latest list of topics of the Compiler Design Notes:

Introduction to Compilers

  • Structure of a Compiler
  • Lexical Analysis
  • Role of Lexical Analyzer
  • Input Buffering
  • Recognition of Tokens
  • Specification of Tokens
  • Finite Automata
  • Regular Expressions To Automata
  • Minimizing DFA

Syntax Analysis

  • Role of Parser
  • Error Handling
  • Context-free Grammars
  • Top-Down Parsing
  • General Strategies Recursive Descent Parser Predictive Parser
  • Introduction To LALR Parser
  • Error Handling and Recovery in Syntax Analyzer

Intermediate Code Generation

  • Syntax Directed Definitions
  • Intermediate Languages
  • Evaluation Orders for Syntax Directed Definitions
  • Translate of Expressions
  • Types and Declarations
  • Type Checking
  • Three Address Code

Run-Time Environment and Code Generation

  • Stack Allocation Space
  • Storage Organization
  • Heap Management
  • Access to Non-local Data on the Stack
  • Issues in Code Generation
  • Design of a simple code Generator

Code Optimization

  • Principles Sources of Optimization
  • DAG- Optimization of Basic Blocks
  • Peephole optimization
  • Global Data Flow Analysis
  • Efficient Data Flow Algorithm

List of Compiler Design Important Questions

B.Tech students can go through with the ultimate question bank of Compiler Design in the pdf format. Here is the list of some vital questions that will help students to have a better understanding of the topic. The questions discussed are the most asked in the annual examinations. Apart from it, going through with these questions help candidates to prepare for GATE and other competitive exams.

  1. Explain the principle of the compiler.
  2. What are the phases of the analysis part?
  3. Discuss the two parts of a compilation.
  4. Explain the different types of compiler classifications?
  5. How a language processed? Explain diagrammatically.
  6. Explain the linear analysis.
  7. Discuss the several phases of a compiler.
  8. Mention the front-end phases of a compiler.
  9. Describe various compiler construction tools.
  10. Differentiate between patterns, lexeme, and tokens.
  11. Explain the function of hierarchical analysis.
  12. What is the role of a semantic analysis?
  13. Explain the parser concept.
  14. Define the various issues in parsing.
  15. Define context-free grammar?
  16. Explain the derivation concept.
  17. Discuss the properties of LR parser.
  18. Write an algorithm for FOLLOW and FIRST.
  19. What is ambiguous grammar?
  20. Discuss different operations on languages.
  21. What are the different operations of languages?

Compiler Design Notes Conclusion

The Compiler Design Notes and Study Material mentioned above are well-designed to assist the students at the time of exam preparations. The notes are consistent and comprehensive to help graduates and enhance their understanding of various concepts. Candidates can refer and practice from the provided notes and important questions for Compiler Design from this article.

Frequently Asked Questions on Compiler Design Notes

Question 1.
Is Compiler Design hard to study?

Answer:
Compiler Design and implementation of various programming codes are difficult. It’s because the subject combines every critical knowledge from the entire curriculum of computer science in under-graduation. Students first have to understand the problem space occupied by compilers to understand the compiler design better.

Question 2.
Why study Compiler Design?

Answer:
Compiler educates students on how to design real-world applications along with their working. Understanding the topic Compiler Design offers students both theoretical as well as practical knowledge that is vital to implement a programming language.

Question 3.
How can Compiler Design notes help in exam preparation?

Answer:
Reading assigned study material and crucial notes help students to understand the subject effortlessly. Candidates can look up vocabulary words and can make vital notations about concepts and material which they don’t understand. Approaching notes with a positive attitude enables students to get the most out of the information presented.

Question 4.
What is the best strategy to crack the Compiler Design exam?

Answer:
Paying close attention to the content and knowing the important questions will help candidates to crack the Compiler Design exam on the first attempt. Apart from it, students can prepare adequate notes that help them to achieve better learning results.

Internet Programming Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Internet Programming Notes

Internet Programming Notes: Wishing to get hold of the Internet programming Study Material and Notes can get to the best notes for their planning cycle or to have a correction of basic ideas.

The Internet programming Notes and Study Materials goes about as the chief examination material and Lecture Notes that cultivate and improve better planning and assist understudies with scoring better evaluations. Understudies can allude to the Internet programming Notes according to the most recent educational program from this article.

Internet programming Notes give a head start as they will likewise gain the most recent Syllabus, Reference Books, and Important Questions List for Internet programming over normal notes.

Members can profit from the Internet programming Notes PDFs and Reference Books from this article and ace the arrangement techniques with the best and refreshed examination assets and accomplish better evaluations.

  • Internet programming notes and study material PDF free download
  • Internet Programming Reference Books
  • Internet Programming Curriculum
  • List of Internet Programming Important Questions
  • FAQ on Internet programming Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Internet Programming Lecture Notes

Internet programs are the programs that are used for accessing services as well as data from the Worldwide Web or Internet. Here we are going to have an overview of Internet programming which is widely used as open source general purpose programming and is more suited for web development, which is for writing web applications. There are few objectives and prerequisites behind studying this course. These are mentioned as follows:

  1. Objectives:
  • Learn core PHP, Server Side scripting language.
  • Learn PHP database handling
  1. Prerequisite:
  • HTML

The Server Side scripting language is the scripts that are employed on the server to view customized responses according to the client’s requests. In Database Handling, we would study how the data is stored using the database management system and how to access those data using the PHP programs. But to know more about this course we should have knowledge about HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language). Because web pages are developed using the HyperText Mark-up language. The main objective of the subject is to make you create highly sophisticated web applications using these languages, technologies and tools.

Internet Programming Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Students who want to start off with internet Programming and are at a nascent stage can refer to the notes’ link mentioned below for their further guidance. This would also help in your future career prospect as each job role these days demands a decent control over Internet programming Language. These are easily available online and you can access free of charge too. So whenever you feel like starting off with Internet programming, here’s a list to reduce your workload of hunting:

Internet Programming Reference Books

These books of Internet Programming unites immensely significant, crucial and, critically, related ideas inside the bounds of one book. Pretty much every point has been managed, which will make these books a treat for anyone with a significant software engineering foundation, who has an enthusiasm for web programming. In any case, it is principally conceptualized for understudies of Internet programming. Experts in systems administration, webspace and related fields will locate this a helpful reference asset. On account of the books handy application direction, the understudies and experts will discover learning a connecting with and charming experience.

Below is the list of names of books that you can refer to if you want to prepare for an Internet programming course. These are easily accessible and consist of knowledgeable content that would be helpful for students in every way possible.

  • Internet Programming by Dr. V. Latha Jothi
  • Internet programming by Pankaj B. Brahmankar
  • Internet Programming by S. Sharanya
  • Essentials of Internet Programming by Shriram K. Vasudevan
  • Learning PHP, MySQL & JavaScript: With JQuery, CSS & HTML5 by Robin Nixon
  • JavAnswer: The Complete Reference by Patrick Naughton, Herbert Schildt
  • Head First HTML5 Programming: Building Web Apps with JavaScript by Eric Freeman, Elisabeth Robson
  • Head First JavaScript by Michael Morrison
  • Canvas Pocket Reference: Scripted Graphics for HTML5 by David Flanagan
  • Learning CSS3 Animations and Transitions by Alexis Goldstein
  • JavaScript in 24 Hours, Sams Teach Yourself by Phil Ballard
  • PHP Cookbook by David Sklar, Adam Trachtenberg
  • Beginning PHP and MySQL: From Novice to Personal by W Jason Gilmore
  • Javascript and DHTML Cookbook by Danny Goodman
  • JavaFX For Dummies by Dough Lowe
  • JavaScript Web Applications by Alex MacCaw
  • Simply JavaScript: Everything You Need to Learn JavaScratch From Scratch by Kevin Yank, Cameron Adams
  • Beginning Cake PHP: From Novice to Professional by David Golding

Internet Programming Curriculum

Having a detailed description of the contents contained in the course is an important step to move further with the course. Therefore we have prepared the detailed study syllabus of the course Internet programming so that it benefits the students the most in every possible way. Course Curriculum will give understudies an away from what to examine, and the unit-wise separation gives themes under every unit cautiously and distributes time to every subject.

Understudies must cover all the subjects before endeavoring the Computer Network test with the goal that the paper is sensibly agreeable at the hour of the test. Up-and-comers must guarantee attention to the Computer Network Syllabus as it keeps you from squandering pointless energy on excess themes. The detailed curriculum for the course Internet Programming is mentioned below:

Unit Topics
Prerequisite Introduction to Web Technologies:

Introduction to OSI Layers

Client Side Programming ·   Basic of HTML:

Ø  Web System Architecture and N tier Architecture

Ø  URL

Ø  Domain name system

Ø  Overview of HTTP and FTP

Ø  Cross Browser Compatibility Issues

Ø  W3C validators

Ø  Formating and Fonts

Ø  Anchors, Images, Lists, Tables, Frames and Forms

·   Introduction to CSS

Ø  Evolution of CSS

Ø  Syntax of CSS

Ø  Exploring CSS Selectors

Ø  Inserting CSS in HTML document

Ø  Defining Inheritance in CSS

·   Introduction to javaScript

Ø  JavaScript Language Constructs

Ø  Objects in JavaScripts- Built in Browser Objects and DOM Objects

Ø  Event Handling

Ø  Form Validation and Cookies

HTLM5 and Responsive Web Design with CSS3 HTML5:

  • Fundamental Syntax and Semantics
  • Native Audio and Video
  • MicroData and Custom Data
  • Accessibility
  • Geo Location
  • Canvas

CSS3 and Responsive Web Design:

Media Queries-

  • Supporting Differing Viewports
  • Embracing Fluid Layout

CSS3-

  • Selectors
  • Typography and Color Modes
  • Stunning Aethetics with CSS3
  • CSS3 Transitions
  • Transformations with Animations
  • Conquer Forms HTML5 and GSS3
Rich Internet Application (RIA)
  • Characteristics of RIA
  •  Introduction to AJAX:

Ø  AJAX Design Basics

Ø  AJAX vs Traditional Approach

Ø  Rich user Interface using AJAX

·   Working with JavaScript Notation (JSON):

Ø  Create Data in JSON Format

Ø  JSON Parser

List of Internet Programming Important Questions

  1. How java is stage free?
  2. Separate a vector and an exhibit in Java.
  3. Step by step instructions to make two-dimensional exhibit in Java
  4. Is there any mistake in the given Java Statement? Examine: singe [] string = “abcdef”;
  5. Record the basics of Exception dealing with.
  6. Characterize Multithreaded Programming.
  7. What are the two different ways for making a Thread? 8. What is static in Java? Give its employments.
  8. Notice the motivation behind the catchphrase “last”.
  9. Can a theoretical class in Java be launched? Give an explanation.
  10. What is the contrast between constructors and techniques?
  11. What is the distinction between strategy over-burdening and abrogating?
  12. How do you characterize an interface?
  13. What is conclude() and Garbage Collection?
  14. How does a radio catch in java vary from a check box?
  15. Why do you need run () and start () strategy both?
  16. What is a Stream? Which class permits you to pursue protests straightforwardly from a stream?
  17. What is Polymorphism in Java? Clarify how Polymorphism is upheld in Java?
  18. Mention the subclasses of the AWT Event class.
  19. Code a Graphics strategy in Java to draw the String “Hi World” from the directions (100,200).

FAQs on Internet Programming Notes

Question 1.
What are various kinds of access modifiers (Access specifiers)?

Answer:
Access specifiers are catchphrases that decide the sort of admittance to the individual from a class. These catchphrases are for permitting benefits to parts of a program, for example, capacities and factors. These are: public: Anything announced as open can be gotten to from anyplace.

Private: Anything pronounced as private can’t be seen outside of its group.

Ensured: Anything pronounced as secured can be gotten to by classes in a similar bundle and subclasses in the three bundles.

Default Modifier: Can be gotten to just two classes in a similar bundle.

Question 2.
Characterize Java.

Answer:
Java is a programming language explicitly intended for use in the appropriated climate of the Internet. It was intended to have the “look and feel” of the C++ language, however, it is easier to use than C++ and upholds an item situated programming model.

Question 3.
What is strategy over-burdening and technique superseding?

Answer:
Strategy over-burdening: When a technique in a class having a similar strategy name with various contentions is supposed to be strategy over-burdening.

Strategy abrogating: When a technique in a class having a similar technique name with same contentions is supposed to be strategy superseding.

Question 4.
What is an Object?

Answer:
Item is an occasion of a class. It has state, conduct and character. It is likewise called as an occurrence of a class.

Internet Programming Notes Conclusion

Contemplating Internet Programming languages may even empower you to comprehend and partake in energizing scholastic and expert conversations, both at meetups and on the web.

Associate with scientists in etymology, programming dialects, and individuals inspired by correspondence, comprehend inside jokes, similar to this one, this one, and this one, increase a little popularity, and maybe have any kind of effect on the planet, with a programming language you plan yourself, dazzle your companions with elusive, quirky, fun, and here and there hidden information.

Discrete Mathematics Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Discrete Mathematics handwritten Notes

Discrete Mathematics Notes: Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF If you are looking for Discrete Mathematics handwritten notes PDF, then you have come to the right place. This is where you will find free and downloadable notes for the topic.

Discrete Mathematics handwritten notes PDF are incredibly important documents for the study of this subject. All the students who wish to pursue careers in programming and computer science must use the discrete mathematics handwritten notes PDF to their full advantage.

These Lecture Notes will help you in your exams by providing you with efficient notes and will also help ease some nervousness and anxiety that may arise from the need to do well in exams.

  • Discrete Mathematics reference books
  • Discrete Mathematics curriculum
  • List of Discrete Mathematics important questions
  • FAQs about Discrete Mathematics
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Lecture Notes PDF

Discrete Mathematics is an important subject in the fields of mathematics and computer science. It is differentiated from continuous mathematics, such that the numbers are starkly different from each other. They can be used to create various programs, algorithms and software, and is also used in the field of cryptography and for proving theorems.

Discrete structures in mathematics can be either finite or infinite, depending on its properties. Also, combinatorics or combinations, set theory, logic statements and graphs are all important components of discrete mathematics.

Here are some notes for Discrete Mathematics:

  • Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF
  • Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Lecture Notes
  • Lecture Notes on Discrete Mathematical Structures
  • Notes for Discrete Mathematics – DMS
  • Discrete Mathematics Note PDF Download

BSc Computer Science Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF – Free Download

Computer Science is the subject of study which incorporates discrete mathematics to the fullest. It is one of the most important subjects in Computer Science because Discrete Mathematics is what we use to formulate many components:

  • Algorithms
  • Programming languages
  • Various software
  • Set theory
  • Logical statements
  • Graph theory
  • Computability

Discrete Mathematics Reference Books

Reference books are some of the best tools to utilise for our studies because they have not only important questions and answers but also accurate notes to refer to when studying.

Discrete Mathematics reference books are of utmost importance to students, especially those who are pursuing computer science. The subject can be confusing, but discrete mathematics reference books take the confusion away by providing discrete mathematics handwritten notes as well as printed notes for the subject.

The following is a list of the best reference books available out there for the preparation of students for Discrete Mathematics studies.

  • Introduction to Counting & Probability by David Patrick
  • Intermediate Counting & Probability by David Patrick
  • Elements of Discrete Mathematics by C.L. Liu
  • Discrete Mathematics and Application by Kenneth Rosen
  • Concrete Mathematics by Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth and Oren Patashnik
  • Discrete Mathematical Structures with applications to Computer Science by J.P. Tremblay and R. Manohar
  • Graph Theory by Frank Harary
  •  The Art of Computer Programming (Vol. 1) by Donald Knuth
  • Combinatorial Problems and Exercises by Laszlo Lovasz
  • Discrete Combinatorial Mathematics Applied Introduction by Grimaldi
  • A Course in Combinatorics by van Lint and Wilson
  • An Invitation to Discrete Mathematics by Jiri Matousek & Jaroslav Nesetril
  • Introduction to Discrete Mathematics by S.V. Yablonsky
  • Discrete Mathematics with Applications by Susanna Epp

Discrete Mathematics Curriculum

The best way to do any kind of work is first to formulate a skeleton or a structure for the work you would like to do. This same concept carries over to when we have to study or prepare for an examination. It is best to create a structure of study before we start studying and to do this, it is important to know the Discrete Mathematics curriculum like the back of your hand.

The following is the unit-wise and topic-wise curriculum for the subject Discrete Mathematics.

Unit

Topics

Sets and Sequences: Data Models

  • Finite sets
  • Power sets
  • The cardinality of finite sets
  • Cartesian Product
  • Properties of sets
  • Vector implementation of sets

Describing Sets:  Logic & Proofs

  • Introduction to logic
  • Propositional logic
  • Truth tables
  • Deduction
  • Resolution
  • Predicates & Quantifiers
  • Infinite sets
  • Countable & Uncountable sets
  • Cantor’s diagonalisation
  • Mathematical Induction
    • Weak induction
    • Strong induction

Relational Structures on Sets: Relations & Graphs

  • Relations
  • Equivalence Relations
  • Functions
  • Bijection
  • Binary relations & Graphs
  • Basics of Trees
  • Posets & Lattices
  • Hasse Diagrams
  • Boolean Algebra

Sizes of Sets: Counting & Combinatorics

  • Counting
  • Sum & Product Rule
  • Principle of Inclusion Exclusion
  • Pigeon Hole Principle
  • Counting by Bijections
  • Double Counting
  • Linear Recurrence Relations – Methods of Solutions
  • Generating Functions
  • Permutations & counting

Structured Sets : Algebraic Structures

  • Structured sets with respect to binary operations
  • Groups
  • Semigroups
  • Monoids
  • Rings
  • Fields
  • Vector Spaces
  • Bases

List of Discrete Mathematics Important Questions

While studying, one of the most important parts of preparing to the best of our abilities is looking at the important questions for the subject. Similarly, when preparing for an exam for Discrete Mathematics, looking at Discrete Mathematics important questions is vital for the best level of preparation.

We understand how necessary it is to look at Discrete Mathematics important questions. Thus, for your benefit, we have listed down some Discrete Mathematics important questions for you to utilise to the maximum.

Graphical questions about the Euler path or Euler circuit

  1. Find the Euler path or an Euler circuit, if it exists, from the given graphs that follow.
  2. Establish an isomorphism between the 2 following graphs.

Proofs

  1. State and prove Lagrange’s theorem.
  2. State and prove Cayley’s representation theorem.
  3. State and prove the fundamental theorem of a group homomorphism.
  4. State and prove the isotonic property, distributive inequality and modular inequality.
  5. Prove that if a graph H has not more than two vertices of odd degree, then there can be an Euler path in G.
  6. State and prove De Morgan’s Laws in lattices and Boolean Algebra.
  7. In a distributive lattice, prove that the complement of an element, if it exists, is unique.
  8. In Boolean algebra, show that ab1+ a1b=0 if and only if a=b.
  9. Use mathematical induction to prove that n3+2n is divisible by 3 for all integers n1.
  10. State and prove the pigeonhole principle.
  11. State and prove the generalized pigeonhole principle.

FAQs about Discrete Mathematics Notes

Question 1.
What is Discrete Mathematics?

Answer:
Discrete Mathematics is a subject of study which is incredibly pertinent in the subject of Computer Science. Discrete Mathematics focuses on graphs, combinatorics, sets, logical statements, etc. It uses logical notions to mathematically define and reason with fundamental data types and structures that are used to formulate algorithms, systems, software, etc.

Question 2.
What are the best Discrete Mathematics reference books?

Answer:
There are various Discrete Mathematics reference books that students can refer to. The best books out of these which most students prefer to refer to are “Discrete Mathematics and Application” by Kenneth Rosen and “Concrete Mathematics” by Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth and Oren Patashnik.

Question 3.
What are the basic units which are studied in the Discrete Mathematics course?

Answer:
The basic units which are part of the Discrete Mathematics course are as follows:

  • Sets & Sequences : Data Models
  • Describing Sets: Logic & Proofs
  • Relational Structures on Sets: Relations & Graphs
  • Sizes of Sets: Counting & Combinatorics
  • Structured Sets: Algebraic Sets

Question 4.
What are some of the Discrete Mathematics important questions?

Answer:
There are various Discrete Mathematics important questions that pertain to graphical questions as well as questions where proofs are required. Here are some Discrete Mathematics important questions:

  1. State and prove Lagrange’s theorem.
  2. In a distributive lattice, prove that the complement of an element, if it exists, is unique.
  3. Establish an isomorphism between the 2 following graphs.
  4. State and prove the isotonic property, distributive inequality and modular inequality.

Other important questions about Discrete Mathematics have been listed above.

Conclusion

To conclude, we would like to let you know that the Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF will be beneficial for you. They have been compiled with the utmost care for the student to do exceptionally well in their exams. It is always useful to have some extra help with studying, especially during the preparations for examinations. Hopefully, our provided Discrete Mathematics Handwritten Notes PDF have been helpful for you to learn. Do download them free of cost and utilise them in the best way possible.

Computer Application Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Computer Application Notes

Computer Application Notes: The computer is one of the greatest inventions of all time. We use the computer in our everyday life, and it will be tough for us to live without a computer. In every industry, you will find computers performing various kinds of tasks. So, the computer has been accepted as a subject by most of the institutions all over the world. Computer application provides information about different parts and usage of the computer. Computer application provides knowledge about software, hardware, and networking of computers. If you have an interest in using the computer, it will be easier for you to study computer applications. In this article, you will get complete details of computer application subject like its syllabus, study materials, reference books, and Lecture Notes.

  • Introduction to Computer Application
  • Computer Application Study Material Free PDF Download
  • Computer Application Reference Books
  • Computer Application Curriculum
  • List of Computer Application Questions
  • FAQs on Computer Application Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Computer Application

Computer applications are groups of programs specially created to do different kinds of tasks. Computer application is studied in different classes like class 10, 11, and 12. There are specialised bachelor’s and master’s programs on computer application. The focus of this subject is to give information about the computer and its applications. Subjects from the science group, especially Mathematics, help in the understanding of concepts of computer application. Computer applications provide more practical skills than theoretical knowledge. However, you must choose the right reference books and study materials to score well in this subject.

Computer Application Notes and Study Material Free PDF Download

Study materials are essential to score well in computer applications. The study materials of computer applications are different for different classes. However, the concepts are the same. We have discussed here the essential study materials of computer application that will help you to understand the basic concepts of the subject.

Business Organization Download
Computer Basics and PC Software Download
Basic Mathematics Download
Computer Basics and PC Software Lab Download
Accountancy-1 Download
Problem Solving and Programming Download
Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming Download
Discrete Mathematics Download
Communication Skills Download
Assembly Language Programming Lab Download
C Language Programming Lab Download
Systems Analysis and Design Download
Data and File Structures Download
Introduction to Database Management Systems Download
Programming in C++ Download
C++ Programming Lab Download
Data and File Structures Lab Download
DBMS Lab Download
Statistical Techniques Download
Object-Oriented Technologies and Java Programming Download
Fundamentals of Computer Networks Download
Introduction to Algorithm Design Download
Internet Concepts and Web Design Download
Java Programming Lab Download
Statistical Techniques Lab Download
Algorithm Design Lab Download
Introduction to Software Engineering Download
Network Programming and Administration Download
Web Programming Download
Computer Oriented Numerical Techniques Download
Business Communication Download
Network Programming and Administration Lab Download
Web Programming Lab Download
Computer Oriented Numerical Techniques Lab Download
Operating System Concepts and Networking Management Download

Computer Application Reference Books

The theoretical part of computer application is very crucial. Without understanding the theory correctly, it will be difficult for you to gain practical skills. To delve deeper into the concepts, you must choose some good books. Many students get confused to choose the best reference books. So, we have listed some of the best books on a computer applications that will help you to understand the subject. Some of the important books on computer application are given below:

  • Gernot A Fink’s Markov Models for Pattern Recognition: From Theory to Applications (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition)
  • Rob Napier and Mugunth Kumar’s iOS 7 Programming Pushing the Limits: Develop Advance Applications for Apple iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch.
  • Hong Cheng’s Sparse Representation, Modeling and Learning in Visual Recognition: Theory, Algorithms and Applications (Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition)
  • Ling Shao and Caifeng Shan’s Multimedia Interaction and Intelligent User Interfaces: Principles, Methods and Applications
  • Wolfgang Reisig and Grzegorz Rozenberg’s Lectures on Petri Nets II: Applications: Advances in Petri Nets: 002 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science)
  • Stepan D Ivasyshen and Anatoly N Kochubei’s Analytic Methods In The Theory Of Differential And Pseudo-Differential Equations Of Parabolic Type
  • Sanjay Singhal and Sameer Mishra’s UGC Computer Science and Application
  • Deo and Narsingh’s Graph Theory with Applications to Engineering and Computer Science
  • Prabhakar Gupta’s Computer Application in Management
  • Parameswaran R’s Computer Applications in Business

Computer Application Curriculum

Various kinds of courses are available for computer applications. So, the syllabus of the computer application varies depending on the type of course. But it is essential to know the syllabus before starting the course. If you get a good idea about the curriculum before starting the course, it will be easier for you to understand the subject. We have tried to give an idea of the syllabus for Computer Programming below. However, the actual syllabus of a particular course may differ from this.

Hardware Lab (CIA Only) Case Tools Lab (CIA Only)
Creative English Communicative English
Foundational Mathematics Basic Discrete Mathematics
Statistics I For BCA Operating Systems
Digital Computer Fundamentals Data Structures
Introduction To Programming Using C Data Structures Lab
C Programming Lab Visual Programming Lab
PC Software Lab
Interpersonal Communication Professional English
Introductory Algebra Financial Management
Financial Accounting Computer Networks
Software Engineering Programming In Java
Database Management Systems Java Programming Lab
Object-Oriented Programming Using C++ DBMS Project Lab
C++ Lab Web Technology Lab
Oracle Lab Language Lab(CIA Only)
Domain Lab (Cia Only)
Unix Programming Design And Analysis Of Algorithms
OOAD Using UML Client-Server Computing
User Interface Design Computer Architecture
Graphics And Animation Cloud Computing
Python Programming Multimedia Applications
Business Intelligence Introduction To Soft Computing
Unix Lab Advanced Database Management System
Web Designing Project
Graphics And Animation Lab
Python Programming Lab
Business Intelligence Lab

List of Computer Application Questions

Computer application is a vast subject. It covers various things about a computer. The complexity level of the question depends on the type of course. However, we have listed some fundamental questions of computer application to give you a better idea of the subject.

  • What is the hardware?
  • What type of document is used by Microsoft Word 2007?
  • Explain the USB stick.
  • What is the difference between the worksheet and workbook?
  • What is a San Serif font?
  • How can you insert a row?
  • What is the purpose of brainstorming?
  • Briefly explain clipart.
  • Write a short note on the DVD.
  • What is the usage of the Graphical User Interface?

FAQs on Computer Application Notes

Question 1.
Can I do a computer application course after completing class 12?

Answer:
Yes, you can do Bachelor’sBachelor’s of Computer Application (BCA) after completing class 12.

Question 2.
Is computer application a challenging subject?

Answer:
Computer application is best suited for people who have an interest in computers. However, students from a Mathematics background are best fitted for this subject.

Question 3.
Name some popular uses of computer applications.

Answer:
Some of the popular uses of computer applications are a business application, banking application, medical application, education application, and engineering application.

Question 4.
Name five well-known computer applications.

Answer:
Five well-known computer applications are Embedded System, Web Application, Web Service, Computer Application, and Windows Application.

Conclusion

In the article, we have tried our best to provide you with complete information about computer application. If you have any other queries regarding the study material of the computer application, please let us know through the comment section.

Computer System Architecture Lecture Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

Computer System Architecture Lecture Notes

Computer System Architecture Notes: Computer System Architecture notes provide the student with the most updated notes on the subject and provide reference books that are up to the curriculum. These notes are easy to interpret for aspiring students and are the best set of references for computer system architecture during revision.

These notes can save students from the hassle of going through different books to understand the basic concepts required for Computer System Architecture. By using these Lecture Notes, students can determine concepts which are more relevant for them and save time.

By using computer system architecture notes, aspiring students can identify a good structure on how to start their preparation process for the subject. This article provides students with the most up to date curriculum, reference books and essential questions for computer system architecture notes.

Students can use this article for their Computer System Architecture notes and use the reference books so that they can get the best scores.

  • Computer System Architecture reference books
  • Computer System Architecture curriculum
  • List of Computer System Architecture important questions
  • FAQs on Computer System Architecture notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Computer System Architecture

The computer system architecture provides us with a detailed understanding of how a computer software system and a computer hardware system interact with each other to form the entire computer system. What a computer system architecture entails is the design of the computer system and how it functions with the various categories that are microarchitecture, instruction set architecture and system design, all these categories are what constitute the basic CPUs architecture, and it is the key in the function of the computer as a whole.

If we were to break down the entire process, the computer system first receives the information, decodes the information, transfers the data and then executes the data. This whole process is completed with the help of input unit, output unit, storage unit, arithmetic logic unit, control unit. A good Computer system architecture which can carry out all the above processes the quickest in a sense it should be able to recognize the information fast and be able to process it quickly.

B.Tech Computer System Architecture Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Bachelor in technology can get updated and revised notes provided in the article. These notes offer students the best of knowledge in computer system architecture in the most condensed form without leaving any important information on the subject. The notes provide the most concise information, and it is straightforward for students to interpret the material. Using the notes provided by this article will help students better prepare for the subject by giving them in-depth knowledge and help in scoring better grades. Students can download all these notes easily from the internet for free. The following are a list of notes for Computer System Architecture notes for aspiring B.Tech students-

  • Computer System Architecture lecturer notes pdf.
  • Computer organization and architecture lecturer notes pdf.
  • Computer system Architecture 6th-semester notes
  • Computer System Architecture lecturer notes by Buddhitha Hettige

Computer System Architecture Reference Books

To have a better overview of the subject and to do some proper fact-checking it is always recommended to use good reference books. A topic like a Computer system Architecture required students to understand the basics of computer systems and to understand the function of almost every component of the computer system. Students can use these reference books and study sources for a more thorough preparation of computer system architecture.

The following is the list of reference books which come highly recommended from experts in the field from which students can use to prepare –

  • Computer Architecture and Design Books from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
  • Synthesis Lecture on Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture by Daniel J. Sorin
  • Computer Architecture: From Microprocessors to Supercomputers, Oxford, 2005 – Textbook for an upper-division undergraduate course, with 28 lecture-size chapters, 491 problems, and extensive downloadable PowerPoint presentations (ISBN 0-19-515455-X)
  • Virtual Machines – Versatile Platforms for Systems and Processes
  • Macintosh Technology in the Common Hardware Reference Platform by Apple Computer Inc.
  • PowerPC Microprocessor Common Hardware Reference Platform by Apple Computer Inc., International Business Machines, Inc., and Motorola Inc.
  • The Designer’s Guide to VHDL by Peter J. Ashenden
  • High Performance Cluster Computing Vol 1 and 2 by Rajkumar Buyya
  • Reasoning About Parallel Architectures by William W. Collier
  • Parallel Computer Architecture – A Hardware/Software Approach by David Culler and Jaswinder Pal Singh
  • Distributed and Parallel Computing by Hesham El-Rewini and Ted Lewis
  • The MIPS Programmer’s Handbook by Erin Farquhar and Philip Bunce
  • Computer Architecture: Pipelined and Parallel Processor Design by Michael J. Flynn
  • Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Second Edition by John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson – web component
  • Readings in Computer Architecture edited by Mark D. Hill, Norman P. Jouppi, and Gurindar S. Sohi – web component
  • The PowerPC Architecture: A Specification for a New Family of RISC Processors by International Business Machines, Inc.
  • RISC System/6000: PowerPC System Architecture by International Business Machines, Inc.
  • High-Performance Mass Storage and Parallel I/O Hai Jin, Toni Cortes, and Rajkumar Buyya, Editiors
  • Computer Arithmetic Algorithms by Israel Koren
  • Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, and Hypercubes by F. Thomson Leighton
  • Scalable Shared-Memory Multiprocessing by Daniel E. Lenoski and Wolf-Dietrich Weber
  • Distributed Algorithms by Nancy A. Lynch
  • Parallel Processing from Applications to Systems by Dan I. Moldovan
  • Advanced Compiler Design and Implementation by Steven Muchnick
  • Computer Arithmetic Systems by Amos R. Omondi
  • The Microarchitecture of Pipelined and Superscalar C

Computer System Architecture Curriculum

Here the subject provides a vast array of information on computer system architecture, and it is important for students to know which topics to study and which to discard. Students must be able to structure their syllabus so that they can better prepare for future exams, and here this curriculum will provide students with a detailed understanding of the subject. Therefore here, the curriculum has been broken down into different units and topics, thereby allowing students to plan out their preparation much better. Students should be aware of the updated syllabus so that they don’t waste time on topics that don’t matter. The updated computer system architecture syllabus is as follows-

Unit 1: Abstractions, Technology and Performance Computers  1.1. Introduction

1.2. Architecture of a computer system.

1.3. Performance in a computer system

1.4. Perspective and evolution of technology

Unit 2: Segmented Processors 2.1. fundamentals of designing a processor 2.1.1. The instruction set

2.1.2. single cycle

2.1.3. Data path and control

2.2. The technique of segmentation (pipeline)

2.2.1. ideal operation

2.2.2. Associated Concepts: Latency and Performance (Throughput)

2.3. Design a processor with pipeline

2.4. Limitations of the pipelined instructions channel

2.4.1. Causes of performance loss due to stop of pipeline

2.4.1.1. Conflicts structural constraints

2.4.1.2. Conflicts over control risks

2.4.1.3. Data dependency conflicts

2.4.2. Techniques to avoid halts

2.4.2.1. Internal forwarding

2.4.2.2. Branch prediction

Unit 3: Memory Organization and Structure: Caches and Virtual Memory 3.1. Memory Hierarchy

3.2. Basic principles of the cache

3.2.1. Multi-level cache

3.2.2. Organizations: fully associative, direct-mapped and set associative

3.2.3. Operating schemes. Write Through with assignment in writing (Fetch on write) and no assignment in writing. Post-write or writeback

3.2.4. Replacement algorithms

3.2.5. cache coherence

3.2.6. Examples of caches

3.3. Virtual Memory

3.3.1. Operation of virtual memory: paging, segmentation, paged segments

3.3.2. Translation of virtual addresses to physical or real addresses

3.3.3. Memory Management Unit (MMU)

3.3.4. Translation Look-aside Buffer (TLB)

3.4. Integration of the memory: the TLB and cache

3.4.1. Cache system with real or virtual cache

Unit 4: Storage and other aspects of the I / O 4.1. Reliability and availability

4.2. Flash disk storage

4.3. Measures of performance in I / O

4.4. Parallelism and I / O

Unit 5: Advanced Techniques of Parallelism 5.1. Instruction level parallelism (ILP)

5.2. superscalar processors

5.2.1. Policies in Instruction Issue

5.2.2. Register renaming

5.2.3. Superscalar Implementation, reorder buffer, unit retirement

5.3. VLIW processors.

5.3.1. Planning by the compiler

5.3.2. Comparison Superscalar vs VLIW processor.

5.4. Multicore, multiprocessors and clusters

5.4.1. The difficulty of parallel programs

5.4.2. Shared memory multiprocessors

5.4.3. Clusters and another message-passing multiprocessor

5.4.4. Introduction to graphics processors

List of Important Questions for Computer Systems Architecture

  1. What do you understand by the term Computer Architecture?
  2. Is Computer Architecture different from a Computer Organization?
  3. What are the various Interrupts in a Microprocessor system?
  4. What are the standard Components of a Microprocessor?
  5. What do you know about MESI?
  6. Are you aware of Pipelining?
  7. What do you know about Cache Coherence?
  8. What is cache miss?
  9. What do you know about Virtual Memory?
  10. What are the five stages of the DLX pipeline?
  11. What is Branch Prediction, and how can it control Hazards?
  12. Can you calculate the number of sets given with its size and way in a cache?

FAQs on Computer System Architecture Notes

Questions 1.
What is Computer System Architecture?

Answer:
The computer system architecture provides us with a detailed understanding of how a computer software system and a computer hardware system interact with each other to form the entire computer system. What a computer system architecture entails is the design of the computer system and how it functions with the various categories that are microarchitecture, instruction set architecture and system design, all these categories are what constitute the basic CPUs architecture, and it is the key in the function of the computer as a whole.

Question 2.
What are the best books for Computer System Architecture?

Answer:

  • Computer Architecture and Design Books from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers
  • Synthesis Lecture on Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture by Daniel J. Sorin
  • Computer Architecture: From Microprocessors to Supercomputers, Oxford, 2005 – Textbook for an upper-division undergraduate course, with 28 lecture-size chapters, 491 problems, and extensive downloadable PowerPoint presentations (ISBN 0-19-515455-X)
  • Virtual Machines – Versatile Platforms for Systems and Processes

Question 3.
What is the importance of computer system architecture?

Answer:
Computer System Architecture is a hardware-centric study which gives students a better understanding of logic design. The subject is essential for software students as well because without understanding the hardware of the computer, you cannot make software developments since the development of software of hardware go hand in hand.

Question 4.
List a few of the important questions in Computer System Architecture

Answer:

  1. Is Computer Architecture different from a Computer Organization?
  2. What are the various Interrupts in a Microprocessor system?
  3. What are the common Components of a Microprocessor?
  4. What do you know about MESI?
  5. Are you aware of Pipelining?

Conclusion

This article provides users with the most up to date information of computer System Architecture with the right notes, most resourceful books, curriculum and essential questions. By using all the resources provided in this article, users can easily prepare for any exam on the subject.

Lecture Notes for All Branches | Department Wise Lecture Notes for Preparation

Lecture Notes: Not every student can make effective Notes during their Class. To help all such students of B.Tech we have provided the Branch wise Notes of all the departments in an organized way. Those who are good at taking Lecture Notes during the class can score really well. Make use of them during your preparation and score max. marks in the exam. You can download the respective subject notes you want to prepare free of cost through the quick links available. Click on them and enhance your subject knowledge.

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