# Java Program to Find Smallest Element in Each Column of a Matrix

In the previous article, we have discussed Java Program to Find Largest Element in Each Column of a Matrix

In this article we are going to see how we can write a program to find out the smallest element in each column of the matrix in JAVA language.

## Java Program to Find Smallest Element in Each Column of a Matrix

A 3*3 Matrix is having 3 rows and 3 columns where this 3*3 represents the dimension of the matrix. Means there are 3*3 i.e. total 9 elements in a 3*3 Matrix.

Let’s understand it in more simpler way.

                   | A00   A01   A02 |
Matrix A =  | A10   A11   A12 |
| A20   A21   A22 | 3*3
• Matrix A represents a 3*3 matrix.
• A‘ represents the matrix element
• Aij‘ represents the matrix element at it’s matrix position/index.
• i‘ represents the row index
• j‘ represents the column index
• Means A00=Aij  where i=0 and j=0A01=aij where i=0 and j=1 and like this.
• Here we have started row value from 0 and column value from 0.

Let’s see different ways to find Largest Element in Each Column of a Matrix.

### Method-1: Java Program to Find Smallest Element in Each Column of a Matrix By Static Initialization of Array Elements

Approach:

• Initialize and declare two arrays one of size 3×3 with elements and another 1D array of size 3.
• Use two for loops to iterate the rows and columns .
• Inside the for loops compare and store the smallest among elements of the col in the 1D array.
• Print the result.

Program:

public class Matrix
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
// Initializing the 3X3 matrix i.e. 2D array
int arr[][] = {{19,25,32},{40,54,62},{70,20,60}};
//Array to hold the smallest element in each column
int temp[] = new int[3];
int row, col;

System.out.print("The matrix elements are:");
printMatrix(arr);

//Finding the smallest element in each column
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
temp[col]=arr[0][col];
for(row=1;row<3;row++)
if(arr[row][col]<temp[col])
temp[col] = arr[row][col];
}

for(int i = 0; i<3;i++)
System.out.print("\nSmallest element in "+(i+1)+"th column is "+temp[i]);
}

// Method to print the matrix
static void printMatrix(int arr[][])
{
int row, col;
// Loop to print the elements
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
{
// Used for formatting
System.out.print("\n");
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
System.out.print(arr[row][col]+" ");
}
}
System.out.print("\n");
}

}


Output:

The matrix elements are:
19 25 32
40 54 62
70 20 60

Smallest element in 1th column is 19
Smallest element in 2th column is 20
Smallest element in 3th column is 32

### Method-2: Java Program to Find Smallest Element in Each Column of a Matrix By Dynamic Initialization of Array Elements

Approach:

• Declare two arrays one of size 3×3 and another 1D array of size 3.
• Ask the user for input of array elements and store them in the one array using two for loops.
• Use two for loops to iterate the rows and columns .
• Inside the for loops compare and store the smallest among elements of the column in the 1D array.
• Print the result.

Program:

import java.util.Scanner;
public class matrix{
public static void main(String args[])
{
//Scanner class to take input
Scanner scan = new Scanner(System.in);

// Initializing the 3X3 matrix i.e. 2D array
int arr[][] = new int[3][3];
//Array to hold the smallest element in each column
int temp[] = new int[3];
int row, col ,n;

// Taking matrix input
System.out.println("Enter matrix elements : ");
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
arr[row][col] = scan.nextInt();

System.out.print("The matrix elements are : ");
printMatrix(arr);

//Finding the smallest element in each column
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
temp[col]=arr[0][col];
for(row=1;row<3;row++)
if(arr[row][col]<temp[col])
temp[col] = arr[row][col];
}

for(int i = 0; i<3;i++)
System.out.print("\nSmallest element in "+(i+1)+"th column is "+temp[i]);
}

// Method to print the matrix
static void printMatrix(int arr[][])
{
int row, col;
// Loop to print the elements
for(row=0;row<3;row++)
{
// Used for formatting
System.out.print("\n");
for(col=0;col<3;col++)
{
System.out.print(arr[row][col]+" ");
}
}
System.out.print("\n");
}

}


Output:

Enter matrix elements : 91 72 36 44 29 87 67 56 17
The matrix elements are :
91 72 36
44 29 87
67 56 17

Smallest element in 1th column is 44
Smallest element in 2th column is 29
Smallest element in 3th column is 17

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