DU SOL BA 3rd Year Mass Communication Notes Chapter 6 Cyber Media
What is meant by integration of mass communication information of and technology?
Integration Of Mass-Communication
Information And Technology
Integration of Technologies. The concluding decades of the 20 century witnessed revolutionary developments in the mass media, telecommunications and information technologies. The old mass media technologies were stand – alone isolated technologies: radio, television, cinema, the press and book publishing were looked upon and used as distinct and discrete technologies. Telecommunications (primarily the telegraph and the telephone) developed on their own, and were never considered as ‘mass media’. This was also the case with developments m comp’, ters and other information technologies, which too were not taken to be ‘mass media’.
A computer was just a computer, a telephone was just a telephone and a television set just a box in the comer for watching broadcast programmes. This separate and stand alone identity was reinforced in government administration, were the mass media, telecommunications and computer technologies were under three different ministries: Information and Broadcasting, Department of Telecommunications (DoT), and the Department of Electronics. This was further reinforced in the Indian university system where departments r.f communication and journalism remained isolated from developments in telecommunications and computer science, which of course had their own separate departments.
Ownership. Besides, ownership of such technologies too was generally restricted to one or two of the media. In Europe and the developing countries, ra4io and television were government-owned and government-run, though the press and book publishing remained the responsibility of the private sector. Film-making was in both the public and private sector: the feature film industry was in private hands, while newsreels, documentaries, short films and animation films were the responsibility of the public sector.
Few attempts were made to combine the different print and electronic media; cinema films were shown on the small screen with the help of a ‘telecine chain’ (an electronic device which can transfer film material to standard TV format), but one could not read the newspapers on television, or listen to the radio on television. The ‘two-in-one’ combined the radio and the audio recording and playback technologies. The video-recorder was an add-on to television, and to begin with was used primarily for ‘time-shifting’.
This was the beginning of the asynchronous element in the new media. No longer were listeners and viewers tied Jaw; to the exposure of radio and TV programmes at the same time as others; this greater control of the electronic media was gradually leading to the ‘de-massification’ of the media. The audio and cassette recorders, the Walkman, and later the personal computer were further examples of greater audience control over content, as well as over the time and place of media exposure. The earlier concept of a ‘mass audience’ was giving way to a newer concept which took into account factor like flexibility and asynchronicity.
Carriers. Further, in telecommunications, the telephone and the telegraph remained isolated form the mass media, except as ‘carriers’ of information. Audio and cassette recording and playback technologies information. Audio and cassette recording and playback technologies extended radio and television, giving them the facility of ‘delayed’ or flexible exposure. Simultaneity of listening and viewing gave way to media access at one’s convenience.
Changed Nature. Communication satellites, cable, optical fiber, wireless technologies and computers changed the very nature of mass media and telecommunications. When the computer appeared on the scene in the 1970s and 1980s, it was a stand-alone desktop technology; interactive, but discrete. Computers could not ‘talk’ to each other; compatibility Was critical stumbling ‘ block. Apple-Macs, Apricots, Tangerines, Amstrad’s and IBMs were often incompatible, and could not read or understand one another. Magnetic tapes and later floppy disks had to be used to transfer or copy data or graphics from one computer to another. .
The Moden. The ‘modern’ (an abbreviation of “Modulation’ and ‘Demodulation) revolutionized the entire stand-alone approach. It is an electronic device, which changes analogue to digital signals and vice versa. It brought together the media, the computer and telecommunication technologies so that computers in different parts of the world could start ‘talking’ to each other using the international telephone networks and the supporting satellite and cable hardware. Electronic mail (or e-mail) and the Internet with its World Wide Web were developed in quick succession.
Convergence of the various media, computer and telecommunication technologies how became possible, reaching its acme in the multimedia system so common today for the transfer and exchange of information, data, graphics and sound. One could now watch films and video on the computer screen, or surf the internet on the television screen. One could also use the computer for sending and receiving fax messages, electronic mail, for surfing the Internet, and even using the Net phone for phoning and tele-and video conferences. Cable telephony Dig’ zation was the key here, aided by miniaturization, wireless telephony, dighul compression, and comparatively low-costs and user-friendliness.
Information Technologies In India : A Brief History –
India did not lag behind in the introduction of the new technologies though the progress was tardy, and largely restricted to the elites in urban areas, and to teachers and researchers in national science and research institutes. The first computers to be installed in India were imported in the 1960s and 70s. Most were second-and third-generation IBM mainframes using transistors. The major importers were government departments and large corporations. By 1978, India had 800 mainframes maintained by the public sector company, computer Maintenance Corporation (CMC), after the withdrawal of IBM. The decade also saw the emergence of a few Indian producers: EC1L. ICIM, Bull- PSI, and others. Developments in micro computing the convergence of computer controls with telecommunications, communication satellites, fiber optics and digital switches, as well as liberalization in import policies, led to the rapid growth of the computer industry in India, though all the while it remained ‘an assembly-oriented industry.
The mushrooming of computer training institutes and university degree courses in computer science provided the much-needed personnel needed for creating the software and maintaining the hardware in the growing industry.
New Company policy-1984. The Rajiv Gandhi government initiated the ‘information revolution’, opening up the Indian market to foreign investors; gradual privatization and deregulation of first telecommunications and later other industries, reducing import and excise duties on electronics goods, computer hardware and software, and providing other incentives to the development of the information industries. The man Raji Gandhi chose to lead the revolution in telecommunications was Sam Pitroda, a non-resident Indian technocrat who had made good in the United States, and who passionately believed that India could leapfrog into the age of information, if only it embraced the new information technologies.
Sam Pitroda. He was appointed Chairman of the Telecommunication Commission, and later telecommunication adviser to the Prime Minister. He established the Centre for the Development of Telemetric (C-DOT) which Would design and fabricate digital automatic switching equipment for rural (RAX) and urban (MAX) telephony. Pitroda lived up to his reputation of getting things done, but in the process he trod on many bureaucrats’ toes. One section of the media wowed him; the other lambasted him for the hype he created about the potential of tele-communications for the nation’s development.
Pitroda shared Rajiv Gandhi’s vision of a modern India competing with advanced industrialized nations in the new age of information, the post industrial age. However, while urban India was swamped by multinational brands of consumer goods, the latest hardware and software, value-added services like cellular telephony, paging and a plethora of cable and satellite channels, the rural areas and the urban poor were untouched by r such happenings. Liberalization and restructuring of the economy in the early 1990s both under the Congress and the United Front regimes, so as to promote foreign investment and private business, re-enforced this urban approach. Leftist economists dubbed this approach an instance of ‘selling out to the multinationals’.
The Private Phone STD/ISD Booth Phenomenon. Perhaps the most striking development in Indian telecommunications in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of what are popularly known as ‘STD booths’ in cities and small towns across the land. This was the beginning of the privatization of the basic phone service. Licenses were freely given by the Department of Telecommunications to small-time shopkeepers and operators: unemployed graduates, the handicapped, and women. All that was required was a hole in the wall for a telephone connection. In mid-1998, Maharashtra alone had over 20,000 STD/PCOs, around 15,000 local PCOs, and around 30,000 village public telephones.
National Telecommunications Policy (1994). In May 1994, the Government of India announced a new telecommunication policy which threw open the basic telephone service to the private sector. Value-added services (such as electronic mail, paging, cellular telephony, video conferencing, audio and video text services, data services and VSATs) had already been liberalised two years earlier, in July 1992.
Foreign companies were permitted up to 49% equity, with two operators (one private company competing with the public sector unit) for each circle in the basic telephone service, and two private operators competing with each other in the value-added services. The primary objective of the New Telecommunication Policy was to provide telephone connections to all villages in India, and to offer telephones on demand by May 1997.
While the value-added sector has had many bidders (including several multinational companies) and has taken off in the large cities, the objectives for the basic telephone service were far from fulfillment by mid-June 1998, as few private investors were willing to risk their venture capital in the poorer telecom circles (Bihar, Orissa and the north-east, for example). Even those companies that won bids for licences were reluctant to launch the basic service; half of the 20 circles in the country did not have any bidders among the private operators.
The widespread complaint was that the license fees were exorbitant (Rs. 210 million to be paid over three years), and the tariffs unreasonable. The real fear was that the telecommunication market ‘ was not large enough to make for profitable ventures. In August 1996, India had a teledensity (number of telephones per 100 persons) of 1.27 in comparison with t:7 in Indonesia, 2.0 in the Philippines, and 3.4 in China (Business India Survey, March 24, 1997, pp. 123-143). The growth rate has been impressive: from 5.07 million lines in 1991 to 13.48 million lines hi 1997, and waiting lists have declined, especially in New Delhi and Mumbai. But rural India is ill-served: barely fifty percent of the 600,000 villages have the basic telephone service.
New Services. The most successful of the new services has been “paging” which has achieved the most extensive penetration, with nearly half a million subscribers in 27 cities. Up to four operators for paging in each city have been given licences. Cellular services remained concentrated in the metros, with a total of around a million subscribers served by 22 companies running 42 networks. VSAT systems comprise small earth stations that communicate with one another via a central earth station (the ‘hub”). A signal from one VSAT is uplinked to a satellite, downlinked to the hub and then relayed to another VSAT via the satellite.
These systems are used by different branches of a bank or any other organisation, or by agents or distributors. The main VSAT operators in India are Hughes-Escorts Communications Ltd. (HECL), A leading user of this technology is the National Stock Exchange. The VSNL, the public sector organisation for overseas telecommunications, is a partner with other national and international companies for plastic and automatic international roaming voice telecommunications such as Iridium and ICO-Global.
TRAI. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of ndia (THAI) was constituted in February 1997, as an overall regulatory body to monitor the nation’s telecom services and to sort out disputes among’ operators and Between the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) and private operators. The Indian Paging services Association (IPSA) and the Cellular attention to the attempted genocide in Bosnia-Herzogovina, and to the struggle of peasant movements in South America. Electronic mail assists families scattered across the globe to keep in touch.
In the United States, males represent 66% of Internet users and account for 77% of Internet usage. On average, Web users are upscale (25% have an income over $80,000), professional (50% are professional or managerial), and educated (64% have at least college degrees). The upper and middle socio-economic strata dominates Internet and e-mail usage in India. The typical Indian Internet user is young, educated, and has easy access to computers at his institute or workplace. The home PC has yet to find a market in the country.
Globalisation. Like the ‘information superhighway’, ‘globalisation’ is yet another hype term in Information Technology. It assumes that the phenomena of the industries are worldwide, that users of information technologies make up the majority of the world’s population with no obstacles ‘ to access anywhere. While millions across the world access the Internet (56 million in the United States compared with 12.2 million in Asia-Pacific, million in Japan, five million in China and around a million in India at the close of 1998) it is often forgotten that these belong to elite educated groups in the richer countries. By no means is access universal; nor is it affordable to the vast majority of the world’s population. There is indeed a yawning gap between the information-rich and the information and this gap is growing, since the costs of access are nowhere getting any easier or cheaper.
According to one estimate, in 1996,64% of all hosts in the world were in the United states; 17% were in western Europe; four percent in Asia; Eastern Europe, Africa and central and south America accounted for around one percent each. Another estimate suggests that out of the 13 million hosts in the world in the same year, around eight million were in the united states; the UK and Germany had around 600,000 each; South Africa had just over 80,000 and India had around 2,000. At the end of 1996, a search suggested that barely three out of the over 1,400 Internet-based electronic newspapers were from the continent of Africa.
What is more, most Internet sites and databases are located in the United States; so Internet Service Providers (ISPs) such as VSNL in India and ISPs in other countries have to lease links to American backbones. United States ‘carriers’ charge $20,000 for 2mbps circuit monthly rental, as against only $3,000 to ISPs in the United States itself.
E-Commerce and E-Banking. Electronic Commerce involves the production, advertising, sale and distribution of production via telecommunication networks. It includes intranets and extranets. E-commerce via the Intemethas already made inroads into traditional business and tirade at both local and global levels. Shopping via the Internet (‘e-shopping’) especially for computer hardware, software, books, music cassettes and compact discs is ‘ becoming commonplace among Internet users in the United States. By the turn of the century, it is estimated that e-commerce would be worth over $300 billion. The United States is pushing for e-commerce to be a free trade zone and devoid of any tax regimes whatsoever.
National Task Force on Information Technology. The Vajpayee government set up the Prime Minister’s Task Force on Information Technology in mid-1998 under the chairmanship of Prof. M.G.K. Menon, to formulate a comprehensive IT policy. Its Action Plan report has made 108 recommendations on ways of speeding up the nation’s development in the various information technologies. It has recommended the privatization of internet services (now under the monopoly of the public sector Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (VSNL), the waiver of licence fees for private Internet Services Providers (ISPs) allowing even cable operators and ISD/STD-booth operators to use their infrastructure to enhance internet access, and zero duty on all It products by 2002 AT).
It further recommended that software and IT be treated as a priority sector by banks for five years, and that students, teachers and schools be offered computers at reduced prices. The Task Force wanted every ISD/STD booth in the country to be turned into an ‘information kiosk’ providing access to the internet and related services like e-mail. Internet access nodes are to be installed in all districts. The Action Pian envisages pumping $7 billion so as to step up India’s software exports to $50 billion by year 2008. Besides, it proposed the setting up of a corpus fund of Rs. 1000 crore (Rs, 10,000 million) by government to be distributed to software companies through public sector banks.
Discuss the challenges and implications of integration of Mass- Communication and IT
Social and Cultural Implications. Telecommunications and information technologies were developed in advanced industrialised societies to serve their needs and interests. These societies needed capital-intensive labour-savirtjs technologies to make up for high labour costs and low populations. Thu ‘new’ technologies brought about speed, efficiency and a nonpolluting environment. As the technologies became cheaper with greater volumes of users, business ana administration needed fewer and ever’ fewer workers. Thus several workers were rendered redundant or were provided part-time jobs. The worst sufferers were women who worked as typists, stenographers, telephone operators, packers, etc. The low-paid jobs were the first to go.
Female Participation. Two Bombay economists, Sudha Deshpande and LK. Deshpande, suggest that since the eighties, when liberalisation was introduced in India, female employment has increased. The female work participation rate – the ration of women workers to their population – had increased to 9.74% in 1991 from 8.3% in 1981. In urban areas, there were 178 women workers for every thousand male workers in 1991 compared to 139 to 1981. However, the increase in female employment was most likely in the low-paying traditional manufacturing industries rather than in his paid technology-oriented services.
New Orientation. Computer technologies change the nature of work and employment. Work takes on a new orientation, related more to the storage, processing, retrieval and distribution of information than to traditional modes of labour and industry. Information is thus turned into a commodity which has a market price instead of being a public resource and a public good available to all in the community. Further, computer technologies tend to turn work and service into something impersonal, mechanical, routine, though less laborious; certainly more efficient, neater, faster but one that lacks the personal touch.
Attacks. The vulnerability of the new information technologies to attacks by hackers, crackers, and viruses as well as to breakdowns without prior warning is rarely touched on. Computers can go on the blink at airports, railway stations, supermarkets and even in hospitals leading to chaotic situations. This is especially so like countries like India where breakdowns in power supply are frequent and unexpected. It is widely assumed that corruption is reduced with the introduction of computers in administration, but the securities scam in Bombay demonstrates that computers can playa role in promoting corruption too.
Hackers. Information technologies make it quite easy for governments, revenue and police departments to keep a close watch on citizens, and to invade their privacy. At the same time, they also afford challenges to hackers to break into the computers of government and private organizations, as the recent breaks into the computers at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Bombay, and the Bioinformatics Center at the Pune university indicate.
Following legal previsions were made to meet the challenges of this intergradations.
Information Technology Act 12000)
Public Key Infrastructure. India has enacted Information Technology (IT) Act to provide legal framework to facilitate electronics commerce and electronics transaction and aims to recognize electronic contract, prevention of computer crimes; electronic filing/documentation, digital signature, etc. In line with the. Global practices, the vital security needs of privacy, authenticity, integrity and non-repudiation over the Internet is being addressed in India by the Public Key Infrastructure. The IT Act gives the legal framework for these technologies and raises electronic records to the level of conventional paper- based physical ones as primary evidence for all legal requirements.
Moreover, based on Public Key Infrastructure technologies, Negotiable Instruments Act legalising various financial instruments is being modified to enable secured financial transaction over the Internet, a basic requirement to enable e-commerce in the country.
Digital Signature. The Controller of Certifying Authorities issued the first licence on 5 February- 2002 to Satecrypt for operating as a Certifying Authority under the IT Act, 2000. Safescrypt gave the first digital signature certificates to Shri Pramod Mahajan, Hon’ble Minister for Communications and Information Technology, and Shri Bimal Jalan, Governor, Reserve Bank of India on 6 February 2.002. This marked the beginning of a new era for secure E-Governance and E-Commerce in the Country through the use of Public key infrastructure (PKI).
E-Commerce and information security. In formation Technology Is, today, an integral part of every enterprise. Information security, i.e., security of information assets, process, environment, communication network, data security, etc., becomes importantly and is of concern to every organization using it. The success of e-commerce, also emerging as an all-encompassing, efficient, global mechanism for online transactions of business and commerce depends heavily on security issues.
To provide promotional support for e-commerce and information security to catch up with the rest of the world and achieve accelerated economic growth in the country a programme, ‘E-commerce and Information Security’ was imitated by the Department during 2001-2002.
Convergence. Taking into account the increasing converge between telecommunication and information technology, a Communications Convergence Bill has been drafted by the Government in conjunction with the ‘Finance Ministry, and the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, the Ministry of Information Technology, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The Convergence Bill is expected to become an Act in near future. It proposes the creation of a regulatory body called the CCI (Communication Commission of lndia) which will take on the role hitherto performed by the TRAI. This commission will: (i) regulate various communication services including telecommunication, broadcasting and other electronic communications, and (ii) facilitate their development in an environment of convergence in order to unleash the power of new technologies.
Information Technology for Masses. The Working Group on Information Technology for Masses set an ambitious target of at least 100 million Internet connections by the year 2008 and one million Internet enabled IT Kiosks/Cyber to be established covering the entire length and breath of the country.
E-Learning. Department of Information Technology has taken the initiative of promoting e-Leaming as a potential methodology, to compliment the Government efforts to generate high quality, high-end manpower in the area of Information Technology. The aspects of e-Leaming which are critically looked at for sv cess of the design, content creation, courseware development, courseware delivery mechanism, ‘course administration, market dynamics, quality system, visualization of courseware models, etc., pertaining to e- Leaming.
Vidya Vahini and Cyan Vahini Programmes. To integrate the technology into the learning environment, the Department of Information Technology has formulated two specific programmes, namely, ‘Vidya Vahini’ and ‘Gyan Vahini’ to provide connectivity to schools across the country and IT infrastructure at all the higher learning institutions in the country respectively. A pilot project is being “taken up to connect about 200 Senior ‘ Secondary Schoofe in he seven-identified distiictsinthe eountry. These schools will be provided one networking lab consisting of 10 PCs, printer, digital content on the NCERT curriculum and Internet connectivity o/128 Kbps. Similarly, a pilot project is proposed to be taken up to set up a campus-wide network at Delhi University. This campus-wide connect all their Departments in the North and South Campus and fi e affiliated colleges in the North Campus. Use of campus-wide technology is proposed to deliver Video and data at higher speed.
There has been a considerable shift in the learning paradigm due to the introduction of technology and newer. method o/imparting education. New technologies are being gradually integrated into the learning environment. ’Networking and Internet are being used as cost-effective tools for improving learning opportunities /or students, faculty development, supporting professional development, increasing productivity of members of the learning community and improving the efficiency of schools, district and State administration.
Community information centers. The Department of Information Technology has taken up a project to set-up Community Information Centres (CICs) in 487 blocks in the North-East and Sikkim to provide connectivity at the block-level for the socio-economic development of the region. VSATs ‘ are being used to provide Internet connectivity under the scheme. A pilot project in 30 blocks has been completed. These CICs can help in combating escalating cries in health , energy, water, education and literacy as well as poverty alleviation.
Video Conferencing Facility in State. A multi-point video conferencing facility in 15 districts of Uttar Pradesh was inaugurated on 2 October 2001 by the Prime Minister from his Office at Race Cource Road, New Delhi. The Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh participated in this inauguration function from Lucknow, the video conferencing facility in remaining districts of UP was inaugurated on 25 December 2001.
The video conferencing facility has also been provided in three districts of Uttaranchal- Pauri-GarLwal, Nainital and Dehradun and four. Commissionaires of Jharkhand State, viz, North Chota Nagpur, South Choba Nagpur, Santhal Pargana and Palamu Commissionaires. Video conferencing facility has been enabled in 85 districts in country along with Laddakh Hill Development Council, Leh and Neuoma Blocks. This is the highest point in the world where on-line video conferencing facility has been made available and business opportunities in Asian countries. PTI is also is participant in Asianet, a cooperative I arrangement among 12 news government press releases.
PTI is a leading participant in the pool of News Agencies of the Non- Aligned Countries and the Organisation of Asia-Pacific News Agencies. It also has bilateral news exchange arrangements with several news agencies belonging to the countries of Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America.
The Constitution (Ninety-Third Amendment) Act (2001) –
This Amendment makes education a fundamental Right for children in the age group of 6-14 years.
Cable Tv Networks Amendment (Regulation) Bill (2002) –
The government has adopted a policy of liberalisation of the media and all the factors of telecommunication. Amidst much pell-mell, the government was able to get the Bill passed with respect of cable TV networks. The gist of this Bill has been appended in this section.
The Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act (1995) has been amended. A new section, called Section 4A, has been added to the original Act (1995). Further, Sections 9,11,16 and 22 of the original Act (1995) have been amended. The original Act has been amended to regulate the operation of cable TV networks in India. The new Bill is expected to put an end to the practice of arbitrary hike in cable (TV) subscription rates by owners of cable TV operators. In the objectives of the Bill, it was observed “currently, there is no legal or administrative instrument by which, the Government could intervene and regulate the subscription charges.”
Further, there was also no reliable record of actual viewership, thus leading to under-reporting of the number of subscribers by cable service providers, multi-service operators and broadcasters. This trend was leading to losses in the revenues of the government, Thus, the government averred, it was necessary to bring out a Bill that could protect the interests of the government as well as those of the masses who were being fleeced by cable TV operators.
Section 4A of the Bill. According to Section 4A, the Central Government, where it is satisfied that it is necessary in the interest of the public to do so, will make it obligatory for every cable TV operator to transmit or retransmit the programmes of any pay channel through an addressable system with effect from such date as may be specified in the notification and different dates may be specified for different states, cities, towns or areas, as the case may be. The Act empowers the Central Government to specify one or more such free to air channels to be included in the package of channels (offered by the cable TV operator) forming the basic service tier and any or more of such channels may be specified in the notification (genre wise) for providing a programme mix of entertainment, information and education and other such programmes. The Central Government shall also fix the number of such free-to-air channels, which must be included in the package of channels forming the basic service tier. The maximum amount of fee, which can be demanded by a cable TV operator (in his basic service tier) from the subscriber of his service will be clearly defined in the official gazette of the Government. The maximum amounts could vary and would depend upon different states (of India), cities, areas of towns.
Section 4 A has made it mandatory for every cable service provider to publicise to the subscribers in a prescribe format, the subscription rates and periodic intervals after which, such subscriptions are to be paid for receiving each pay channels provided by him.
Further, each and every cable service provider shall have to submit a report to the Central Government (in a subscribed for and manner) information regarding the –
- number of total subscribers being served by him;
- subscription rates; and
- number of subscribers receiving programmes transmitted in the basic service tier or particular programmes or sets of programmes transmitted on the pay channels.
Some Definitions In The Context Of The Bill –
Some definitions ought to be studied to imbibe the spirit of the Bill. These are as follows – :
1. Addressable System. It is an electronic device or more than one electronic devices that are put in an integrated system through which, the signals of a cable television network can be sent in an unencrypted or encrypted format, which can be decoded by the device located in the premises of the subscriber within the limits of the authorization made, on the choice and requests of such subscribers, by the cable service operator to the subscribers.
2. Basic Service Tier. It means a package of free-to-air channels provided by a cable operator for a single price to the subscribers of the area in which, the cable TV network is providing service and such channels are receivable for viewing by the subscribers on the receiving set of a type existing immediately before the commencement of the Cable Television Network (Regulation) Act (2002) without any addressable system attached to such receiver set in any manner.
3. Free-to-air Channel. In the parlance of a cable TV network, it means a channel for which, the reception would not require the use of an addressable system to be attached with the receiver set of the subscriber.
4. Pay Channel. In the parlance of a cable TV network, it means a channel the reception of which by the subscriber would require the use of an addressable system to be attached to his receiver set.
Account for the development of news partial and conceited WEB SITE
News Portal And Conceited Web Site
The site phase (1975-76). The momentous development in the field of TV education was the SITE. Its full form is Satellite Instruction Television Experiment. In 1967, a UNESCO expert group joined hands with the Government India and studied the utility of satellite TV for national (educational) development. The study recommended that such an experiment be done. In 1969, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India entered into an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an organ of the US Administration, to use a satellite for this purpose. The major subject of this agreement was the lending of a satellite free of cost for 1 year.
Thus, during the mid-seventies, the SITE was made operational. This was the first attempt in the world to use satellites for social education. It was launched with the help of an American satellite, ATS-6. It was launched from the USA. It transmitted experimental TV software of the USA. It was also engaged in other experiments.
Experiment in agriculture. The objectives of the Ministry of Agriculture, in the context of the SITE, were as follows –
- Dissemination of information and demonstration of dry land framing etc,
- Giving advice on poultry and animal husbandry.
- Giving recommendations on practices of crops and their management.
- Broadcasting of information regarding organizations in districts that riare responsible for the supply of agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, and implements as well as for services of marketing, credit etc.
- Giving advice and demonstrations on pests and their control.
- Telecasting weather forecast and market trends.
- Narration of success stories of farmers (preferably within a region) and other relevant news and information.
ISRO. The Experiment was jointly conducted by the department of Space and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting through their respective agencies. The agency of the Department of Space was the Space Applications Centre (SAC) of the ISRO. The agency of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting was All India Radio. The space Applications Centre of the ISRO was entrusted with the task of fabricating the ground hardware. It was also told to carry out the Experiment in India.
The SITE was inaugurated in August, 1975. It was the first TV experiment in India to relay educational TV programmes directly from a satellite. It covered 2,330 villages of India. These were dotted in Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orrisa, Rajasthan, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. Further, conventional TV receivers in 2,500 villages and towns received programmes telecasts by the SITE through terrestrial transmitters.
Programmes. Further, a four-hour telecast was beamed everyday from the terrestrial stations located at Delhi and Ahmedabad. Education, family planning, agriculture, and health were the major themes of such programmes. These programmes were produced by the AIR in production centers located at Cuttack, Hydrabad and Delhi. The ISRO had its own set-up (audio-visual instruction division) to plan and produce the programmes to be telecast through the SITE.
SITE Centres. On July 31,1976, one year of the SITE was successfully completed. It was decided to continue the Experiment for at least 40 percent of SITE villages. Hence, six locations were selected where terrestrial transmitters were set up. These centers were – Gulharga, Hyderabad, Sambalpur, Muzaffarpur, Raipur, and Jaipur. This service covered 954 out of the 2,400 existing SITE villages. In addition, 8,950 other villages were also covered by the new Experiment. This programme was the aftermath of the SITE and it covered by agriculture, health, hygiene, family welfare, child care, adult education, and socially relevant subjects. These subjects were the same as those promoted and telecast by the SITE.
Evaluation of the SITE. The operations and research activities of the SITE were evaluated in 1977. In this context, an ISRO report remarked, ‘The observed fact that the school enrolment or dropout rate was not affected by the introduction of TV in schools proves that these factor depend primarily on social and economic Parameters and not on the attractiveness OT otherwise of the school curriculum; the children do not have an independent choice in the matter. Therefore, unless circumstances are changed, parents do not have to make use of child labour for economic reasons. TV in schools is not going to affect enrolment or the dropout rate”
Milestone. In our view, the SITE phase was only a milestone in the field of mass communication. It was not a bedrock foundation of satellite TV communication and education in India. Satellite TV has some limitations, as – fallows –
(a) The information delivered to the villager or student is highly impersonal. In a classroom, the teacher interacts with students (or villagers) and the comprehension as well as the interest of the student is ensured. In the case of satellite TV education, the student cannot be forced or motivated to learn.
(b) Learning through satellite TV is basically learning by guidance. The programme to be telecast is highly structured. Time slots are important; a villager cannot watch TV and get information about „ crop rotation if he has to plough his fields. The time period of the programme is another constraint that may not facilitate complete understanding of the student.
(c) The viewers (villagers) has to flock to the community center wftere the TV has been installed and that creates many a problem for the masses. The SITE phase was inconvenient for them because they did not have access to TV sets during the incubation stage of TV education. That could be one of the reasons why the government did not extend the Experiment in 1976.
(d) Classroom teaching disciplines the students. This facet of education was missing in the SITE.
(e) Education was of a general nature. The villagers gained a lot, but what about the students of schools? They were keen to take structured educations and not general lessons.
Post-site Phase. By 1975, TV service was available in Calcutta, Madras, ‘ Srinagar, Amritsar and Lucknow. These centers concentrated on regional news, although they also covered national and international news on a regular basis. The first experiment with satellite technology (SITE) was conducted in 1975¬76. On January 1, 1976, the commercial service of Doordarshan. In January, 1977, terrestrial transmitters were installed at Jaipur, Hydrabad, Raipur, Gulbarga, Sambalpur, and Muzaffarpur to extend TV coverage to a population of 100 million people. Political parties also started sharing TV time for election broadcasts.
Doordarshan. The Government realized that TV was about to become a major force in the arena of mass communication. It had realised the potential of TV programmes, news and other types of software in informing and influencing the audience. In 1976, the government created a new organization, called Doordarshan. It was separated from Akashwani. In the meantime, television sets were sold in abundance in the markets of Delhi, Bombay and Calcutta.
People started watching programmes, news, song sequences of movies (Chitrahaars), and Sunday movies. Instead of spending time in the parks, they started spending their evenings in from of the idiot box. This audio¬visual medium attracted their attention and proved a great motivator on political, saaplyand economic platforms. Traditional Indian values were kept ’ intact in all such programmes telecast by Doordarshan. This trend continued until the end of the eighties. In 1979, the number of TV sets in India was 0.9 million and the number of TV transmitters in the country was 17.
The Eighties The Asiad Phase –
In 1980, the number of TV sets in India was 1.2 million and the number of TV transmitters in the co/ntry was 17. Prior to the Asiad phase, Doordarshan covered all types of news and events. It predominantly telecast movies, plays, songs from movies (popularly called Chitrahaar), news and opinions or experts in the field of agriculture. When the country was awarded the honourable task of organizing Asiad (1982), the government immediately acted to come up to the expectations of the Asian continent. The construction of Asian Games Village (at Khel Gaon Marg, New Delhi), various stadia, roads, and other facilities started.
Doordarshan also geared up to provide live coverage of sports events of Asiad to the people of India. In 1982, the capitals of all the states, as well as important cities of India, were provided with Low Power transmitters 1 (LPTs) to cover events related to Asiad (1982). On August 15, 1982, the national programme was started. Its network was established with the help of microwave links.
The success Saga. These Games were a grand success and Doordarshan was a vital component of this success saga. The inauguration ceremony, various events and concluding ceremony were covered live with the help of OB vans. Amitabh Bachchan welcomed the spectators at the newly-constructed Jawahar Lai Nehru stadium with powerful oration, which was telecast live. School children danced in the stadium and celebrated the joy of commencing the games in the capital of India.
INSAT-IA. Prior to this event, the services of INSAT-IA were availed by the DD to telecast the events of Asian Games. This satellite was sent into its orbit on April 10, 1982 by the Delta Rocket of the USA. It played (in November, 1982) was its first achievement.
National Telecast. The idea of national telecast was put forward during the course of Asian Games in November, 1982. Shiv Shankar Sharma, then a ‘ Kendra Director was brought to New Delhi from Calcutta. He was allocated the task of live coverage of Asian Games. The government was skeptical about the success of the project. In fact, it was keen to involve the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to help it cover Asian Games. Later, Doordarshan decided to execute the project without any support.
The officials and staff of Doordarshan worked hard to cover events of 22 sports disciplines. There metropolitans cities of India were involved in various events of Asian Games and 18 different stadia had to be covered by OB vans. As already sated, Asian Games proved a grand sports festival and Doordarshan emerged as a powerful mass communication major because of its professional coverage of sports events of these games.
Live Tale coasts. However, we should not forget how the live coverage of Asian games became a phenomenon. This feat was later emulated by many a private channel. INSAT-1A had been sent into space to cover the live telecast of the sports events, as already stated. In addition to this, New Delhi, Jalandhar, Srinagar, Lucknow, Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay were linked through a microwave link on August 15, 1982. On the same date, DD started colour signal transmissions as well. In July, 1982, the national programme was started on DD.
Its duration, in the beginning, was one-and-a-half hour. Then, the timing were changed and it was telecast from 8:30 pm to 10:30 pm. For a short period, it was also telecast form 9:00 to 10:45 pm. From august 11,1985 the national programme was telecast form 8:40 pm onwards. All the DD Kendras telecast the (national) Hindi news bulletin. However, the government of Tamil Nadu stopped the Hindi newscast (national) in November, 1985 Another powerful feature of the national programme was the weekly movie, which was telecast on the national network every Sunday. During the course of the movie, local stations were allowed to hook off the national channel and telecast news (in their respective languages) for 15 minutes.
Later, the national network used to be revived and the movie continued until its end. The national programme was also used during election periods. When votes were counted, a movie used to be telecast on the national network. The movie used to be interrupted to give the latest news on election results. This was a pleasant and entertaining experience for the masses. Thus, the DD had combined news with entertainment through such live coverage programmes. That was only the beginning!
Sports Events. The success of Asiad (1982) and its live coverage by DD (National) brought home n new concept- liv5 coverage of sports events. DD started covering major sports events going on in India. Later, it tied up with some foreign channels (like ESPN) and satellite network (like INTELSAT; to telecast sports events going on around the world. Thus, sports coverage was added to the kitty of the DD, which was already having cinema, entertainment, soap operas and Chitrahaar as the unique parts of its product mix.
Colour Television. Until the end of 19S2, only black-and-white TV sets were being manufactured in India. Televista, Texla, Oscar, Beltek and some other local brands were being sold in the northern and north-western markets of’India. In 1982, the DD standard colour transmissions, as already stated. This opened a new door for the private television manufacturers. The government also allowed the import of TV sets in semi-knocked Down (SKD) or completely Knocked Down Down (CKD) conditions. With the advent of colour TV, these manufactures raped rich harvests of money and image.
Only a few people imported Sony (from Japan), Toshiba (from Japan) and Thomson (from USA). However, these brands were not being sold in the markets of India. Further, Goldstar Electronics of Korea had started producing CTVs, but it had not entered the Indian markets. JCT Limited, a Thaper Group firm, started producing Colour Picture Tubes (CPTs) in a plant near Chandigarh. Further, UPTRON, a firm owned by the government of Uttarpradesh, started producing CPTs, at various locations. Imports of CPTs and kits of TV was not liberalized as the government feared that local manufacturers would be wiped out due to server competition from abroad.
On September 17, 1984, Delhi Doordarshan started its second channel. In 1987, DD started morning transmissions. On January 26, 1989, the DD started noon transmissions. The programme telecast during mornings and noon periods focused on primary education, computers. Cartoon, sports, and agricultural practices. Further, second channel was provided to each one of the DD centers of Mumbai, Calcutta, and Chennai. These channels were not able to cover wide territories and were meant only to cater to the information and entertainment needs of the people of those cities in which, these operated. In 1986, the number of TV sets in India was 8.8 million and the number of TV transmitters in the country was 179.
The Nineties : Post Asiad Phase –
After successfully covering Asiad Games (1982), the DD also covered CHOGM and NAM summits, which were organized in India. In February, 1989, the Central Production Centre (CPC) was set up in Delhi. Or. August 15, 1989, Independence Day celebrations were covered live by the DD. On January 26,1990, the Republic Day Parade was also covered live. On December 20, 1989, the swearing-in ceremony of the new cabinet of ministers (of the union government) was covered and telecast live. Further, the address of the President to the joint session of the Parliament was also telecast live in the same year. The election news were also covered live during the General Elections in November, 1989. These news were carefully embedded in news bulletins.
Cable TV Revolution. It started in the end of the eighties. The USA, the UK, several European nations, and Japan had already hooked on to Cable TV. In the beginning of this phase, there were only a few channels to choose from. Cable operator used to buy large dish antennas on the tops of their offices and provide cable services to the consumers (households) in their offices and provide cable services to the consumers (households) in their immediate vicinity.
Liberal policies of the government (in 1989) helped cable TV operators and they expanded their operations with in a few years. During those days, popular TV channels (channels (available on cable TV networks) were CNN, Star, BBV, and Discovery Channel. The number of private TV channels grew. The reason for this development was that these channels had provided platforms to corporate advertisers and businessmen to promote their products and/or services on a large scale.
Advertising agencies (audio-visual) reaped rich benefits due to this revolution. In fact, the invasion of several private TV channels changed the scenario of mass communication in India. And those were the times of boom for Indian economy; we were passing through the early nineties. The monthly rent of a single cable TV connections was Rs 100¬200 during the early nineties. In posh colonies of New’ Delhi and Mumbai, the monthly rent of cable TV connection was Rs 300-500. Movies, cartoons, Chitrahaars, soap operas, dance events, folk songs, and programmes related to agriculture, music, fine art, and entertainment were liked by everyone. This boom led to a surge in the demand for consumer durables and consumer non – durables.
Televisions, refrigerators, mixers, toothpas+ \ noodles, clothes, ketchup, biscuits, scooters, and motorcycles were sold primarily by advertising campaigns telecast by these channels. People had many brands to choose from thanks to competition that entered all the sectors of our economy. Promotion, became the buzzword for succeeding in the dynamic markets of India. Cable TV channels promoted brands and products of all price ranges, classes, and varieties. .
New, DD Channels. Doordarshan had never imagined that the liberalization of the mass communication sector would wipe out its share in the market. Bewildered by the falling number of viewers of its channel, the DD tried to revive its glory that was earned by it during the Asiad phase. On August 15, 1993, DD introduced five new channels – Entertainment, Sports, Business News and Current Affairs, Music and Enrichment. Somehow, DD could not pose grave threats to invasion from the skies. In the meantime, Subhash Chandra formed a new channel – Zee Television Network. It also attracted the attention of die masses during the early nineties. Private channel owners multiplied their channels arid were benefited. However, the DD could not get any benefit from its five channels, although it had covered 87 percent of the Indian populace. Perhaps, bureaucratic producers, poor software, and lack Of talented artists were the three factors that did not let, DD remain at the top spot, Private TV channels tried to improve the contents presentation, and style While the DD moved files from one office to another. As a result, the viewership of the DD declined and those of other channels rose by leaps and bounds.
DDIII. On November 14, 1995, DD started another channel, called DDIII, Later, it started DD Sport channel too. On January 6, 2002, it started the most talked about channel, DD Bharti. This channel aimed to integrate the masses of India through its cultural programmes, musical extravaganza and such software as could bind the people of different cultures (and religions) to maintain India as a national entity. However, the Kashmir problem (1987-2002), Babri Masjid demolition tragedy (December 67T992) and Godhra carnage (February 27, 2002) proved that the eiforts of this national channel were not adequate to bind the people of India together. Despite the best efforts of DD, the masses remained polarized and anti-social elements were able to put a question mark on the unity and integrity of our nations.
Private Channels. By the middle of the nineties, nearly 70 channels were i1 functioning in India. The popular ones included zee, Sony, ESPN, discovery, Star, JAIN, ASIANET, RAJ, Geminy, HBO, City Cable, PT V World, BBC, Cartoon Network, and many more. Further, these channels added mote channels to their networks. Example – Zee Telefilms tied up with Metro Goldwyn Myer (MGM) to form a new channel – Zee MGM. This channel shows popular (English) movies of Hollywood. Further, Zee Telefilms Ltd also started Zee News. The India Today group (having its headquarters at Jhandewalan, New Delhi) started Aaj Tak. a TV channel, which telecast news, views and the latest information about the events going on around the globe.
It also started Headlines. Today, another brief news channel, Further, Sony Entertainment television started Sony Max, which shows Hindi movies. Star TV has started Star Gold for telecasting movies. It has also started Star Sports to telecast sports events. The efforts to multiply the number of TV channels gave these channels an edge over those who depended upon only one TV channel. Example – HBO is a movie channel and it shows only English movies.
Hence its viewership is limits (in terms of number). However, Sony has a large number of viewers because people can watch family dramas (on Sony Entertainment Television) and movies (on Sony Max). The BBC, though popular among the elite and political Circles, has limited viewership because it is predominantly a news channel. Further, the BBC had started the brend of telecasting news after every hour. The Indian TV channels also accepted this custom and started telecasting news after every hour. DD was the first one to accept this custom. Later, TV channels established their own news channels (like Zee News)’and so, the viewer was able to get the latest news from his idiot box 24 hours a day. This trend is continuing even today, though the ‘ viewer trends to change the channel after he has watched important news.
The Present Scenario. In October 1992, Zee TV of the Essel Group popularized satellite TV in India. In December, 1996, cable and satelliteTV had reached 110 lakh household. On January 1, 2002, the number of TV transmitters of DD1 was 1,130 and on the same date the November of TV transmitters of DD2 was 101. The number of TV households in India in 82 million. Currently, the DD has 23 channels. DD National and DD Metro are available through fire terrestrial and satellite modes. DD Sports, DD Bharti, DD India (which was hitherto known as DD World), DD Gyan Darshan and 12 regional channels are available on the satellite mode. The DD is competing with the major private TV networks to gain viewership.
All these are free-to- air channels; the user has to install a small antenna to view them in major metropolises. In other parts of the country as well as in four major metropolises, cable TV operators are providing all the channels of the DD along with the bunch of paid channels. The viewership of the DD has declined because of the arrival of Zee News, Zee MGM, Star Plus, Sony Entertainment Television, HBO, Udaya, Geminy, and other private players in the TV broadcasting markets of the new millennium.
Satellites used in TV Transmissions. The satellites that are being used to telecast various TV channel are –
(a) INTELASAT- 703;
(d) ASIASAT-1; and
TV channelsusing satellites are—
(a) Star Plus; .
(b) Star Sports:
(c) Channel V;
(d) Zee TV;
(e) Zee Cinema
(f) Star Movies:
(g) The CNBC; Sony Entertainment Television (SET)
(h) BBC World; .
(i) Star WorldS
(j) The ABNI;
(k) The TNT ;
(l) Cartoon Network;
(m) Cable News Network (CNN);
(n) Mahrshi channel;
(o) Zee News;
(p) Sun Music;
(q) The MW;
(t) Animal Planet;
(y) Ten Sports;
(w) The HBO;
(x) SÁB TV;
(y) Raj TV;
(z) Aaj Tak;
(ee) The CBNI;
(gg) National Geographic;
(hh) The ESPÑ; arid
(ii) Discovery channel.
Private Players –
The Essel group and Hinduja group are the major distributors of CATV in India. Private TV stations have been set up (or are being set up) at the following places: –
(a) Amalapuram (Tamil Nadu)
(b) Bellari (Karnataka).
(c) Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu)
(d) Hisar (Haryana).
(e) Akola (Maharashtra).
if) Palghat (Kerala)
(g) Nainatal (Uttaranchal)
(h) Patiala (Punjab).
(i) Sagar (Madhya Pradesh)