DU SOL BA 3rd Year Mass Communication Notes Chapter 4 Language of Mass Communication
Discuss the significance of language in Mass Communication.
Language And Mass Communication
Internationa! language. At the international level, messages are sent and received in a common language-English. The media groups of the world do not take chances while communicating over the Net, through Cinema or with the help of reputed magazines like Time, Futurist etc. However, the use of English as the language of the world does not demote other languages of the world. Every country has her language or language set. The masses of that country communicate in that language. Hence, the media of that country also use the same language to disseminate various commercial and noncommercial messages.
When these firms or organisations go beyond the boundaries of their nation, they switch over to English. As the language of their messages. They know very well that there may not be any global takers of their messages in their own national or regional language. Example: Let us study the operations of Nokia, the Finnish mobile maker that has taken the cellular (gadget) world by storm. This firm is the world leader in cellular phones. The language of Finland is Finnish. However, all the ads and PoP material of the firm are in the English language. The firm has targeted global markets through this language and not through Finnish, which is Greek to most of the global clients of the firm.
Regional Languages. Let us go a step further now. A firm wants to sell its products in the Indian markets. The language diversity of this nation can baffle the top brass of the firm. In order to reach all the nooks and comers of the Country, the firm’ adopts regional languages to issue ads and PoP material. Hence, ads and PoP material are available in all the local languages of the country so that even the most illiterate people may be able to buy the products of the firm in question. Hence, we have catalogues and manuals (supplied by the firm) that are published in many regional languages.
Further, Nokia has also introduced cellular phones that have Hindi-letter keys. The user of a cellular phone can also communicate in Hindi. Nokia has defined many languages in its hardware, including Chinese Mandarin, to enable cellular phone users to communicate in those languages. This is an example of language. conform and falls under the gamut of market penetration in the international context.
Channel specific Ads. TV ads are also channel-specific. Examples: Kairali telecasts all of its programmes in Malayalam. GeminyisaTV channel in Tamil language. Alpha TV (Punjabi) is a channel in Punjabi language.
These channels cater to the typical language needs of the regions they chiefly serve. Alpha TV Punjabi can be viewed anywhere in India. However, only those viewers would hook on to it who know Punjabi. Thus, language-based polarisation is the obvious outcome of mass communication strategies adopted by all the media.
Grass Root level. At the grass root level, the targeted audience may use any language-local, regional or national. Besides 22 national languages of India, there are nearly 3,000 dialects. The firm cannot go that far. Hence, it uses the language skills of its sales staff. The latter speak the same languages as are spoken by their prospective clients. These personal .selling efforts bring real orders for the firm.
Example: A Punjabi boy can talk to a salesman in Punjabi, a Bengali babu in Bangla, a Tamilian in Tamil and so on. These clients would go to those retail outlets that have the salespersons of his choice. Hence, even if a Tamilian lives in Bangalore, he would prefer to go to a shop run by a Tamilian. He can communicate with him. If most of the Tamilians flock to the shop of a Tamilian; the latter is deemed a messiah of the Tamil community.
Selection of language. Thus, we can conclude that mass communication exercises are conducted in –
- English in the international context (mass communication level);
- a national language in the national media (mass communication level);
- a regional language, through the regional media, to cater to the needs of the broad language groups of a region (mass communication, group communication, and public communication levels); and
- a popular local dialect at the city or village level, by zeroing on the needs of the audience (interpersonal communication and group communication levels).
Audience specific. Language as a medium of mass communication is audience-specific. The preferences of the masses are based on their sub-cultures, upbringing, social backgrounds, and education. In India, language preferences are rarely changed. Hence, the mass communication tools are used to communicate only in those languages that are understood by the mass audience of a state or region. The reason for this mind boggling language fidelity is the diverse culture of our country. Unlike in the West, our mass media connoisseurs have to design messages in different languages to sell the same product. Let us study an example in this context.
Example – Please go through this popular ad jingle.
Washing Powder Nirma-2
Doodh si safedi Nirma se aaye,
Rangin kapda bhi khil khil jaye,
Sabki pasand Nirma!
Washing powder Nirma-2 .
Readers must have watched this ad of Nirma on TV and heard the aforementioned ad jingle. On DD, this ad jingle is in Hindi. On Alpha TV (Punjabi), it is in Punjabi. On Alpha TV (Bangla), it is in Bangla. The same is true for other regional language channels too. Please note that the basic ad jingle remains the same. Music also remains the same. The sequence of visuals is not changed either. The only difference is in the language. Hence, the advertiser uses language-specific alterations but does not change the USP or theme of the ad. The concept remains the same; the language is changed according to the targeted audience the advertiser wants to communicate with.
Effect of Language Diversity. Though this strategy may be a matter of pride for many an ad maker, the language diversity of India is ‘affecting our mass communication scenario. We have to live with this dilemma because our masses cannot learn to live under the umbrella of one language. Hindi is despised by the natives of the south. All the four south Indian languages are Greek to the natives of the north. What binds the northern and southern regions is the common thread of English. The languages and dialects of northern India, namely, Dogri, Pahari, Urdu, and Kashmiri, also have many takers. The tribal people of our country speak different languages and may ask for TV channels in their own languages in the future.
Case of Europe. Look at Europe. Most of its people understand English though Germans love German, The Spaniards love Spanish and so on. Most of them also know an international language (like English) and hence, they do not face problems from the media in terms of language comprehension. In the USA, every person understands, speaks and writes in English. However, the case of India is different. Our language diversity has forced the media to communicate their messages in different languages.
There are 22 officially recognised languages in our Constitution. All the 25 states of India have 1 official language each. The natives of each state do not want to communicate in other languages. English language penetration is low in rural areas. Hence, the media are forced to communicate in the same language that the natives of the region or state comprehend and like. This language dilemma has made it imperative for the media to retain aeons-old languages as the major vehicles of message transmission. This necessitates the need to understand and master these local and regional languages.
Language Experts. All the media organisations have language experts. They study those languages in which, these media send their messages. Culture is always associated with a language or dialect. Hence, these experts are also required to study the cultural patterns associated with the people who speak a particular; language. The basic vocabulary, syntax, and grammar of these languages are not altered, lest these media or experts working for them should attract the wrath of the masses. Hindi has not changed its syntax, grammar or proverbs since the Bhartendu era. Other Indian languages are also traditional and vulnerable to language inertia. This language inertia is the direct outcome of the mental inertia of an individual and an indirect contributing factor for the slow pace of our social change.
Headache. Hence, language diversity is not a boon for the media; rather, it is a headache for the art directors, multimedia specialists, book publisher designers of PoP material, movie makers, producers of TV soaps, newspaper editors, and other professionals who eke out a living due to: media operations. A common language of our country would not only help the media remove many problems related to production, dissemination, and market segmentation, but also it would help our diverse society solve many a glaring problem.
We are not against any particular language of India; we are for a united India, which seems to be Utopian dream due to multiple language polarisation. Our cultural diversity has led us to the multifaceted realm of a language dilemma. If the language of the country were common, as is the case, in the United Sates or England, our culture would also have become a single amalgamated whole, ever stronger and resilient than it is today.
What we should do? The corporate firms of India do not mind language diversity. They spend money on TV ads in Hindi, Gujarati, Tamil, Punjabi etc; the Nirma ad is an example in this context. They take pains to create ads for the local people who understand these -ads. However, the nation remains divided, due to language and cultural diversities, despite its collective entity as a “gargantuan chunk of customers of the corporate sector.” Mass communication plays a significant role in this context. It can persuade the masses to adopt a common language so that India may not remain a collection of diverse customers but may become a vibrant organism with a unique language identity.
We do not expect this change to occur in the future. Currently, we are learning English at a much faster pace than Tamil. If that is the case, why should we not learn Tamil, which is our own language? Further, there is, no harm in learning English and using it in the media. However, English is a foreign language and must not be given preference over any Indian language in the context of societal and commercial operations. If we wish to give preference to an Indian language over English, we -must identify it from among our languages and Myriad of dialects that we have in India. However, our people do not decide a national language. Hence, English continues to rule the roost.
Misuse of Language. It has been made a tool by our politicians and bureaucrats to create gaps in various ethnic groups of our nation. Language has been misused by our politicians and bureaucrats alike to serve their base ends. The world has experienced many revolutions but never a revolution based on language. However, in India, divisions of states and regions have been made according to language. Examples: Punjab and Haryana were carved out of the single large state of Punjab (erstwhile PEPSU) on November 1, 1966 due to diversity of languages. The southern states of India are like foreign countries for us simply because of their different language and syntax. Language has remained a critical issue in many a political campaign.
The West does not face problems of this kind or magnanimity. In the USA, Canada, Europe and other parts of the developed world, the problems related to language are thankfully missing or minimal.
Indian Identity. If a common language culture helps our countrymen unite, what is the harm in adopting it through legal and social means? Let all the languages thrive but let one single language signify the identity of a united nation, which we fondly call India. The tools of mass communication can help the masses unite and delineate the common language code for every * person who is proud to be an Indian. Today, the Tamilians are identified by Tamil, the Punjab is by Punjabi, the Bengalis by Bangla, the Biharis by Hindi and so on. However, no one is identified as an Indian. That is due to the ill effects of regionalism and local polity.
The nation has been given a back-seat, v thanks to the ploys of the politician and; the tacit consent of the masses to the perpetuation of such ploys. Mass communication can bind the nation. However, . it needs a common language to do so. Thus, we must have common language code to make our mass communication exercises effective in patriotic and societal terms. Today, these efforts are certainly going on but these have hues of a commercial nature and not of patriotic or societal temperaments.
Role of language. Hence, we conclude that language plays and can play significant roles in mass communication because it can bind the diverse societies of our nation through a common thread of an acceptable, consensus- based, and nation-oriented language code.
Discuss the significance of Art of writing especially far Print Media. What are its special traits?
Art Of Writing
Writing for print Media. In the print media, only those people are able to get their thoughts and ideas published that –
- have the ability to spellbind their readers through their words;
- develop unique styles of writing;
- have neW thoughts always coming into their minds; and
- acquire the dexterity in the usage of language and grammar..
Hence, every person cannot become a writer. In order to become adept at the art and science of writing, a person has to undergo training for nearly ten years. With training and practice, people do acquire writing skills. However, the fire must bum within the heart of the writer as well. Given the right kind of motivation and environment, his writing skills develop and help him write – such text and poetry as can mesmerise his readers. Hence, we partially believe in the statement, “Writers are born, not made.” Many popular writers and poets were gifted; some of them were child prodigies too.
Examples: Mark Twain, Bertrand Russell, Munshi Prem Chand, RabindraNath Tagore, Francis Bacon, William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, John Milton, Sumitranandan Pant, Faqir Mohan Senapati, Nanak Singh, Amrita Pritam, PB Shelley, Walt Whitman, Assad-ul-lah Khan Ghalib, Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Firdausi, Bertold Brecht, Henrick Ibsen, and many more (this list is not exhaustive).
A writer has to put his soul into his work. His performance is judged by the cohesion of his thoughts and the depth of his ideas. Three basic features of any written work describe how it can be accepted by the audiences (readers spread over large areas of the country or world). These are as follows:
- Content (what is the basic theme of the work).
- Style (how the thoughts have been presented and how language and grammar have been used to present the same).
- Presentation (how the work has been presented with the help of hirelings, text, sub headings, paragraphs, photographs, tables, diagrams, statistical data, and graphic data).
Writing Simple –
Lei us start with a simple example. Our valued readers must have written essays on The Cow when they were students of primary classes. Many of them had found it difficult to write only ten sentences about the cow. It was a supposed to be ‘all’ insipid routine description of an animal that they used to see in their daily lives. The class teacher was also not keen to tax the brains of these “tiny writers” who knew nothing about the cow except that it had four legs, two ears, one udder, and gave milk. This is an example of simple writing, which was seemingly difficult when our valued readers were tiny tots!
In simple writing, the low-profile writer tries to describe an object (e.g., a car), animal (e.g., the cow), event (e.g., independence day», a great personality (e.g., Pandit JL Nehru), feedings (e.g., love for parents), patriotism (e.g., love for the motherland), an accident/tragedy (e.g., a house on fire), or values (e.g., always speak the truth). Data for these topics is either provided by the teacher or the environment in which, an individual lives. These writings are supposed to be read once, checked, graded, and thrown into the dustbin. They have nothing to do with mass communication, although they are used frequently in individual and group communication exercises.
Creativity is the innate mental ability that motivates an individual to develop such thoughts, products, services, and concepts as are different from the previous ones and appear supernatural to the recipients of such thoughts, products, services, and concepts. “Creativity is special ability of the human mind. It can be developed, although many exceptions challenge this general rule. Examples: Popular creative writers of the world are Prem Chand, Assad ul-lah Khan, Ghalib, Mir Taqi Mir, Tagore (who never received formal education) John Milton (the blind poet), Albert Einstein, Charles Dickens, etc.
Developing Creativity. Creativity can also be developed, if the human mind receives those stimuli that are conducive for developing his innate creative liabilities. Such a person must slag to find out the area of operation in which, he would excel and then, acquire the skills and knowledge in that chosen field. One cannot chose any other field for which, his mind not supposed to be creatively developed. A person would make futile efforts in pursuing a profession, which is different from the one for which his mind “was basically designed.” All bur readers have got a supernatural vocabulary written in their subconscious brains. Their education, experiences, guides, teachers, parents, and their own efforts would determine how, when, and in which form this vocabulary would become a divine command for each one of them.
New Dimensions of Creativity. Creativity could also be given new dimensions through shock and tragedy. Example – The Taj Mahal was got constructed by the Mughal emperor, Shahjahan, in the memory of his wife, Arjamand Banu Begum (better known as Mumtaz Mahal). After giving birth to her fourteenth child, the queen joined the great majority. The emperor, who was mad in her love, called for the best design her mausoleum could have. Shirazi, an Iranian architect, could not come up to his mark, although he offered several designs to the emperor. Finally, Roohi, the beloved of Shirazi, was killed by her father (ah army commander of Shahjahan). When Shirazi learned about the death of his beloved, his agony knew no bounds. He also felt the same pain of separation from his beloved feat was felt by Shahjahan. He finally created a design of the mausoleum that was accepted by Shahjahan.
Distinctive Features. If fee words of the writer are not able to motivate fee reader to read the story, article, feature, or novel, the writer can soon fade into the oblivion. Hence, he has to put his heart and soul into his work, which must be a unique piece of prose or poetry. He can create a paragon in prose, poetry, or other literary work by giving three distinctive features to his thoughts – content, style, and presentation. However, putting up all fee thoughts in an exciting but reader – friendly manner requires another skill – creativity. In order to be read and remembered, an author must be distinctively creative and unique in terms of thoughts so feat he could be remembered through his words.
A creative writer writes something unique or genuine at all fee times. Fiction writers usually fall under the species of genuine writers; So do poets and playwrights. Their works become fee pillars of literary history. A creative writer creates characters feat he sees or observes in his everyday life. He depicts those events feat are witnessed by him. He uses his creativity to convey fee soul of the incident, accident or tragedy to the reader. He may change names, dates, timings, course of events etc to lend authenticity to fee work.
He may also be a keen political observer. He may even challenge the system through his works. He uses his heart to write. His blood is fee real ink and his brain is fee creative workshop where every paragraph is assembled.
Hurdles Of Writing –
One cannot become creative overnight. It order to be creative, you must have adequate exposure to the fine arts. The stream of fine arts should be chosen by you according to your innate tastes and preferences. Further, you should have a knack for understanding the subtle phenomena of human life. Nature should fascinate you; so should all of its creations, living or non-living. You should be a mature person, at least 20 years ahead of your time. You should be keen to read newspapers, fiction, editorials, poetry, features and articles. You should eat to live and not live to eat. You should wear fine clothes, which should not be rustic or gaudy.
You should adopt fee profession of writing, editing, teaching, TV anchoring, radio jockeying, or an occupation feat is in tune wife your creative tastes and abilities. You cannot be a business person if you want to be a creative writer. Only a few creative writers were (or are) rich. Arundhati Roy become rich and famous only after she was awarded fee Booker Prize for her maiden creation, The God of Small Things. Likewise, JK Rowling wrote the Hany Potter series while sipping coffee in the coffee shops of London. Her fortunes changed only after her first book was published. You may not be as lucky as Roy or Potter! Munshi Prem Chand and Mirza Ghalib led lives full of utter penury. However, they were the greatest writers of Hindi and Urdu, respectively.
Incessant Reading. Incessant reading can make your head heavy. Nearsightedness has always been an occupational hazard for authors. Add to this, backache, thrombosis (due to long sitting sprees), obesity, excessive intake of tea or coffee, and you are ready to fall into a deluge of diseases. Writers are drug addicts too. Many of them guzzle liquor while some others consume tobacco in excess. Both these drags, they aver, add to their creativity. We agree with them to some extent. It is a well-known fact that alcohol and tobacco stimulate the mind. However, these are drugs*too! How can you become a creative writer at the cost of your health?
How To A Creative Writer –
In order to become a successful creative writer, you must follow certain rules, which are as follows –
1. Remain Sensitive to the Environment. You must listen, watch, observe, and feel carefully all the elements of your real and virtual environments. Real environment is created by nature, people, vegetation, animals, Weather, and non-living things. Virtual environment is not visible but it is more important for you. That is because it would help you write and create new text, poetry, articles etc. It is created by emotions, human behaviour, gestures of animals, humans, natural events, and interactions with other humans and nature. You must remain sensitive towards both environments. The thoughts or clues you may be hunting for can come from either of these environments.
2. Be Keen to Express. You should be keen to express ideas, views, or feelings. The two environments described earlier should motivate you to write prose or poetry related to events, news, people, or behaviour.
3. Be Keen to Write. You should not only be keen to express, but also you should be willing to write your own views or feelings. Thus, this skill is connected to the previous one. You could be a person who expresses his ideas, views, or feelings but is not keen to put them on paper. Language could be one barrier and you grammar could also be disastrous. In such a case, you should not opt for the career of writing.
4. Be a Master of Words. Choose only one language in which, you are able to fully express yourself. That language could be your mother tongue as Well. Master that language and become an expert in it through consistent practice. You may have to spend nearly five years in this process.
5. Don’t Be Prolixitic. Learning a language does not mean that you should use too many words. Brevity is the soul of wit, so said the Bard of Avon. Use words with care. Use five words instead of ten; use three paragraph instead of six Master the art of precis writing. Contact a language specialist or training institute. Normally, a paragraph can be reduced to 30 percent of its unabridged size. You can start from 50 percent and then, come down to 5035 percent in a period of six months to one year.
6. Develop a Writing Style. Alan Jamieson states that style is a personal response to language. It is a writer’s deepest discipline and response. It conveys information, emotions, events, meanings, and attitude, It also expresses the viewpoint of the -writer or his stance about people, history, or current events. The writing style of others should not be copied. Your writing style must be unique and different from those of others.. This uniqueness is developed as a v result of the –
(ft) academic background;
(f2) socio-economic environment;
(f3) political affiliations and environment;
(f4) level of maturity; and
(f5) training of the creative writer.
Examples – Ernest Hemingway, Premchand, Leo Tolstoy, Maxim Gorky, RN Tagore, Bertrand Russel, and many more had unique writing styles.
Discuss the need for the knowledge of dictionary and diction, pronouncement, script, grammar and forms of punctuation to master the art of writing.
Dictionary And Diction
Knowledge of Dictionary. Dictionary is a book that list and explains
hic words of a language, or gives translations of them into one or more other languages. .
Entry. The basic organisational unit of the dictionary is the entry each entry is a block of information introduced by a headword, which is made prominent by bold print and set out slightly from the printed column.
The headword. It is formed from shorter words (or parts of words). The various smaller elements involved are themselves listed as headwords. There are different types of headword. Most headwords of the dictionary are simple words, or ‘roots’. A root is the smallest vocabulary item that can occur independently with a meaning of its own – Homographs, affixes, combing forms abbreviations and dummy entries are other types of headwords.
Alternatives. Then alternative forms and synonyms of the headword are given. When a word can be spelt into two or more different ways (e.g. Facia, Fascia), or equivalents (e.g. humour and Vs. Humor), it is given immediately after the headword.
Learner’s Dictionary. A learners dictionary is primarily a usage dictionary, comprehensive dictionary and productive or creative work. There is large number of such dictionaries in European languages. But they are monolingual dictionaries. Bilingual dictionaries are few. In Hindi, English bilingual dictionary, Dr. Hardev Bahri’s is prominent. In English -Ehglish – Hindi bilingual Bhargava’s and Ajanta’s are more popular as vocabulary is the armoury of writer he/she must have knowledge about the dictionary, as well as habit for its use.
Diction. Diction is a style or manner of speaking or writing. Clarity of diction is vital for a speaker or a writer. Diction includes pronunciation, script, grammar and forms of punctuation.
Pronunciation. The basic elements of pronunciation are sounds and spellings. One letter of the English alphabet can often be pronounced in different ways. For example, the letter a is pronounced differently in not, pass, came water, dare, ago. Phonetic spelling is a way of writing a word so that one symbol always represents only one sound. Two words may be spelt differently in ordinary spelling, but if they sound the same then the phonetic spelling is the same. For example, key and quay have the same phonetic spelling (ki). British English pronunciation is at times different than the American version.
Stress. When a word has more than one syllable, one of them is spoken with more force than the rest. This force is called stress. In some words usually long ones, other syllables may also be spoken with more force than the rest, as in pronunciation. ’ English tends to space strong stresses at intervals in speech, particularly avoiding the occurrence of two strong stresses in adjacent syllables, ‘Fourteen’, ‘recommend’.
Variant Pronunciations. Different Speakers may choose different pronunciations of the same word, e.g. ‘again’ as ‘agen’ or ‘agein’.
Contractions. A contraction is a shortened form “sed either in speech or in writing. In speech some words combine together to form contractions. These are represented in writing that reproduces spoken language (e.g. drama personal letters, direct speech in novels and short stories.)
The pronunciation of American English. The model for American English pronunciation is one which is widely acceptable in the US and has been called General American.
Grammar. Grammar is a study or science of rules for forming words and combining them into sentences. A good understanding of grammar the rules of English grammar, transformational grammar of morphology, syntax is necessary for a writer. Grammar contains parts of speech. These are adjective, adverb, auxiliary verb, conjunction, determiner, interjection, nouns, preposition, pronoun and verb. –
Irregular Forms. There are also irregular forms, such as some past tense and past participate forms of verbs e.g., catch, caught; plural forms of nouns, e.g., child, children; comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs e.g. hot, hotter, bad-worse, worst.
Grammatical Patterns. Foreign leaners often have great difficulty in deciding which sentence constructions or patterns, a verb can be used in. They may know that ‘I liked to help him’ and ‘I liked help them” are both correct, but he is unaware that with the verb ‘dislike’ on the second pattern is possible.
Foreign leaners often have difficult in using nouns correctly. This may be because of the agreement between noun and verbs (of ‘the furniture is old’ The news is unreliable.’) or because of the rules which govern the proper choice of determiners (of not much furniture, not much news, not many tables).
Idioms. An idiom is a phrase whose meaning is difficult (often impossible) to recognise from the familiar meanings of words it contains, e.g., in show one’s teeth, nothing can be substituted for ‘show’ or ‘teeth. A dictionary should be referred in such difficult dictions.
Forms of Punctuation. Some times ago, Sylvia F. Porter, the financial reporter, wrote a Reader’s Digest article on the inconte-tax nightmare. Among often things, she said “there’s an improvement upon which all agree. And that is exiling from Washington forever the writers of the incredible thing called income tax prose and making it mandatory for the new authors of tax instruction sheets to use (1) short words (2) short sentences, (3) no semicolons and (4) no parentheses.”
The first two of these points are fine, of course; but the last two just go to show that the average writer considers punctuation marks an invention of the devil that makes everything more complex and harder to understand.
That’s an odd idea. After all, when people started writing, they just put one word after the other; as for punctuation, the reader was on his own. Only later writers marked their copy with little dots and dashes and started to give the reader a break. And now people complain that punctuation makes reading harder!
I think the reason must be that punctuation, to most people, is a set of arbitrary and rather silly rules you find in printers’ style books and in the back pages of school grammars. Few people realize that it is the most important single device for making things easier to read.
When we are talking, of course, we don’t use any punctuation marks. We use a system of shorter or longer pauses between words to join or separate our ideas, and we raise or lower our voices to make things sound emphatic or casual. In other words, we make ourselves understood not only by words but also by pauses and by stress or pitch.
Punctuation gets pauses and stress (but not pitch) down the paper. The system is simple to get the hang of:
Untie those whistles; take those boards off the shop-windows; disband those parades; but the bottle of bour-bon back on the shelf – there may be no V-day. So said the War & Navy Departments last week in an OWI statement: V- day may be spread gradually over days and weeks. No general surrender of the German Armies is expected; they may gradually disintegrate and surrender piece-meal. And the Allies’ policy is not to accept surrender from any hastily contrived substitute German Government; the Allies are not looking for any Nazi Badoglio; the war the Germany will be finally over only when all Germany has been occupied, town by town.
Also, semicolons, the short-sentence mortar, are the trademark of a good popularizer. For instance, Microbe Hunters by Paul de Kruif literally teems with semicolons. This is the pattern:
Pasteur started hunting microbes of disease and punched into a boil on the back of the neck of one of his assistants and grew a germ from it and was sure it was the cause of boils; he hurried from these experiments to the hospital to find his chain microbes in the bodies of women dying with child-bed fever; from here he rushed out into the country to discovery – but not to prove it precisely – that earthworms carry anthrax bacilli from the deep buried carcasses of cattle to the surface of the fields The time for the fatal final test drew near; the very air of the little laboratory became finicky; the tar’ workers snapped at each other adross the Bunsen flames…. One dead child after another LoefFer examined; he poked into every part of each pitiful body; he stained a hundred different slices of every organ; he tried – and quickly succeeded in – growing those queer barred bacilli pure …
They went at it frantic to save lives; they groped at it among bizarre butcherings of countless guinea-pigs; in. the evenings their laboratories were shambles like battlefields of old days when soldiers were mangled by spears and pierced by arrows….day they grew cold; when he laid them on their backs and poled them with his finger they did not budge.
However, not all popularizers agree on this point. One of them, Walter B. Pitkin, the author of Life Begins at Forty, always wrote extremely short sentences, from six to ten words. Since he despised semicolons, his style read like this:
In 1919 I began to work with shell-shocked. Army officers who were having a tough time returning to the world of business. Here were one who had broken almost every bone in his body and had lived to resume his old job with hardly any mental upset. Here was another whose injuries were trivial. If he carried a cane he could get around easily. But he loathed the cane. He seemed to regard it as a public confession of weakness. He was forever trying to do without it. Worse yet, he strove to walk without a limp. The strain was terrible. He insisted that life was empty for a cripple. Written two years he killed himself.
I reached two conclusions. Many people are better of with grave handicaps than with trifling ones. The grave handicap releases copious energies. The trifling handicap seems to stir the person too feebly to open up the big valves of nervous and mental power. Then, too, people often try to mask the petty handicap, which leads to further complication of the personality.
Not let’s put in semicolons, colons, dashes, and paragraphs :
In 1919 I began to work with shell-shocked. Army officers who were having a tough time returning to the world of business. Here was one who had broken almost every bone in his body and had lived to resume his old job with hardly any mental upset. Here was another who injuries were trivial: if he carried a cane he could get around easily. But he loathed the came – he seemed to regard it as a public confession of weakness. He was forever trying to do without it; worse yet, he strove to walk without a limp. The strain was terrible; he insisted that life was empty for a cripple; without two years he killed himself.
I reached two conclusions :
Many people are better off with grave handicapped that energies, the trifling handicap seems to stir the person too feebly to open up the big valves of nervous and mental power.
Then, too, people often try to mask the petty handicap, which leads to further complication of the personality.
See the difference ?
In fact, without colons and semicolons no one could imitate spoken language in print. As an example, listen to a little eyewitness account from a detective story by the British poet Cecil Day Lewis (Nicholas Blake):
“I Knows my way about here in the dark like a mole. I’d a torch, of course; but I didn’t want to use it in case it should give away my position to the enemy. A proper night attack – that’s what I wanted to spring on the blighter. See? Well, I came upstairs quiet, and just as I rounded the comer at the other end of this passage I saw some one outside the door of Mr. Bunnett’s room. There’s a bit of light comes in through the skylight just above; not what you’d call light but not as dark as the stairs; just enough for me to see a sort of figure.
So I clicks in my touch; only, me standing close against the wall, the movement hit the torch against it about a second before the light went on: the button’s a bit stiff, you see. The blighter heard the sound and it gave him time to nip round the comer and be off; moved like a bleeding streak of lightning, he did. If you’ll pardon the expression, just saw his tail light whisking off, as you might say. I goes after him, thinking he’d be bound to run out by the from entrance, but seems like he didn’t.”
So, punctuation marks are handy gadgets in writing plain language. If you want to, you can even go further and explore the frontiers of punctuation, so to speak: new punctuation marks are always cropping up: Here is one that seems to have a future; figures for enumeration. Of course, figure have always been used in outlines and so on; but nowadays you can watch them becoming , a punctuation mark proper. Time is an inveterate numberer:
Britain’s adherence to unconditional surrender is based on : (1) the determination to reform and re-educate Germany; (2) the equal determination to avoid any truck whatever with Hitler and his gang; (3) the acceptance of the argument that a war between ideas means a European Civil war rather than one between nations….
But the Nazis did have the sense to install as the No. 1 puppet a Slovak who commands a real following, a canny, bullet-headed nationalist and priest named Joseph Tiso. With political craft and German aid, Tiso has (1) fed his countrymen relatively well; (2) provided state jobs; (3) promoted Slovaks in government service; (4) suppressed pro-Creches, by deporting them or threatening to . Costa Rica’s Presidential campaign, so bitter that is threatened civil war, ended last week in a comparatively peaceful election (two were killed in an interior village), the winner (1) Teodoro Picado, candidate of incumbent President Rafael Calderon Giardia’s Republications and of the Leftist Vanguardia popular; (2) Costa Rica, which kept its status as the only democracy in dictator-ridden Central America…
Discuss journalism as writing for media.
Journalism Vs. Writing For Media
Journalism. Journalism as a craft, a profession and even as trade or business, is over two centuries old. It was made possible by the coming together of a number of technologies as well as several social, political and economic developments. The main technologies that facilitated the development of large- scale printing and distribution of print material were the printing press and the railways.
The Craft. As a craft Journalism involves specialisation in one area (editorial, design, printing); for the reporters and the sub-editors for instance, it entails writing to a deadline, following routines in a conveyor-belt like workplace, while respecting the division of labour in the newsroom and the printing press. In earlier times, knowledge of typewriting and shorthand were the main skills demanded; today, computing and DTP skills are in demand for all areas of Journalism. Also, the divisions among the different areas have become blurred.
Profession. As a profession, it is markedly different from other established professions like law, medicine, engineering, management or teaching. While the established professions require some specialised educational qualifications and training to be recruited to them, Journalism does not make any such requirement essential. There is no bar to anyone entering the profession, no matter what one’s educational background or professional experience is. From the very beginning, Journalism (like the other media professions such as Advertising, Public Relations, Film, Television, Theatre, and Publishing) has been, and still remains an ‘open’ profession.
No Distinct body of knowledge. Further, journalism has no distinct body of knowledge that defines the profession and marks its relationship with its clients (readers, advertisers, advertising agencies, public relations officials and others) and other professions. It may be argued that journalism is ‘a way of knowing different from that produced in social science’ or that it has its own specific approach to reality.
However, there is no consensus in the journalistic community on this. Nor is there a universally accepted Code of Conduct or Code of Ethics, and where it does exist, is rarely enforced. Opinions vary on whether journalism is a ‘calling’, a public service, an entertainment, a cultural industry motivated by profit, or a tool for propaganda, public relations and advertising. Journalism can be a combination of all these, or each of these separately. Opinions are not so varied about the other professions.
As a business and trade, Journalism involves publishing on a regular basis for profit, with news considered as the primary product. Hence the need to attract advertisers and readers, through marketing strategies which focus on circulation and readership.
What is Journalism ? –
Who then is a ‘Journalist’? And what is ‘Journalism’? The words . ‘journalist’, ‘journal’ and ‘journalism’ are derived from the French ‘journal’, which in its turn comes from the Latin term ‘diurnalis’ or ‘daily’. The Acta Diurna, a handwritten bulletin put up daily in the Forum, the main public square in ancient Rome, was perhaps the world’s first newspaper. In later periods of history, pamphlets, tracts, reviews, periodicals, gazettes, news books, news sheets and letters came to be termed ‘newspapers’. Those who wrote for them were firs called ‘news writers or ‘essayists’ (even ‘mercurists’) and later ‘journalists’. The Mughal rulers in India employed ‘vaquia-navis’ and ‘confianavis’ as public and secret news-writers to record once a week in a ‘vaquia’ (a short of gazette or mercury) the events of importance in the empire. These news letter were read to the king every evening by the women of the court. He British colonial rulers used a system of ‘informers’ or their intelligence networks.
Journalism has come along way since then. Today, a journalist is anyone who contributes in some way to the gathering, selection, and processing of news and current affars for the press, radio, film, television, cable and the Internet; and Journalism is the profession to which they belong. Thus, editors, correspondents, assistant editors, reporters, sub-editors, proof-readers, cartoonists, photographers (‘photo-journalists’) are journalists; so are, camera crew, audio and video editors, news readers, producers, directors and managing editors. ‘ Stringers’ are part-time journalists, while ‘free-lance’ journalists are those who are occasional contributors.
Tabloid and Yellow Journalism. Journalists work for the ‘broadsheet’ (or ‘quality’ or ‘serious’) press and the ‘tabloid’ (or ‘popular’ or ‘sensational’) press. The terms ‘broadsheet’ and ‘tabloid’ usually describe the two main formats of newspapers, but the labels also connote two kinds of ness stories selected, and more importantly, the presentation, treatment and style as well. However, this distinction is blurred, especially when the serious or quality papers (such as ? The Times of India, the Indian Express and The Asian Age) choose to highlight the private lives of public figures and the tabloids such as the Blitz and the Midday) to publish serious investigative stories of corruption in high places.
Tabloid Journalism. ‘Tabloid television’ follows the pattern of selection, treatment and style of the tabloid press. Segments of STAR News, ‘The World This Week’, and the video news magazines such as ‘Newstrack‘ and ‘Eyewitness’ are in the tabloid tradition. So are ‘Entertainment Today’ (ET) and newspapers like the Blitz and The Daily as well as the evening papers not only in format but content as well.
‘Tabloid Journalism’ is frequently termed ‘yellow journalism’ primarily because of its tendency to sensationalize and trivialise events, issues and people. The staple of the ‘tabloids’ in the private lives of famous people, crime, accidents, disasters, public corruption, sex. etc. Tabloid journalists are believed to indulge in Cheque book Journalism’ which implies that the subjects of the news stories are bribed to sell their ‘true confessions’.
Such journalists are also believed to indulge in ‘keyhole journalism’ in their attempts to probe the private sexual infidelities and peccadilloes of well-known people. These journalistic practices raise several ethical questions about the privacy of individuals and the public’s right to information. In most democracies, reasonable restrictions are imposed on these intrusions on privacy, especially if they are not in any related to the public interests’.
News Writing. Thus, the nature of journalism and one’s approach to what journalism is, depends on one’s perspective of news and news values. ‘Ness is the account of an event, no something intrinsic in the event itself.’ Hence ‘ness’ is the written, audio or visual construction of an event or happening or person. There is nothing in the event itself that makes it news; the event is not the news. Rather, the ‘news’ is the write-up or the audio or visual presentation of the event. Further, such a presentation or ‘representation or ‘construction’ of an event has to be in a particular format and is selected according to a certain professional value-system to make it ‘news’.
It needs to be emphasised that ‘ness is the end product of a complex process which begins with a systematic sorting and selecting of events according to a socially constructed set of categories.’ So, it is not the event which is reported that determines the form, context, meaning or ‘truth1 the news, but rather the ‘news’ that determines what it is that the event means. Its meaning results from the cultural discourse that ‘news’ employs. As one social linguist puts it: News is a social institution and a cultural discourse which exists and has meaning only in relation to other institutions and discourses which exists and have meaning only in relation to other institutions and discourses operating at the same time. ’
News as a map. Like language, news is a map, not the terrain which the map represents. A map uses codes, conventions, signs and symbols which have to be ‘read’ or interpreted. So does news; news as it were ‘maps’ the world. News selects, processes, produces and shapes an event or happening, but it is we as readers who make our own sense of news.
Journalism as public relations. Government and corporate groups the world over spend millions of dollars to do public relations under the cover of journalism. They present views and perspectives as ‘facts’ in the form of news stories. New papers in India, especially the local and business sections, are packed with reports and features that have their sources in ‘press releases’ and ‘backgrounders’ issued by social, political and business groups who wish to publicise their activities.
In recent years, newspapers and magazines have begun publishing glossy sections which are interestingly termed ‘response features’ or ‘space marketing’ supplements. Such supplements are no more than a marketing ploy to woo advertisers and to involve the corporate world in the newspaper business. Take The Time of India’s Ascent supplement for instance. Its main writers are from the corporate world; so are those who contribute to ‘space marketing’ supplement. Several journalists too write for such supplements; however, they do not equate this with journalism, but rather with public relations and publicity.
Obsession by Politics. The press is so obsessed with politics that even a silly rumour hits the front page. What the press urgently needs is creative, investigative and development reporting chiefly on non-political themes like employment, malnutrition, exploitation of the poor; miscarriage of justice, police, atrocities, development schemes and the like. The exposure of the blinding incidents at Bhagalpur, which would have never come to light but for the alert press, is just one example of the heights the Indian press can sometimes scale.
Recent examples include the Bofors pay-offs. The Harshad Mehta securities scam, the ‘hawala’ payments to top politicians, and the animal husbandry scandal in Bihar. But follow-up investigations of these public scams are lacking, and are rarely pursued to the end. The press whips up interest in a scam to a crescendo, then forgets about it when another scam is unearthed. Such ‘crisis’ reporting sells newspapers but does little to bring the guilty to book or to educate the public about the contexts of corruption.
Credibility. Credibility is indeed the very life-blood of the press, no matter which government is in power. The period of the Emergency showed how the credibility of the press could suffer. There are other reasons why credibility suffers, the chief being the unduly heavy dependence on official press handouts by business and government. When, for example, there is a strike or riot, the Police Department’s handout is printed without comment. On the spot investigative reports are few and far between.
Further, journalists are inclined to accept many favours frojn government such as subsidised housing and medical facilities, and it is therefore not surprising that they rush to the same government when they have differences with editors, and with management, or when they demand higher salaries and better working conditions. “An awesome responsibility”, remarks the veteran editor, S. Nihal Singh, “Rests on the shoulders of journalists because in the final analysis they are the custodians of the freedom of the press. If they prefer careerism to standing up for their rights, they are lotting down their profession.” However, the press is much too important in a democracy to be entrusted entirely to journalists; a vigilant public, the courts and the PreSs Council are needed to keep a watchful eye on it.
The ‘Power’ of the Press. The ‘power’ of the press to bring about social and political change or economic development is extremely limited. In capitalist societies, the press is primarily like any other business or industry; its exists to raise advertising revenue and circulation with the aim of making profits. ‘Public service’ and ‘public interest’ are not the main concerns. This is not to suggest that the press does not make attempts to exercise its ‘power’ in favour of one political or economic ideology over another, or of one group or class or caste over another. These attempts.
It must be acknowledge, are sometimes successful and at other times disastrous failures. At most times, however, the attempts are not paid much heed to unless it affects some group’s interests in a radical manner. In the ultimate analysis, the ‘power’ of the press depends on its credibility among readers, as well as on how the news reported is understood and interpreted. Different groups ‘read’ the same news item in varied ways depending on their own social backgrounds. How news is read is not entirely in the hands of journalists. Indeed, the press often succeeds only in reinforcing widely held beliefs and the status quo rather than bringing about change and development.
Limitation of Press. Does the, press ‘set the agenda’ forus and for society? There is no doubt that the press keeps us informed about selected events, issues and people. But the public too has a role in ‘setting the agenda’ of the press. The public has interests, beliefs and expectations that are catered to by the press. While the press tells us what to think about, and also what to think, it has little power to change our ideas, beliefs and attitudes even when it attempts to do so. Only when there is a general consensus on an issue among all the elements of the press and the other media, and this consensus fits in with a community’s needs, is there some likelihood of a change being effected. Even in this case, several other factors would have to come into play before any real change can be felt.
Public attitude. The public attitude to the ‘internal emergency’ imposed by the Indira Gandhi regime is a case in point. One could argue, however, that it was not so much the press that brought about the downfall of that regime as the people’s hostility to the crackdown on their fundamental rights. The press, after all, was easily silenced during the emergency. In the post-emergency period, the press only reflected the public’s seething anger against the regime.
Journalists : Their Roles And Responsibilities –
Journalists of the new millennium have a host of roles to play. Similarly, their responsibilities must also be given serious consideration. The media are capable of influencing, informing, or motivating a large number of people. Thus, these journalists can use their thoughts as tools to guide or persuade the masses. They use the mass media to communicate such thoughts and opinions. If a group of individuals is capable of influencing the minds of people, the responsibilities of this group must be clearly defined, lest this group should change the course of social and political events of a nation.
It has been said that the poetry of PB Shellay was responsible for bringing about the French revolution (1789). Similarly, the newspapers started by Lala LajpatRai, Bhagat Singh, Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan, and other revolutionaries of the pre¬independence era had motivated the masses to wage a war against the British rule in India. Many more examples can be quoted in this context. It the reporters, TV journalists, and context writers are not supposed to lead the society (or nation) to a quagmire of crisis. Just, one statement from a reputed press correspondent, and the government could fall! Journalists are demi-gods today. Their views and features of journos cannot afford to be biased, whimsical, or manipulative.
Real life Adjustments. Readers know that these characteristics are Utopian, given the moral decay that they observe in the society of every kind. In real life, journalists do indulge in such activities as help them earn more money. The free market economy has forced them to adopt these measures. What can they do ? They also have families to feed. Thus, one should not be surprised if they use their pens and oratory skills to become money-making machines. If, in this process, they seem to be deviating from their moral norms, one should not be surprised. In a free market system, the code of conduct is defined by those who own the resources.
What they ought to do. Should we then, conclude that journalists should go berserk and dump their moral values in a dust bin? No, we don’t. Rather, they should be more careful in the reporting because they cannot ignore that they are the most responsible citizens of any society, perhaps more responsible then the State and judiciary. They cannot and should not offend the freedom, dignity, and sovereign status of any individual. Politicians, individuals, firms, and countries must be covered by them from a factual viewpoint. r
Your freedom ends where my nose starts. Hence, we should study the roles and responsibilities of this special breed of humans not because it is morally bound to abide by these norms but because other humans would force this special breed to conform to these norms. In addition, it they would have „ another feather on their cap. Nowadays, morality, in the context of journalism, is a matter of choice. The journalist has “to ensure that his activities do not offended those on whom, he focuses his probing eye or camera. The targeted subject can retaliate if the journalist ignores what he ought to do as a member of the mass media.
We can define some vital roles of the journalists of today, as follows :
(a) Enlighten the Society. The journalist of today keep the masses abreast of the latest news and events. They also inform the people about the current political, economic and social trends. Thus, through their reports and writings, they enlighten the society or nation.
(b) Make People Sensitive to Burning Issues. Journalists, by virtue of their knowledge about polity and society, can guide the masses through their messages and context. They write editorials, guest columns, routine columns, and features in newspapers and magazines.
What is News? How does an event become a news?
An Event. An event is a current happening that leads to a short-term or long-term change in the social, political, economic, cultural, or other scenario of a region, city or country. Events are judged on a time scale. If time passes and the event is not covered by the mass media, it becomes stale. Thus, the ‘ news created to cover this event is hackneyed or of academic interest. Many events create history.
Examples – The invention of telephone by Alexander Graham Bell became a historical event. The arrival of Bill Clinton in India in March, 2004 became a historical event because it changed the course of Indo-US relations.
A News. A news is the rational, objective and timely coverage of an event. According to an author, news is change as viewed by an outsider. Thus, if the journo is not involved in the event, he can make a perfect news out of it. The abbreviation NEWS denotes North, East, West, South. This means that a news is a type of information about all the comers of the world. At a microscopic level, news can be used to describe the coverage of events in a city, town, village, commune etc. News is latest, sensational, knowledge-giving, newest, and even enthralling. The information-based society treats news as the most important asset in all its endeavors. News can also be coupled with views and comments of the journo. It can also be an in-depth stud of an event.
From Event to News. Following figure shows how an event becomes a news. There are four levels in the process of conversion of an event into news. Coverage is the last process or an outcome of this process. Is self-explanatory.
Write a note on news source and media information.
News Source. Journalists collects the data or news from the place/ spot from where they are supposed to collect it. They rely on primary data and not on secondary data. The latter could be biased. Primary data is collected personally. People are interviewed at the spot of the event, accident, or mishap. If possible, statistics released by the government is taken, but the journalist relies on his own judgment and inquisitive mind to collect vital data. Example: Government officials state that the number of dead persons at the site of particular accident is 810. The journalist must visit the said site and count the number the dead or alive people.
If he cannot do so, he must contact the paramedical staff or doctors to find out the actual figure of the dead. He must be able to dig deeply, and in most of the cases, he would not be allowed to do so. He must strive to get the right figures and not mere approximations. It the data obtained by him are not correct, he must dispatch the data to the head office or data collection center with a note, which should state.
Accurate Processing of Data: In many cases, usually during elections, a journalist required to collect and process data. He must possess basic mathematical and or statistical skills to do so. If need be, he can take the help of a professional who may be able to prepare such data for him. Finally, he should be able to interpret the data and send the report to his headquarters.
Alternatively, he should be ready to face the camera, if he is a part of a TV channel. While be covers live events, he must be able to collect and analyst- such data at very high speeds. He should be able to interview people, politicians and experts. He should also be able to conclude (during the live interviews ‘ with such persons) what the want to state. The time period allotted to him would be only a few minutes; he would have to pack large chunks of information in a video clip or two or three minutes.
Sources Of Media Information
The following sources are vital –
- Population Census (e.g., Census 2001 released by the Census Commissioner of India).
- The National Readership Survey (NRS).
- TV surveys like Aaj Tak surveys through SMS.
- Surveys by newspapers (responses are to be sent to them through E-mail)
- India Year Book Published by the Publications Division of Ministry j of Information and Broadcasting..
- Government publications (reference manuals like INDIA 2004, and Mass Communication 2004, both published by the Published Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India).
- Government publication (journals like Kurukshetra and Lodestar published by the Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India). “
- Data of the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC).
- Indian Newspaper Society Handbook.
- Syndicated Research, which includes the surveys of ORG-MARG,
MODE, IMRB, NCAER, HT, TOI, AC Nielsen etc.
- The Indian Readership Survey (IRS).
- Radio Handbook published by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
- People meters (their number is limited in India).
- Books published by various publishers on the subjects directly associated with the media (e.g., LA Day, Ethics in Media Communications: cases and controversies, Wadsworth, Belmont; Jim Willis andT)and B Willis, Media Management).
- Magazines published by various publishers on the subjects directly associated with the media (e.g., Pitch, Computers Toda, IT IQ).
- Conditional Access System (set-top boxes are used to find the number of people watching a particular TV channel, but this system has met with considerable resistance in India).
- Libraries of the Indian of Mass Communication we have used the library of the IIMC, New Delhi to collect data for compiling this volume).
- Interaction programmes of FM and MW radio channels.
- NAS$COM surveys.
- Surveys of the CII.
- Surveys of the CMIE.
- Internet web sites.
Discuss the types of news and their reporting.
Types Of News
We can study the types of news and their reporting under the following needs –
1. Yellow Journalism. It would not be an exaggeration to state the modem media empires have used the tools of yellow journalism many times to arrive at the envious positions where they currently are yellow journalism is the publishing, broadcasting or uploading (on the Net) of such news, views, and comments that are sensational, out of normal proportion, gloss, sex-based, and controversial by any norm. Newspapers, magazines, TV Channels, and Internet web sites must attract the attention of the masses to maintain and increase their sales. The masses are not keen to read, watch, or listen to insipid content.
The need something new, thrilling, and soul-tingling. The media provide news on sex, romance, glamour, fashion, crimes, scams, scandals, false events etc. They do so to keep their cash counters ringing. If a movie does not show a heroine in sexy attire, the audiences reject it. Hence, the producers and directors of today’s tinsel world send the heroines to face the camera almost sans clothes. The media cannot be fully blamed for this trend. After all, they are giving us what We want!
False Content. Another facet of yellow journalism is concerned with the creation of false content about celebrities, movie stars, women, politicians etc. Movie stars are typical victims of this type of journalism. Politicians are not spared either. Scandals and scams are exposed, and many politicians are said to be allegedly behind the. If they are not a part of the controversy, the journo includes the names of his friends, children, and kith and kin in the report. These mud-slinging wars become more provocative and lethal during the days of elections.
Without giving any examples in this context, we would like to point out that political parties of India indulged in these mud-slinging exercises during March-June, 2004, an election year. At the “right time”, the issue of Bofors was highlighted and vital leads were given to the media. Thus, the Pandora’s box was opened to tarnish the image of one particular party or person. Further, no one is an angel in Indian politics. The messiahs of yellow journalism keep on creating new content at the behest of all the political groups.
Sex, mud-slinging, sensational news, violence, and fake news are the five pillars on which, the edifice of yellow journalism stands today. There I no law to check it per se, although a journo can be punished by the law if he indulges in the act of defamation of a individual. The author feels that even this act would catapult him into the realm of glory (he has done the right thing by exposing Mr. X, he is a true journo1). The victim could lose his career, dignity, and even life, irrespective of the fact that he is innocent or guilt. Ironically, there is no resistance from the masses in this context. They read hungrily whatever is published, broadcast, or uploaded on web sites. They are consumers of all types of content. Sensational content helps them relieve tension.
It makes them feel better (Oh! I am not the one who has taken off the clothes before the camera). Till the time the hunger c ’ the audiences for gossip, sexual content, and mud-slinging news is not satiated, yellow journalism would thrive. The media firms of today have devised ways to present false but juicy content in a manner that would not offend the sensible publics and watchful judiciary: There are many loopholes I every law that allow the journo to write, speak and upload sensational content.
Hence, they mint money through such writings, web sites and TV programmers. The only suffering party is the human race, and there are little chances of lessening of its sufferings. The new millennium rightly belongs to yellow journalism. We have not given an examples, lest we should be involved in the yellow controversies of the divine order. Our valued readers would be able to collect many from the modem media.
2. Crime Reporting. A crime is wrong act that is against the law. Alternatively, it could be a violation of the law. It could also be an omission that can being the person before the law and make him face the music due to such act of omission. Ignorance of the law in no excise.
An offence is any act or omission that is punishable by any law that is . iforce at the time of making such an offence. An offence can be bailable or non-bailable. A person can apply for a get bail in the court if he is been accused of a bailable offence and arested without any warrant by a police officer (in¬charge of a police station).
3. Depth Reporting. Depth reporting under the complete many overlaps with other types of Journalism. We are depending to a large extent on the text written by MV Kamath (Professional Journalism), although he has not categorized it as a specialized area.
“Depth reporting is simply good reporting with an eye for accuracy and detail,” avers MV Kamath. According to A Kumar, “Depth reporting is a special telescope of journalism that allows the ever-inquisitive reporter to collect facts, information, and sensational clues with nearly hundred percent accuracy.”
According to MV Kamath, “Depth reporting is the explanatory story that accompanies or follows a breaking news story.”
Accocording to another author, “Depth reporting refers to moving towards the tenth of a story a maximum possible extent and revealing this story in a factual manner to the targeted audience. ”
Einally MV Kamath defines depth reporting as, “….digging beneath the surface and coming up with facts that aren’t immediately visible, but which nevertheless contribute to an understanding of the story.”
In sum, depth reporting should be factual, original, and unbiased coverage of an event and its faithful reproduction in the news. The depth reporters of today need not write, present, or broadcast (on radio) long news stories. They can be brief, but they have to focus on the realities of the event to make the news. The element of bias (of the depth reporter) should be minimal, if it cannot be reduced to nil. Mostly, people work as passionate units in a team to collect the news. Hence, as Kamath has stated, depth reporting would be done better if the journo worked in teams.
Classification Of Depth Reporting –
We shall consider the classification given by MV Kamath (Professional Journalism, Vikas, PP 155-192) as the best one. However, Kamath has not touched upon the areas of broadcast journalism and online journalism. He has concentrated on the print media while giving this classification. In this era dominated by broadcast journalism, it would be illogical on our part to exclude it from this classification. Hence, in our view, depth reporting can be done in all the three major areas of journalism-print media, broadcast, and online, Refer Fig 10-1 It shows the classes of depth reporting in each one of these three major streams.
We shall start the classification process from print media journalism because in this field of journalism, depth reporting originated as a specialized branch. ‘ Broadcast journalism and online journalism arrived on the scene much later.
Depth Reporting In the Print Media. After reading the text written by MV Kamath, BN Ahuja, SS Chhabra and BN Ahuja, and other authors, we have concluded that depth reporting can be of six major types in the print media.
4. Investigative Journalism. The inquisitive nature of journalist made them peep into the darker sides of human operations and interactions. Investigative Journalism (IJ) rose from the pious edifice of ethics-based journalism. We humans are materialistic, willful, and compulsive shoppers of moral decay.
Most of us are corrupt to the core. True, some of us are trying to remain on the brighter side of human character. However, the number of such people is dwindling. Investigative journalism normally endeavors to mirror the dark side of the human character. It tries to be a de facto communicator of such news, views, events and illegal operations as have some adventurous, criminal or; enthralling content. The audiences simply “live through” the coverage of an investigative journo. His news story or TV coverage is like a dream sequence for them.
The fiction of James Hadley Chase, Sidney Sheldon, Robert Ludlum, Leon Uris, Mario Puzo, Arthur Haile, and Agatha Christie is history. The IJ professionals are giving us every thing that is fast, real, and gory (well, at times!). The only difference is that the dream woven by an investigative journo team is a real one, and sadly tells us how corrupt or fallen the human race is. Investigative journo team is a real one, and sadly tells us how corrupt or fallen the human race is. Investigative journalism goes beyond allegations and denials. It tries to establish facts, which, is possible, decide the bases for such allegations and denials.
would catapult him into the realm of glory (he has done the right thing by exposing Mr. X, he is a true journal). The victim could lose his career, dignity, and even life, irrespective of the fact that he is innocent or guilt. Ironically, there is no resistance from the masses in this context. They read hungrily – whatever is published, broadcast, or uploaded on web sites. They are consumers of all types of content. Sensational content helps them relieve tension. It makes them feel better (Oh! I am not the one who has taken off the clothes before the camera).
Till the time the hunger the audiences for gossip, sexual content, and mud-slinging news is not saiated, yellow journalism would thrive. The media firms of today have devised ways to present false but juicy content in a manner that would not offend the sensible public and watchful judiciary. There are many loopholes I every law that allow the journo to write, speak and upload sensational content. Hence, they mint money through such writings, web sites and TV programmers. The only suffering party is the human race, and there are little chances of lessening of its sufferings. The new millennium rightly belongs to yellow journalism. We have not given an examples, lest we should be involved in the yellow controversies of the divine order. Our valued readers would be able to collect many from the modem media.
2. Crime Reporting. A crime is wrong act that is against the law. Alternatively, it could be a violation of the law. It could also be an omission that can being the person before the law and make him face the music due to such act of omission. Ignorance of the law in no excise.
An offence is any act or omission that is punishable by any law that is inforce at the time of making such an offence. An offence can be bailable or non-bailable. A person can apply for a get bail in the court if he is been accused of z bailable offence and arested without any warrant by a police officer (in¬charge of a police station).
3. Depth Reporting. Depth reporting under the complete many overlaps with other types of Journalism. We are depending to a large extent on the text written by MV Kamath (Professional Journalism), although he has not categorized it as a specialized area.
“Depth reporting is simply good reporting with an °ye for accuracy and 1 detail,” avers MV Kamath. According to A Kumar, “Depth reporting is a special telescope of journalism that allows the ever-inquisitive reporter to collect facts, information, and sensational clues with nearly hundred percent accuracy.”
According to MV Kamath, “Depth reporting is the explanatory story that accompanies or follows a breaking news story. ”
According to another author, “Depth reporting refers to moving towards the tenth of a story a maximum possible extent and revealing this story in a factual manner to the targeted audience.”
Finally MV Kamath defines depth reporting as, “….digging beneath the surface and coming up with facts that aren’t immediately visible, but which nevertheless contribute to an understanding of the story. ’’
Three Levels Of Reporting –
According to David Murphy, there are three levels of reporting, as follows –
(i) Level 1: At the passive level, reporters report public events and what, is said in those events. Example: The statements of Vijayraje Scindia during the election campaign for the elections of the state assembly of Rajasthan *(November, 2003).
(ii) Level 2 : At this one-up level, reporters seek to explain or interpret what is said. Example: Statements of Mr. Digvijay Singh about the loss of the Congress in the elections for the elections of the state assembly of Madhya Pradesh (November, 2003).
(iii) Level 3 : At this highest-level, reporters try to dig into the news and look for evidence (or a et of evidence) behind it. Example: Analysis of a popular TV channel regarding the assembly poll fiasco of the Congress in MP Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh (December, 2003).
Types Of Investigative Journalism (IJ) –
The Tehelka Expose’ as well as many other scams and sandals has forced us to categories investigative journalism into three parts. These are as follows –
(a) Revealing What Inadvertently Lies Hidden. Some news and events are not highlighted perchance because stakes of individual involved in them are low. This first kind of investigative journalism tries to reveal what is left unearthed due to social apathy, problems of distance, or lack of communication.
(b) Revealing what is Deliberately Hidden. Some news and events are not highlighted because stakes of individuals involved in them are very high. This-second kind of investigative journalism tries to reveal what is being deliberately suppressed by some elements of the society. These elements do so out of the fear that if they are caught, the axe Would fall on them; Example: Watergate scandal, Monica gate scandal, love affairs of Lady Diana and Dodi A1 Fayad, love affairs of Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles.
(c) Revealing What Has Not Happened, But Exposing the Natural ‘ Inclinations Some decoy news and events are created to find not the innate actions,-plans, intentions, and behavior patterns of targeted ; subjects. Hence, the third kind of investigative journalism reveals what a person pr firm is really Worth. Example. The Thelka expose, Judeo tape scandal, AjitJogi bribery scandal according to a different criterion; Fig 10-2 shows these categories in nutshell.
5. Development Journalism. The expressions such as Development Reporting or Development News were coined during the early seventies when he UNESCO, UNEPA, UNIICEF, and UNDP were willing to fund and encourage a new kind of reporting. The Press of he west was critical of these agencies. The US and British Press had censured them consistently a reaction to the allegations of slanted reporting by the western media while giving reports of the economies and development issues of the developing countries.
Various forums discussed the domination of the western Press on the media of he developing nations. In these debates, the city-based print media. Were found against development reporting because the thought that it was an effort towards management of news. However, smaller newspapers wanted to implement the concept of development reporting.
Consequently, the UNESCO formed the McBride Commission. This Commission organised hearings in developing countries. However, such hearings were boycotted by many newspapers, including some newspapers of India. The wire services like the AP, UPI, Reuters, and AFP were covering such news as were not under their coverage agendas. Developing countries reacted to this new phenomenon.
The western media continued to control the mass markets in the developing nations. The developing nation were slow in learning that the western media were out to destroy their social, economic and political canvasses in a stealthy fashion. The report of McBride Commission clearly mentioned this lethal trend. The developing world became conscious of this trend. Hence, development news was made unacceptable to major newspapers.
However, there were many news agencies in Asia that were doing development reporting jobs in 1994. stories devoted development were published in newspapers and magazines. TV, as he new media icon, was also used to do so. TV documentaries were popular till mid nineties.
Discuss the techniques of Article, writing in various Print media.
Article Writing –
An Article For A Magazine –
Please take the following steps-
Find the Right Topic. We have already explained that a writer always remains alert to the environmental stimuli that are bombarded on his mind. Read newspapers and magazines on a daily basis. Meet celebrities and learn how they have become famous. Talk to other authors and editors. Look for opportunities in the field of magazine publishing. Watch TV regularly. Remain sensitive to events and happenings that are directly related to your field. These stimuli would chum your thought.
These thoughts would boil in your mind due to this churning effect. Finally, you would arrive at a goal-the topic on which, you would be very keen to write and express your views. You could be willing to explain a problem Alternatively, you could be motivated to present a solution to these of problems that were given to your mind by the environmental stimuli. You should be confident about die topic selected by you. Write a few topics on a piece of paper and analyse them carefully. Then, arrive at a conclusion by visualizing how efficiently you would be able to collect data and facts about each one of them.
Naturally, those topics would be eliminated about which, there is no or minimal data finally, you would be left with one or two topics. Out of these, choose the simple one even if the data of the different one is much more accurate and abundantly available. The second topic (selected by you) may have poor data back-up. However, do not mind this lacuna. Try to pick a simple topic to begin with. When you become adept at writing fine articles, try the difficult topics.
Find Out the Magazine in Which, the Article is Likely to be Published: This is the crucial step. Before you plunge into the ocean of words, talk to a magazine publisher. If you already have one who would publish it, talk to the sponsoring editor of that publisher. Two situations arise now-either the publisher gives you a topic or you define a topic. Let us discuss both these possibilities.
The Publisher Has a Topic and Invites You. The article has to be written to serve an objective of the publisher. In fact, he would discuss why he wants an article of a particular genre to be published in his magazine. His readers may have asked him to present data and facts on a specific topic. The could have written to the publisher, “Sir, please publish an article on Indo-US relations; we have to prepare for the IAS or UGC examination.” The publisher and his staff must oblige their regular readers. That is why, they would invite you to write on a specific topic. If the publisher or his sponsoring editor has already given (and you are confident about it), your job is done.
You Have a Topic and Contact the Publisher. You can also inform the publisher that you can write an article on a particular topic. If the publisher is not aware of the topic, send a note to him or his sponsoring editor (along with the title of the article) and tell him in briefly what you would like to write. This note is kind of rough draft for the publisher or his sponsoring editor. He may change the topic as well as the basic hints that were sent by you. He knows the markets, not you. Therefore, obey him and alter the title and contents after telephonic conversation or across-the-table negotiations. You may have to make some compromises; you may not be allowed to write on exactly the same topic that was selected by you. Be prepared and get going; the real work start now!
Do the Research. After the finalisation of the topic, you would be expected to collect data or undertake research activities. You would be required to visit libraries and read various books on the topic. You may have to buy some books and magazines too. The publisher may also give to some books, magazines, and photocopies. He can also give the address of scholars, researchers, professors, media celebrities, movie stars, or other processionals who would give you vital data, clues, sets of information or opinions on the topic. While you conduct the research activities and meet people, keep the title and rough draft of the article in your briefcase.
Also, make a broad outline of the contents. This outline would emanate from the rough draft prepared by you I consultation with the publisher or his sponsoring editor. The data would have to be collected according to this outline. This outline can also be given to you by the publisher. If you are a novice in the field, it is better to ask for such an outline from the sponsoring editor; it would be a modified version of the rough draft submitted by you. When you mellow with experience, you would be able to write such outline on you own.
Decide die Structure: We presume that you have worked hard during the previous stage and that adequate data are available with you to write the article. Now, decide the structure of the article. Magazine publisher publish such article as inform, motivate, or change perceptions of readers. Some article are supposed to entertain, enthrall, or educate readers. Therefore, your article would have to be written according to a suitable structure, which would help the readers imbibe the thoughts with finesse. You have to take care of the needs of the readers by creating a suitable structure of the article. The readers should not be forced to accept our structure. The ideas and concept should naturally flow into the minds of readers. Hence, the structure must be conducive for transmission of thoughts from the sender (author) to the receiver (reader).
A typical structure has been show in Table 10-11 that follows.
In Table, we have assumed that every paragraph. has a word count of 125 words. The font is selected b the publisher. Magazines are usually printed in a type size of 10-12 points. Hence, your article would have an extent of 1,000 words. You may have to give tables, photographs, sketches etc in your-article to authenticate our facts. These would have to be embedded carefully at appropriate places: The simple rule in the context of these insertions is-as soon as you mention the table number or figure number, that table or figure number, that table or figure must come up on that very page. It cannot or should not Come after another figure or table. If this is not possible, mention the number of table or figure in the text and then, let that figure or table come on the very next page.
The DTP operator of the magazine publisher is aware of these rules. All you have to do is to write the article, get it typed in double¬space on foolscap paper, mark the places where the tables and sketches musk be put, and submit this MSS to the publisher (along with sketches, tables and diagrams). If you cannot draw well, create rough sketches only and the DTP section would take care of the rest. However, tables should preferably be typed or legible (if you have created them with a pen). Alternatively, you can give halftone images and/or colour photographs along with this soft copy. The DTP staff would incorporate the same into the article (you have to define the figure numbers or photograph numbers Carefully in the soft copy).
The Style. You have not started writing yet Decide the style first and then, write the article. You must develop a unique style of writing. This style would give a typical shade to the.
- basic ideas and concepts;
- order and sequence
- grammar, phrases, and sentences;
- paragraph and
- overall presentation of your article.
Your style should not be copied from those of others. Finally, you cannot develop a good writing style overnight, After years of practice, you would learn how to start the article, give headings, insert data and vital facts in the middle, and give conclusion in the end. When you write your twentieth article, we hope you would have developed a fine style of your own. Ask the reputed editors, authors and DTP specialists to help you in this context. You would become an expert that way.
The first Paragraph. The structure of the article is ready and so is its style. The structure is the basic outline of the article and there is no harm in using the rough draft to refine it. These rough hints were the same that were used by you during the data collection and research phase. In fact, the structure is based on these rough notes and the data collected during the research process. You should reflect whatever you have collected during the research phase. Now, start writing the article. Prepare yourself physically and mentally.
Sit in a secluded room, which should have a writing desk (with a local lighting system). Do not sit on the bed to write. Bring all the books, journals, magazines, and data sheets on this writing desk. Remember you deity and pray to Him/ Her. Now, write the title of the article. Write the first few lines of the first paragraph. Read them before you go further. If you do not find them to be up to the mark, change them. Alternatively, throw away the paper and write on a new one. This is the painful incubation stage of writing, but do not give up. Finally, you would be read to start the first paragraph. We can give a good cue in this context-explain the data collected by you in a nice manner in the first paragraph. Also, give the idea of the problem in only one sentence in this 4 paragraph.
You would be able to make a fine background for the article that way. A positive punchy opening is the key that opens the door to a reader’s heart. Attract the attention of the reader with the first two lines. Example: Dubyaman has opened a Pandora’s Box by sending additional troops to Iraq. If Uncle Sam continues to rule the war-ravaged Mesopotamia, Saddam and v his cohorts may seek the support of other terrorist groups to wreak havoc on the outsiders. Note that in this example, Dubyaman refers to George W Bush; the author purposely does not name the President because he wants the readers to guess who Dubyaman could be. Eventually, they realize that the term has been coined for President Bush. The opening must be lively, cosmopolitan, and declarative. It answers the first question of he reader, “What’s this’ all about”? In technical terms, it is called Lead.
In newspaper articles, the headline does the job of leading. However, in articles of magazines, you have to “make the lead” because a title would not help the reader tread the path of words you have created. You could use the quotation of a popular person in the first few lines. Example: So said Oliver Goldsmith, “Where wealth accumulates, men decay.” You can also narrate an anecdote in the first paragraph. You can even ask a question. You can give news that is thrilling and able to arouse the interest of readers.
The second Paragraph. The second paragraph must maintain the pace and style of the first one. Long, rambling paragraphs are eschewed b readers and editors alike. Do not use difficult words. The reader is not keen to learn that you are the master of the language but is interested in knowing about the facts and data related to the topic. The second paragraph should really take him off ground and land him in a heaven of words.
The third, fourth and fifth paragraphs. Use short simple sentences. Give only one idea in one use too many adjectives as the crowd the verbs (Alan Jamieson). Be pertinent and dedicated to the topic. Key sentences should capture the important points. Do not use T use ‘we’ or ‘our’. Use the phrase “the author” instead of the word ‘I”, if it is every Further, note that the body of the article can be contained in more than three paragraphs. However, in that case, the article would b very long and could be ignored. The ideal length of any article should be 800-1200 words. You can complete the .body of the article in four paragraphs as well.
All the tables. Many articles require tables. Economic and technical data are presented through tables. Mention the number of the table and give the table below the line that mentions the table. In actual practice, the DTP man would make a table and let the text wrap around in the Corel Draw j 0.0. If he uses PM 7.0 to process the article or book, he cannot avail the wrap-around tool.
The figures and graphs. You may have to insert figures and graphs to support the data. These would also be embedded in the text at suitable places. The DTP man would do the actual job. Figures and graphs enhance the readability of the article.
The inset boxes. Some vital data are given in the small decorated inset boxes. These may not be referred to in the text of the article. They look beautiful and engage the reader immediately. They contain facts, data, or numerical figures. The DTP man would create and decorate them.
The photographs. Many articles contain half-tone, quarter tone or colon r photographs. The DTP operator adds them at suitable places; the author must inform him where to insert such photographs. They normally have captions and numbers, just like all the tables, figures, and graphs. However, tables and figures in the article of a magazine do not have numbers, although they do have captions.
Winding up. Give conclusions and recommendations in the second-last paragraph. Give solutions in the last one. The lasf paragraph is literally your own baby. Do not give vague suggestions. Do not promise heavens and stars while solving the problem. Simply write that the suggested solution can be implemented to get better results. Do not give ultimate solutions to burning issues like Kashmir, Palestine, the Basques, LTTE crisis, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Taliban, north-south dialogue, deadlocks in he WTO conferences, deadlocks in the conferences related to environment etc. Give only rational or plausible suggestions.
Align your views with those of the masses. Do not give funny conclusions. Do not state, “A solution eludes humanity.” Instead, state, “Through collective efforts, XYZ would arrive at a solution in the near future.” Do not give dates of solutions. Do not state, “The Palestine-Israel conflict shall be resolved by December, 2004.” Instead, state. “The Palestine-Israel conflict can be resolved due to the joint efforts of the Israelis, Palestinians and UNO. However, this issue may take more time to be resolved. Do not drag the farewell. A sharp finale can prove very effective. Create an environment in which, the reader should remain keen to read another article written by you on the same which, the reader should remain keen to read another written by you on the same topic in the same magazine.
Article For A Newspaper –
The article of a newspaper are invariably printed on one page in several columns. The ending part of an article can appear on a different page; that is done due to space constraints. Pages four, five and six are normally devoted \ to articles. In some newspapers, articles and editorials are put on he same page. In many newspaper, articles, regular features, and three editorials (in a vertical two-column format) are being printed. A paragraph should not have more than 90-100 words. Within this limit, you can write anything that falls within the purview of the topic. However the flow of the article must be take into account.
Generally writers write 88-90 words in a double-width column, j If we take the average of various paragraphs the average in 88 words per paragraphs for a double-width column. For a ingle-width column, the average is 77 words per column. These figures should be followed (at lest in India) because typesetting and subsequent make-up of pages of newspapers would be according to a standard format to accommodate these specifications. The newspaper has to look nice because normally, every article is sans colour. Make short paragraphs and let the eyes of the reader take rest after he reads some of them. You can give inset boxes, photographs, sketches, and caricatures to give variety to his mind and relaxation to his eyes.
Evaluation Of An Article –
Alan Jamieson has given the following guidelines to evaluate an article –
- Purpose. What is it-to instruct, inform persuade, amuse? Is the article ” successful in meeting its objectives? –
- Idea and Content. Is the idea original? Does the idea work in actual practice?
- Order and Sequence. Is the paragraphing effective in the sense that one paragraph’s theme leads into the next one?
- Opening and Closing. Is the opening effective? Is the closure powerful and worthy of making an impact?
- Style. What do you think of the style? Has the author used “I” to be more forceful? Is there a razzmatazz of cliches, tautology, and confused syntax in the article? Is the reader able to imbibe the basic concept for which, the article was written?
- Did it Work? Did the article in arouse the interest of the reader in the subject? Was it able to impinge upon the mind of the reader? Would he like to get more information on the same topic and may be from the same author? Did the article fade into the oblivion as a sluggish insipid comet of words, or would it remain etched in the memory of the reader as a star of vivid, pragmatic, and thought-provoking ideas?
Discuss the techniques of book review and editorial writing.
Review And Editiorial Writing –
Book Review. This is a highly technical task. Books on engineering, the arts, science, nature, polity, economy, and sports are reviewed quite often. Magazines and newspapers devote complete sections to book reviews. Such reviews are published/new weekly or fortnightly basis in newspapers and magazines. TV handles these reviews in a different manner. TV channels invite, specials in their studios who give expert comments on the books under review. Example: The Vagina Monologues was reviewed by a team of experts on a TV channel. The author of the book was also present in the discussion/review session. In order to become a competent book review expert, the person must take the follows precautions –
- Review only those books that are compatible with your academic background and experience.
- While reviewing a fiction book, describe the nature of the book and. not the turning points of its plot.
- The setting of the book-whether the subject is mystery, history, humor, sports, psychology, defiance, etc must be mentioned in the first few lines of the review.
- Give details of major characters or at least their names.
- Give some dialogues from the book in your review and give appropriate comments on the same.
- Read the entire book in one go before writing the review.
- Be impartial; even if you hate the author of the book, give a rational opinion .about his book.
- It is customary not to censure a book unless it is too dull or offensive to the reader. Always give an average or above average rating to the book (the book has to be sold by its publisher). Do not discard .it as a waste material even if it really is waste material. It does not mean that you have to be worldly-wise in the positive and negative points (of the content of the book) in the review. In the end, give, an average rating. The readers of today are wise enough to grasp the gist of your review.
- Pass clear comments on the content, style, and presentation of the book.
- Pass clear comments on the creativity, plot, and handling style of the author.
Editorial Writing –
Every author aspires to be an editorial writer, although he rarely expresses this innate desire in public. The print media have seen many successful editorial writers. Many of them have h come legends too. An editorial is the opinion of die chief editor of a magazine or newspaper. It is always printed on the editorial page of the magazine or newspaper. It is brief, to the point, and conspicuously current. It invariably covers the news or event that had happened nearly 48 hours ago or before. The language of a fine editorial writer (chief editor) is tough. He may write one editorial per day and tell his juniors to write two editorials so that all three editorials could be published the next morning. A newspaper carries three editorials (four is crowd). A magazine carries one editorial (two is a crowd). The editorial is probably the best example of depth reporting. In order to write and editorial, the person must have the following traits and abilities –
- He must be a generalist.
- He must be a highly qualified. A post-graduate degree/diploma in journalism, arts, engineering, medicine, or management is an essential prerequisite.
- He must have an excellent command over language in which, he has to write the. editorial.
- He should write at the most one editorial per day. He can tell his juniors to write the other two (in the case of a newspaper). He must have a look at what they have written.
- He must not give numerical data, facts, tables, and photographs in his editorial. That is because an editorial is his opinion and not a platform to display his knowledge.
- He should suggest solution? to the problem being discussed.
- He must read a lot. He must keep himself abreast of tlte iatest social, political, economic, criminal and international news stories.
- He cannot indulge in the acts of defamation, offences of breach of privacy, and mudslinging. As a respectable member of his firm and society, he is deemed much more responsible then other members of the media. “
- If a controversy arises, he should take the responsibility. He must tell the concerned parties how and why he wrote the editorial.
- He should the factual, honest, and impartial while writing the editorial.
- He should not be motivated by personal interest or material gains.
- He should draw objective conclusions from stated facts, basing them on the weight of evidence and on the considered concept of the greatest good (MV Kamath).
- He should review his own conclusions and rectify them (in his next editorial) if ‘hey are found based on misconceptions.
Discuss the techniques of editing.
Techniques Of Editing
The Editor. The editorial department is the creative organ of a newspaper. It is, therefore, manned by writers and re-writers. The writers are the editor and his assistants, as well as reporters and correspondents.
The re-writers are called sub-editors (or copyreaders). In the jargon of the profession, the ’subs edit copy’ before it is sent down to the compositor in the printing department. Desktop publishing (DTP) has eliminated the roles of the compositor and the layout artist, and has simplified the production process considerably.
The Sub-editor. The sub-editor’s job is much less glamorous than reporter’s but as important. While a reporter is an out-of-doors man with a ‘beat” to cover, a sub-editor is a deskman. Again, while a reporter is well known to newspaper readers as his reports frequently carry a ‘by-line’, a subeditor hardly ever sees to give a face-lift S; the paper, but his worth is rarely acknowledged even by reporters to w000hose ‘copy’ he gives snit ana polish, making it readable to the average newspaper reader. Indeed, a sub-editor is a ‘super-reporter’, for he sits in judgment on a reporter’s news story, checking its accuracy, it language, and its intelligibility.
It is often due to his alertness that a story is ‘killed’, and the editor is saved from being hauled up by the police and the courts, or from having o apologies to readers for carrying fake stories, and for errors in names, designations, dates and the like. The credibility of the paper rests in his hands. As one appreciative editors puts it: ‘The sub¬editor is the private detective, the motorcycle cop esccrt, nay even the army, navy and marine corps to the newspaper’s most treasured possession-the confidence of he reader. He wears neither star nor chevron, and his bosom never bulges with gold medals, nor his pockets with coins; he is the lifeguard of the newspaper office.’
Headlines, The sub-editor has other creative duties as well. The most significant one is that of providing headlines and sub-headlines to news reports. The significance of this task can be realized from the fact that most readers glance through the headlines before the pick and choose items for detailed reading. Headlines, therefore, have the function of attractive the readers’ attention, and of grading and organizing he news. Besides, they make a newspaper page spring to life, lending it the character of a mosaic, with a form, symmetry and beauty all its own.
Headline capsule whole stories into a few words, which fit into the limited space of newspaper columns, and in typography that pleases the eye. Yet, headlines are not ere shoot fast and straight. This is achieved b the use of ‘action’ words like ‘stab’ (for murder), ‘raid’ (for search), ‘hike’ (for raise), ‘flay’ or ‘rap’ (for criticize), ‘probe’ (for investigate), and ‘scam’ (for ‘fraud’).
Headlines are usually written in the historical present tense and in a positive tone, as these lend an air of immediacy to the news. Besides, hey must convey the spirit of their stories. Disaster stories line blast’. Amusing stories like the case of a minister who panicked on his first flight in a helicopter: ‘Minister yells for life, guard runs for his.’
Headlines are of several types, the ‘banner’ which stretches across many columns: the ‘boxed” headline which is framed in a small rectangle, the ‘flush’ headline which is multi-deck and printed flush left; the ‘cross’ line which is centered in column; the ‘inverted pyramid’ headline which as the name suggests in multi-deck, with which is also multi-deck but with the lower decks indented from the left, the ‘jumphead’ which is the secondary head that carries the continued part of a news story in an inside page. There are numerous other types of headlines, some with fancy names like ‘shoulder headline’ but the ones that have been listed are those most frequently encountered by readers.
Professional Abilities. Professionals of this stream are – staff correspondents, special correspondents, news editors, chief editors, political commentators, cartoonists, columnists, feature writers, content writers for magazines etc. These professionals have amazing abilities to analyse political, economic and social situations prevailing in a region, nation, or the globe. The weave a magic spell of words in the print media and regularly attract the attention of readers. They are in touch with politicians, media barons, business tycoons, editors of newspapers and magazines, industry Doyen, and the people closely assaulted with press production. Young journalists are accepted as trainees and take nearly eight years to become experienced editor Examples: Khushwant Sing, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Hikey, S. Sadanand and many more.
Major Features Of Editing –
In the light of the aforesaid dissuasion, we can identify the following features of editing –
1. A professional editing is on the payroll of a journal, magazine, newspaper, or TV channel. He can also be an employer of an Internet web site or a dot com firm. He works on a full-time basis for his employer
2. He covers news, view, and evens of various kinds. He is a generalist in most of the cases. However, specialists can also become editor
3. He is know by different designations, namely editor, sub-editor assistant editor, feature writer, sports editor, columnist, news editor etc.
4. The fields of his operation could include law, national polity, global polity economy, sports, election, crime, fashion, investigative journalism art and crafts, drama literature etc. This list is not exhaustive. Most of the times media firms appoint only those editor to cover a news that is in tune with their backgrounds and qualifications. Those can be called specialists, but by virtue of their exposure to the field, they may also be told cover such news topics as are not related to their major fields of specialistaion.
5. The earlier concept, in the parlance of journalism, was are bom, not made. However, nowadays, can be made too. If they have the basic abilities ad skills and also, if they bum the midnight oil, they can touch the peaks of perfection in their respective fields.
There are exceptions to the rale explained in Point E. Some people have innate abilities to excel in the field of journalism. They do not get formal training, but they start their operations from a scratch as to grow editor Example: T Sadanand, the founder editor of Free Press Journals, never received formal training in journalism. In fact, he never attended any college.
Guiding Principles for editors –
- The editor should have a missionary approach, and his approach must be coupled with objectivity at all times.
- The editors should never think that they know every thing.
- They must watch both facts and probabilities.
- The must know hat there are some limits to the freedom of speech and . expression.
- They should be able to publish an unpalatable point of view as well,
- They shorn i not pass comments on suspect facts.
- They should tune high technology to social conditions.
Discuss the news room organization and operation of media like television or news paper.
Operation Of News Room
News Director of Television. He is responsible for the daily newscasts of the TV station. He is also responsible for maintaining or improving the ratings of the TV station/channel. He recruits personnel. He negotiates contracts with TV talent for newscasts. He is also involved auditioning of newscasters who wish to join the with TV talent for newscasts. He*is also involved in auditioning of newscasters who wish to join the TV station. He creates a suitable environment for newsroom communications. He builds morale of those employees who are apart of the newsroom.
Many top-level managers think that newsroom expenses are costs and not investments. However, they are in the wrong because the audiences are always hungry to view high-quality newscasts. The budgets and powers of a news director may be axed quite often because of the bias of the top-level managers. That is why, no news director sticks to his job for more than two or three years.
Charles Warner has given two guidelines to news directors who wish to fight it out in their seats (and still remain unscathed). These are as follows –
(A) Learn how to win the ratings race with the available resources.
(B) Learn how to translate the crass need for corporate profits into meaningful pride-instilling missions for news people.
The bosses of a news director want the rating of the TV station to improve. The news director wants to display his extraordinary skills in TV news casting and management. However, his finesse may not always take the TV station to new (high) rating. That is where the problem begins. On one side, there is ethics in news coverage and news casting and on the other, there is a mad rush for getting the best ratings through tactical and strategic policies (or highly practical and mean procedures). Sometimes, the news director is caught in the quagmire created by these two factors. Hence, either he calls it a day in the firm or the top brass gives him the sack.
News directors must know how to interview TV newscasters, manage TV production, and define and redefine set lighting ‘designs. The newsroom ought to be given a new look after ever three months. Finally, the news director must be able to instill a sense of security in the staff of the newsroom.
News Room Of A Daily Paper –
In the news room personnel we have 13 types-of reporters as follows –
1. Industrial Correspondent He serves the industry and corporate sector.
He covers the departments of the government that are concerned with industrial development. He interviews the CEOs of business houses and industrial empires. He write special features, which focus on different industries empires. He writes special feature, which focus on different industries or ancillaries thereof.
2. Science Correspondent. He gathers new s and developments related to the sciences, technology, space research, biotechnology, IT, the Net and other similar topics He should have a scientific background to write articles related to these topics. He should have an MSc. degree and a post-graduate degree/ diploma in journalism. He writes features too. He gathers latest news and ; events in the field of science and technology.
3. Crime Reporter. He gathers news related to crime and law and order in the area under his journalistic purview. He has to interact with criminals, die police, government officials (including ministers), the CBI, the CBCID, and even’ the judiciary. He risks his life by covering news of crime or events involving theft, murder, decoity, arson, communal, violence, smuggling etc. He must be present at or near the site of crime to get correct data from it or from the witnesses of the crime. He has to frequently interact with the law-enforcing agencies like the police, CBI, Enforcement Directorate, Vigilance Commission, and other organs of the State. He must also be well versed with court procedures.
4. Arts and Crafts Correspondent. He gathers news related to music, architecture, parenting, sculpture, theatre etc. He may also cover cultural _ activities going on in his region of operation, which is also called Beat or Beat Area.
5. City Edition Reporter. He Covers the news, events and special occasions in a particular city. His features may include many news, views, interviews, photographs, city information etc. Example: HT City of the Hindustan Times. Many correspondents work together to bring cut these editions, which are released on a weakly, fortnightly or monthly basis.
6. Commercial/Economic Correspondent. He covers he economy of a region, nation, or the world. He also keeps a tab on the bourses, bullion prices, commodity prices, the core sectors of the economy, banking, financial institutions, raw materials industries (producers), and the mass markets (consumers). He should have a degree in economics or management. He should also have exposure to journalism. ‘
7. Political Correspondent. He covers the political news and machinations (‘his region. Thus, his life is always in danger because of political rivalry among parties. Fear of these political parties that they would be exposed forces them to develop good relations with him; however, if they are attacked by his articles, they can also show their teeth. Many correspondents align themselves with political parties; this is not a healthy trend for journalism. Materialistic consideration quite often take the better of morality of modern- day journalists. There are only a few exceptions to this general rule.
8. Foreign Correspondent. He is stationed in a foreign country and covers the news/events related to his field. He must be resourceful, gregarious, and hard working. That is because demands of international journalism are different. In a foreign country, the journalist has to speak the language of the natives and extract the news or informal m from them without hurting their social, moral or political values.
9. Sports Correspondent. He covers news related to sports events and games. He may also write features and articles for his magazine or newspaper. He should preferably be a sportsman having keen, interest in journalism and writing.
10. Local Administration/Judicial Reporter. He covers news related to the local administration, public corporations, regional or city operations, and court operation, and court operation. He may also be called District Reporter. He should have good contacts in the local media, administration, and law- enforcing agencies.
11. Special Correspondent. It is a new breed of correspondent. He meets VVIPs and gets their views on hot topics that affect the nation or region. He can also be stationed abroad. He is in touch with diplomats, VVIPs, celebrities, ministers, and members of opposition parties. He is in his mid-fifties. He has to read a lot to keep himself updated about the economic, social, and political scenarios of the nation. Such people are the proud possessions of their newspapers/magazines.
12. Columnist. He reviews events and developments of public interest. He covers political manipulations, sports, the sciences, IT, economy, the arts, crafts, and other topics. He contributes to the magazine or newspaper on a periodic basis. Examples: NC Menon, Shobha De, Khushwant Singh, Soni Sangwan, Arundhati Roy. P Chidambaram, Sitaram Yechuri, and many more. A columnist may not be on the payroll of a newspaper or magazine. So, he may not be included in the list of correspondents or print media journalists. He works as a freelancer most of the times.
How News Is Created –
The media firms of today stimulate the minds of the audiences. They gain the attention of the general readers or markets targeted inform them about the events in society and products and services of advertisers/marketers, persuade the to buy, the news paper products, services, or concepts and finally, keep on reminding them about the uses of such news products, services, or concepts. A media firm may not be involved in the task selling the news products and services to the customers of a news paper or a firm.
Example: An advertising agency promotes the products of a firm that makes FMCGs. However this advertising agency is not selling or promoting the products of this firm It is only using mediated tools to promote the products. The real sales turnover has to be generated b the retail chains and distributing or newspaper or marketing staff of the client firm. For government firms and N.G.Os. the dogmas of society, environment, health and other issues are more vital than the tasks of a stone-heated business firm.
The following steps are taken to make a news.
(i) Collection of News.
(ii) Finalisation of News.
(iii) Developing the News. Final sets of information act as cues for creative writers, journos, and correspondents. If asked in special care they create some • lists of ideas to be investigated. Then, they send reporters to check sources. The Net is used quite frequently in this process. After developing the raw material, reporters and editors make an outline of the news (normally called Rough Draft).
(iv) Developing and Polishing the News. Based on the outline developed in the earlier step, a final news is developed. The reporters and journos do the tough task of writing and recording. The multimedia and DTP experts provide pictures, sketches, and graphs. Editors edit the finally prepared the special headline news. ‘
(v) Producing Finished Copies of the News. In this step, the print and broadcast media produce the news that is really worthy of being published, broadcast, or telecast. In the print media, typesetting, plate making, pre-press, press are the vital steps. In a radio production studio, the recorded messages are edited. Cinema is somewhat similar, but movies take long time to finally come out of the production room.
Finally finished copies of messages are produced. They are put on sheets of paper, CDROMS, movie films, or DATs. CRCs. Negatives, bromides, photographic films or artwork are the final phases of the print media laboratories. The printing press, usually an offset press, is used to print books, magazines, newspapers, Pop material etc. TV programmes are recorded on DATs or VTRs. MD?CD racks are stacked and finalished for the purpose of radio broadcasting.
News Production Research –
It is the study of how economic and other influences distort the coverage of news in the context of the operations of powerful people. The production of news is affected by powerful people and news producers and disseminators are paid b these powerful people and news producers and disseminators are paid by these powerful people to change the news in such a manner that it serves the interests of these powerful people. Lance Bennett has identified four news production conventions, which are being used by the US media o enhance the interests of the powerful people. These are as follows:-
1. The News Is Made Personal. The news focuses on people. If these people are powerful, the consumers of the news take more interest in the news. Example: The India Shining campaign of Mr. L. K. Advani in March-April 2004 Was a precursor to the general and state elections (2004). Other leaders were also bus undertaking such political excursions (and the offices of the ministries were empty). Hence, major social and economic issues were circumvented by the media. Only the powerful people are promoted in the news and burning issues. Therefore, the concept of idol worshipping is shamelessly prevalent in India too (Bennett had conducted his research in the American Context). The results this effect are that –
- these problems are dismissed by the masses a specific to the characters in the news story; and
- The masses are not informed about the political and social contexts of the problem that could invite suggestions or actions from them (the masses).
2. The News in Dramatised. The TV debates of the new era are dramatized versions of news. The software contains insipid, useless stories. The political debates are trivialised (Bennett). The real issues are left alone the not-so-important ones attract media hype, attention of TV celebrated, and dedication of TV anchors. This has been going on since the early eighties in India.
3. The News Is Fragmented, In the USA, time and cost are vital in the field of journalism, just as they are in any other field. Therefore, news stories are bridged or encapsulated. Details are missing in mot of them; If the reporter wants to go into deep details, he needs more time (and his bosses need more money to support him). These two commodities (time and money) are in short supply. Hence, journo get data from unreliable sources, somehow fit them into a news story, and push it to the next stage. The real depth is missing in the news.
4. The News Is Normalised. In the USA, opines Bennett, reporters do not look deep into the event or accident with an inquisitive eye. This is especially true while they cover natural or man-made disasters. They get reports from officials and pass them on the to their newsdesk. There is no effort to dig into the news. This trend supports those who are in power but not those who are underprivileged or those who are being covered in the mews. Social actions are not undertaken by the journos to protect the interests of the poor or underprivileged masses. Instead, They work as the mistresses of the rich few:
These rich people could be publishers, media owners, members of the government etc.
News In Dispute –
In fact, it is not a dispute but an event. A dispute could be a part of the event or an event itself. The dispute could be official or unofficial. The police ‘ may be pursuing the culprits or accused. However, it may not have nabbed them, or they may have asked them some questions and then let them off. An investigative journalist (or his boss) may not be satisfied by the general course of events. He could state,
“Something is fishy behind this news, dispute, or event.” Hence, he may take the responsibility to find out what lies beneath the surface of the news, dispute, or event.’ Thus, a dispute or something fishy about a seemingly innocuous dispute could become the guiding light for the investigative journo or his boss. Teams are formed quickly and sent to the event site or the persons who are or may be connected with the event. They start doing the killing job, the search for the ultimate truth and identification of culprits.
Discuss the qualities and responsibilities of a news reporter or journalist.
Qualities Of A News Reporter –
Skill Required For A Journalist. Every profession demands a set of skills These skills can be developed by the individual by –
- Getting education in the chosen profession.
- Undergoing on-the-job training and
- Extensive and job-specific experience of at least ten years.
Journalism has been recognized as a profession in most of the nations of the world. As such, it is taught in colleges and universities. Later, the educated journo makes it his calling in life. In India, there are many problems that the field of Journalism training faces. These problems have emanated due to the aeons-old churning of our societal values, perceptions, and aspirations. We are tradition-bound, willing to believe in dogmas, and swayed by communal and regional sentiments easily and quite often. The journals of today are no exception in this context; they also operate, feel and write/speak like other human beings of our multi-cultural and multi-ethnic society.
On the other hand, the profession of journalism demands great accuracy and an absolute level of impartiality from a journo. Thus, these two grinding stones crush the careers of many a journo in India. Morality and commercialism are the two extremes that ever professional ought to balance at all points of time.
MV Kamath, JL Nehru, MK Gandhi, HK Dua,. Khushwant Singh, S Sad’ and, NS Rama Rao, CS Trilokekar, Yaduanth Sarkar, Arun Shunrie, SesL^giri Rao, NC Menon, KPS Menon, CN Vakil, Nikhil Chakravarti, NJ Nanporia, Thomas Mathew, Mamon Mathew, MJ Akbar, M Chalapathi Rau, TL Vaswami, Girilal Jain, P Joseph, and many other reputed editors and journalists have made the Indians proud. This list is not exhaustive. These men of courage have kept the journalistic spirit alive at all times.
However, if we read newspapers and magazines of today, or simply go through a popular news channel’s newscast, we would be able to find out many discrepancies in their operations.
Unflinching dedication to commercial content is the first feature of all media of today. Thus, while studying a course journo, Advertising and Public Relations, or Mass Communication, the students and trainees keep the commercial viewpoint in full view. Not a bad phenomenon at all! However, journos ought to be different breed. They should not get training to earn only money. Any takers of this idea?
Some magazines and newspapers have appointed journalists of repute to boost their sales. The “brand names” of these journos are sufficient to draw more readers towards those magazines and newspapers to which, these journos contribute. These seasoned professionals keep a tab on the national and international events of various kinds. Their experience may be more valuable than their academic qualifications and training. However, we do not contend that experience alone would make our readers fine journos.
Nowadays, there are courses available in this career stream as well. It is advisable to understand the intricacies of this profession by getting formal education in a good institute.
Late, when the Journo Joins the field, he gets reai-life (and technical) exposure to news making, editing, feature writing, TV production, radio production and print production. Hence, our view is that theory and practice can together develop the mind of the candidate so that he emerges as a well-groomed journalist. If he gets good education and hands-on training, his writings, views, and presentations would f e valued in India an abroad.
Traits Required In Journos –
In order to become a good author, editor, newscaster, radio announcer,
TV anchor, RJ, VJ, or journalist, the person must acquire some basic traits. These are as follows –
1. Technical Traits. The person must have specialization in the field of operation that he plans to choose as his career. He must acquire this knowledge through study, practice, and interactions with experts in their respective fields. We expect a person to acquire the basic skills by the age of 28-30 years; by the end of the thirtieth ear of his life, he would have completed his education. After this age, he must hone his professional skills b getting experience in industry and business.
If he wants to become an author, he must join a publishing house of repute. If he plans to be a journo, he must join as a trainee journo in a reputed newspaper or magazine. If he is keen to become a TV host or a anchor, he should get the basic training, the person in question can get experience in the organizations that he join. We would suggest that he undertake the specialized vocational course during the day, he should join a firm to acquire job- specific skills …be able to keep in touch with latest technologies (While he gets training in a vocational training institute of repute).
Note, that education gives you vision but training gives you the specific skill set that helps you wade through the turbulent waters of life and makes you a professional in the field chosen b you. Education and vocational training can also go side by side, but our recommendation is-get full-time education for least three or four years and then, join the field of your choice.
2. Conceptual Traits. The person must be able to understand the difficult concepts and put them in simple formats. The markets of the media are meant for those writers and journalists who can put difficult concepts in simple ‘ language and style before the audience. There is no need to do a Tagore, Bacon, Shakespeare, or Dickens nowadays. Even if you are a high quality author, your writings or speech could fall on deaf ears because the audience do not have the time to understand difficult concepts. Understand the concept » and write or explain it in simple words, as if you were explaining it to a school child. Yes, here are market niches for subtle ideas and concepts. However, you had better .start from the first step of the ladder!
3. Communication Traits. Every writer, editor, or journo must be able to communication with preciseness and finesse with every other person. If he is able to do so with those whom he meet on a daily basis, he would certainly be able to communication with the larger sets of audiences for whom he writes, speaks, or explains in any media. For this purpose, he must develop effective listening skills (Keith Davis, Human Behavior at Work). He has to speak less and listen more. Even if he is critic, he should not criticize the other person on his face. No communication is also an effective from of communication. He must use formal channels of communication where only formal channels ought to be used. In his work setting, he should usually resort to the use of formal channels. . _
4. Behavioural Traits. The person must be affable, courteous towards women, always smiling, and receptive to the ideas of others. He must eschew anger and violence He has the power of the pen or speech to give him support. He must never lose temper. He must respect his bosses and tell them, “Even if our shadow leaves you, I shall be by your side.” He must love and adore his peers and tell them, “If you cannot do a task, I shall do it for you.” He must value his juniors and tell them, “If you have failed, it is my fault.” He must be a cosmopolitan person. Introvert persons cannot become journos, although they can become writers or editors. He can become an egoist (if he succeeds in his profession), but he must not allow his ego to hurt his work or the sentiments of any other person.
5. Inquisitive Traits. The person must look for news, clues, secret rendezvous, hidden messages behind the statements, and events that would happen in the future. He must have a nose for information. He must keep his eyes and ears open, but his mouth must always be shut. He should speak when he is supposed to. He should write when he is asked to do so. He must collect data from the hoi polloi, elite, bourgeois, hooligans, politicians, minister, artists, businesspersons, and criminals with equal finesse. He must always explore the world to improve his journalistic skills and personality.
6. Society Oriented Traits. He cannot write, edit or handle a newscast unless he loves masses. After all, he is supposed to write, edit, present, or speak for the sake of the masses. He must be a social being. He must become a family man. He must be careful enough not to hurt the sentiments of any community through his work He must love everybody, even his opponents.
7. Learn to Edit and Translate. You cannot become a creative writer until and unless you revise and edit your own writings. Do not count on others to do this job; they are likely to alter your original thoughts when they are, given the very first opportunity. Write the article and story and then, read it. Bind out the mistake on your own. Remove these mistakes and add new lines of thought to it. You must be perfect in using the grammar of the language that you use. If you are a translator, you should know both the languages fully well, lest you should create translation disasters of a unique kind. If need be, you can contact a professional translator to help you during the initial stage of your career. Learn vital tricks from him and then, do the translation job independently.
8. Get Guidance from The Doyen. The previous point in this sub-section explains that you should write or edit your text on your own. However, there is nO harm in getting guidance from reputed authors, journos, feature writers, and creative intelligentsia. If you contact the right persons they would not ham our creative skills, but the are likely to help you during the initial stage of our career. Lear vita tricks from him and then, do the translation job independently.
9. Get Guidance from the Doyen. The previous point in this sub-section explains that you should write or there is no harm in getting guidance from reputed authors, joumOs , feature writers, and creative intelligentsia. If you contact the right persons, they would not harm your creative skills but they are likely to help you hone these skills. Most of the trained professional authors and editors are not available due to ego problems or lack of time. You have to run after them and show your text to them. Be careful not o take their thoughts into our writings; this would do more harm than good. However, you can talk to them about the –
- accuracy of yours ideas;
- Presentation techniques; and
- Overall look of the text or poetry that you. have created.
Fine thoughts given by them can be incorporated in your text. However, if you do so, mention the name of the person who has given you the thought or ‘ thoughts; your writings would look more authentic that way.
Discuss the responsibility of a news reporter or journalists.
Responsibility Of A News Reporter
1. Responsibility of the journalist must present the data or dispatch it with great dedication and seriousness. He must do so with professional finesse so that readers or viewers should take him seriously. Moreover the staff (and bosses) of his our organization/firm should also be convinced that his presentation/data is the best of its kind. He should not mumble, move sideways, or use difficult words. He must stand erect before the camera and have news facts ready in his mind. If the news is a pleasant one, he should have a smiling face.
If the news relates to a riot, death, arson, or rational loss, he should remain grim-faced. At the end of the news, he should inform, the audience about the final actions being taken (by the State or local authorities) with respect of the event. Then, he must state his name, place of incident and name of the channel he represents. Example – The deluge had taken the lives of 305 people till Monday. The situation is grim, although the local authorities have taken steps to provide 3,000 blankets, food and medicines to the victims of floods. For Channel Reporter ’s Namereporting from Site/City, State? Country.
It he is writing the report, the journo must clearly mention the time, place, and date of the event in the report. After writing the report, he should sign it and put it in a envelope. He must seal the envelop and then, send it to his headquarters by mail cr courier. Nowadays, printed reports are sent. Hence, he must have a laptop computer to assist him.
2. Not be able to cover the event. Most of the devices being used nowadays are based on digital technologies. As such, journalists must be well versed with such technologies, they must also know now to store and maintain digital memory cards, DATs, CD-ROMs, mini disks, batteries, and the item used in photography.
3. Responsibilities as a Leader. Quite often, the journalist should be told to lead a team of investigators, cameramen, and junior reporters. He must lead them form the front. He should set examples before them so that they try to emulate him. He should minimize friction among his juniors, if he cannot eliminate it altogether. If he finds some of team members to be rebellious, he should talk to them in private and try to sort out the issue. It this strategy does not help, he should give them such roles as do not cause harm to other members of the team. Finally, he should leave no stone unturned to protect the dignity of the female members of his team.
When he is told, by his bosses, to shed the role of a leader, he should do so willingly and become a part of the team.- Then, he should not dictate his terms to the members of the group as he is no longer a leader of the group. When he acts as a leader of the group, he should not compromise with the real facts of the event that he going to cover He has also to direct cameramen, driver of the vehicle, and c ganizer of the our progeanime. Despite all these hassles that he has to face during the course of news coverage, he must keep the team members united. The efforts of the team should always be directed towards one goal-collection of data or gathering of news that the team is going to cover.
4. Responsibility of Getting News and Views From the Competition. The journalist should keep on reading newspapers or magazines of the competitors of his firm/organization. He would be able to get an idea about what other journalists are doing. He can also adopt their good communication skills, but he should not indulge in plagiarism. Similarly, if he is TV journalists, he should regularly watch those channels that are competitors of his channel. He should accept their plus points and suggest that his bosses adopt them in the presentations of their own channel. He must remain alert to the moves of competitors. However, he should not offend the journalists working for such competitors.
5. Responsibility of purity of Thoughts and Actions. The journalist should not dispatch false or coloured messages o news to his headquarters. He should not play with the sentiments f any community. He should respect the shrines of all the communities. He should not object to the living norms or styles of the peoples being studied / scrutinized by him. He should avoid taking photographs of nude women and children. In his articles, he should avoid sexual insinuations. He must not use religious issues or caste-based news to ignite communal or caste violence. Hence, he must posses purity of thoughts and actions.
6. Responsibility of working sans the virus of Plagiarism. The journalist must not steal data or facts from his competitors. He should gather data and news o his own. If he does so, he would remain confident of their accuracy. He should process data on his own, or with the help of the members of his team. He should not use clips of magazines or newspapers to make his news. He should have a strong command over the language in which, he communication. The should never indulge in plagiarism simply because he does not have time to cover the news or event. If he is a print media journalist, he must edit his articles and news without he support of his team members. He must try to be genuine, original, and creative in all the aspects of his operational gamut.
Ethics And Journalism –
The power of the pen has been criticized with untold harshness since the dawn ofthe em of print media journalism. Later, when other media arrived on the scene, TV and radio reporters and anchors were also criticized on various grounds. Moral values were set aside by man a journo to promote newspapers, radio stations, and TV channels for which, the worked. As time passed, the issue of ethics in journalism assumed importance. The reason was that the journalist (of an kind) was capable of influencing the masses through his writings, speech, or audiovisual presentations. It swept away moral values in the west.
Freedom to have sex at 18 years of age, violence, abuse of parents and elders, the tendency to flee and enjoy a nomad’s life etc are some of the tendencies that were developed by he westerners during the early seventies. The traditional societal facets of the West changed, and religion no longer held any control over the society. The residents of die West became individuals, and social as well as moral values took a back-seat I those counties.
India was also affected by this wave during the mid-seventies. Our society also tried to emulate the West in terms of acquisition of assets, cars, money, and gadgets of pleasure and comfort. The mad rush for acquiring what the West already had led to a quick degradation of moral values in India. When all this was happening, the Press was emerging as a new power (the Fourth Column) around the world. TV and radio channels were also increasing their reach and coverage.
However, the impact of the Press on the masses was far greater during he eighties than it was during the seventies. It was only during die late eighties that TV and radio (FM channels) stared uprooting moral values in India. TV, radio and Press journos were creating such news and stories as were harmful to the minds of the audiences, but were deemed by these audiences as sweet and pleasant to their senses. Let us examine what is happening on he ethical front of journalism.
Three Theories Of Press Responsibility –
John C Merrill propounded here theories of press responsibility These are as follows –
- That which is legally defined or determined by the government.
- That which is professionally defined or determined by the Press NIKON twelve.
- hat which is pluralistically defined or determined by the journalists themselves.
Merrill has opined that the last theory- responsibility as individually defied- is the valid one. It is also the meaningful one for the NIKON suite and that any other concept of Press responsibility would be incongruent with our ideology, constitution, tradition, and concern for a pluralistic society, avers Merrill (Read John C Merrill, 1986, Responsible Journalism, NlKONed Deni Ellrot, Sage Publications Inc, Beverley Hills). However, Merrill has advocated the third theory only in the context of Press operation of the USA.
In India, the first two theories are also valid. The first theory gets support from the concept of Press Commission and Press Council; the latter regulate the Press without any coercive influences, but at the some time, the tell the Press to release only that text to the masses that is correct ad morally justified. The third theory gets support from the new set-up of the socio-political canvass of India. In a free market system, the irresponsible members of a NIKON system would be automatically left aside, shunned, or punished by the system NIKON itself.
Discuss radio news programme and their composition.
Radio News Programme
Radio Formats and Genres. Radio programmes may be classified into two broad groups –
1. Spoken world programmes, which include news bulletins, talks, discussion, interviews, educational programmes for school and colleges, specific audience programmes directed at women, children, rural and urban listeners, drama, radio features and documentaries.
2. Music programmes which include disc jockey programmes, musical performances of all types and variety programmes (called ‘magazine programmes’). It is obvious that a good number of programmes like drama, features and documentaries need both the spoken word and music. This is hue in particular of programmes broadcast on Vividh Bharati.
News Bulletins. News bulletins are put out by AIR almost every hour of the day in English and the various regional languages. The major bulletins are of 15 minutes’ duration, while others are of only five minutes’ duration. The present summaries of news stories in order of importance and interest-value. National and international happenings get pride of pace, while regional and local news is read nut if time permits. Human interest stories and sports news generally round off he major bulletins. AIR’s news bulletins are much too formal in language, structure and presentation, suitable more for a lecture than a talk across the table which news reading really is.
Newsreel. Newsreels, generally of 15 minutes’ duration, present ‘spot’ reports, comments, interviews, and extracts fro speeches. A much more complex and expensive format than the new bulletin, it calls for skilled tape editing and well-written link narrations.
Documentaries/Radio Features. Documentaries or radio features are usually factual, informational in character and sometimes educational in intent. They bring together the techniques of talks and drama to tell the story of events, past or present or those likely to happen in the future. The may sketch the biography of a great leader, or merely offer an interpretation of the word around us, or teach us about peoples and cultures unfamiliar to us, or even inquire into social, political, economic or cultural problems. Indeed, any subject of interest is grist to the mill of a feature writer.
Radio Play. Radio drams is a story told through sound alone. The sound is of course that of dialogue and voice of people, background or mood effects, musical effects, atmospheric effects and the like. Radio drama, like stage drama is based on conflict, uses characters and has a beginning, a middle and an end. Movement and progress, generally to a crisis or climax, must be suggested in radio drama through sounds. The voices of characters must be sufficiently distinguishable, one from the other, lest the listener gets confused. They must sound natural, speak true to character and above all, be interesting.
Radio listeners would be confused by the presence of more than three to four characters. In fact, the shorter the drama (the average duration is 30 to 60 minutes) the fewer should be the major characters. In the early years of Indian broadcasting, the radio play took on the characteristics of the theatre as it existed on the stage in a particular region. Radio plays were broadcast then for three hours at a time. In Bombay, Parsi, Gujarati and Urdu plays were frequently put o the air: in Madras, mythological plays proved very popular. It was Fielden who introduced the present norm of the 30-minute radio play on AIR.
Talks. Radio talks are not public speeches; rather, they are chats with a friend who does not see you, but it nevertheless close and attentive to you. Radio talks should give the impression to a listener that the speaker is addressing him or her alone in an informal manner.
The words of a radio talk need to be kept simple and familiar, yet descriptive and powerful, and the sentences short and without dependent clauses and awkward inversions. Care should be taken to keep close tc the rhythm of ordinary speech when writing the talk, and also when recording it. Radio talks have no definite structure. All that the listener expects from them is that the should be interesting and informative.
Music Programmes. Music programmes enjoy much greater popularity than talk shows, as is evident from the popularity of Vividh Bharati programmes. We enjoy music for its rhythms, melodies and harmonies and above all for the relaxation it provides. Like any talk show, a music programme of ‘pop’ or ‘disco’, therefore should not be mixed up with classical or light classical music. Variety is the keynote to any music programme; the different items should be linked together with interesting comments, announcements and narration.
Movie trailers. Vividh Bharati’s movie trailers are sponsored programmes usually of 15-30 minutes’ duration. They are fast paced and packed with extracts of dialogue and songs from the film being advertised. The narrator links the elements with dramatic appeals and announcements. The names of stars, of the producer, director, playback singers and musicians figure * prominently in the trailers.
Quizzes. Largely studio-based and inexpensive to produce the quiz show is easily one of the most popular programmes for the family. It’s the sense of participation and involvement in the quiz questions that makes the programme very enjoyable family fare.
Programme Composition of AIR. The major sources of AIR’s programmes re in-house production, outside productions, sponsored programmes, and programmes obtained under the Cultural Exchange Service, apart of course from those programmes available on commercial records, CDs, etc. A small number of programmes are obtained from SAVE (the SAARC Audiovisual Exchange). However, for its news bulletins AIR is dependent on PTI and UNI for national and regional news, and to Reuters, Associated Press. AFP and other multinational news agencies route their copy via the national news agencies.
Music takes the lion’s share of time (39.73%) on the Home Service excluding Vividh Bharati, with Spoken Word programmes claiming 37.78% and News and Current Affairs the remaining 22.49% of the time.
Discuss the technology of Radio Script writing and editing.
Radio Script Writing And Editing –
Radio Script Writing. Radio is the modem media developed after, the industrial revolution (1791). Nowadays it is also using electronic technologies and process. We use only our ears and brain to listen to same message. The media in this category are F.M., MW, SW and HAM Radio.
Radio news bulletins are written on the same lines of reporting for other media, i.e. news papers. It also disseminates entertaining programmes and software like features, columns, musical programmes, humor based serials and dramas, It also disseminate information that is relevant from political, social, environmental and other viewpoints. It may also disseminate commercial information in the interest of society or mankind. It releases various types of advertisements. Their messages are designed to elicit purchase responses from the masses.
Scripting far all these programmes follows the same technique as the print media. The only exception is the Radio drama. The technique of radio drama is different then the audio. Visual drama differs in its total dependence on audio depiction. The script write has to suggest visual imager through heard
wards and voices.
Style. Every media has a different style. Sometimes, it is limited by the technology and production process of that media. In radio broadcasts, the speaker speaks at a fast pace, tries to generate the interest of the audience in the chat programme and ensures that his songs and chat do not force the audience to shift to another radio station. Advertisements are useful in this context; the break monotony of the programme.
Amin Sayani, Devki Nandan Pandey, Lotika Vatnam and Meenakshi Rani are (for were) among the most popular newsreaders and presenters/announcers. The radio jocky must have a unique pleasant style to enable him to attract the audience towards his or her programme. The audience do not want routine news, views and comments. When the listen to the radio, the want to get the excitement of TV and also, the data/information disseminated b the print media. Hence, the responsibility of a radio announcer or RJ increase because the ambitious of listeners increase with the passage of time. Only a good style of presentation can help a radio station get the maximum number of listeners.
Radio Journalism. They are radio news reporters and correspondents. They move to various (distant) location to get news or interview the VVIP. They may collect news or data from the masses as well. They are also supported by various agencies such as Univarata, Bhasha, Reuters, the UNI, PTI etc. If they get news and data from their agencies, they do not have to travel quite often. The are well versed with the operation of sound recording equipment, microphones and public address systems.
They write their features or news clips, which are given to the editorial staff. These staff edit the news and give the same to radio announcers. Many senior radio journalists are experienced enough to bass the stage of editing and dissection of their news or comments. Nowadays, such people must be fully conversant with digital data recording (including voice dictation and recording), operations of the Net, audio systems and computers. Most of the radio journalists are told to prepare final drafts of their news items or articles. Quite often, they have to send voice dispatches and newsreels to their broadcasting stations. Radio journalism falls under, audio mass communication. Examples: Charles Collrg wood, ED Marrow
Editing Theory In Radio Operation –
The following principles are applied while editing radio content –
- The operator must have a good deep voice.
- He must be comfortable while he edits the audio content.
- He must sit in a right type of chair.
- He must be technically trained to operate the equipment of a radio studio.
- The studio must have pin-drop silence at all times.
- Shrieking voices should not be made in the studio.
- He should not use slang words and objectionable words during the recording and editing stages.
The following are the objectives editing –
- To rearrange recorded content into a more logical order.
- To remove the uninteresting, repetitive, or technically unacceptable content.
- To compress the material in time.
- To combine the output of various media with the help of a studio mixer to create a final content.
- To add creativity to content or a part thereof.
- To create new dimensions in the field of audio art by using, speech, music, silence, and sound.
The Role of an editor of a radio studio is complex in he sense that he has to understand the real messages behind the audio content. The tones of voices, music jingles, occasions, topics of discussion, and whims of listeners of a particular programme are the guiding criteria for him in this context.
There are two facets of radio editing:editorial and technical. In content editing, the editor has to keep the voice or message f the interviewer intact, and there cannot be an alteration I it at any point of time. In technical editing, he can eliminate those parts of the content that are hackneyed, repeated, and based on universal facts. The questions of an interviewer can be deleted. The laughs and humming sounds of the interviewer must also be done away with. Radio recording noise b using appropriate filters.
Nowadays, software packages can help the editor reduce the noise in the content, although he cannot eliminate it altogether. If pauses of the interviewer help the content become thoughtful, . do not remove them Mr. AB Vajpayee takes a lot of long pauses. You can always reduce their overall duration b chopping off the pause time. Robert Mcleish has stated that silence is not necessary a negative quantity. Nevertheless, pauses should not be too long o become irritating for the listener. Note that radio is very fast-medium and offers very less space. Also read Robert Mcleish, Radio Production, Focal Press, Oxford.
Controversial issues should be handled with an air of easiness and calm. Do not rip off positive comments of the guest. Do not add your own sentences to a speech, if it is likely to have serious repercussion in communal terms. Delete all the content that provokes people to take actions in response to an s incident or accident. “Godhra Ka Badla Lenge”, “Mandal Kamandal Ki Rajneeti ”, “Sonia Gandhi Ka Videshi Mool Ka Mudda ” etc. are to be handled with care because they are burning topics. Do not attack Sonia Gandhi by stating. “Sonia EK Videshi Hai. ’’ Instead, record: “Shrimati Sonia Gandhi Ke Videshi Moook Ke sandarbh Mein Kucch Logon Ne Aapatti Ki Hai. ”
Editing Practice. Audio signals are edited,through digital techniques. Computer systems are the essential parts of all editing workstations. In this section, we shall discuss editing practice in the parlance of radio operations.
DAT Editing. Two DAT machines and one edit controller are required for DAT editing. The edit controller uses time ode information as a label for each component of the audio. According to the allocation of such labels, the individual audio signals can be edited and combined. The DAT playback is done in real-tie. That is why, the editing process consumes a lot of time of the editor. Most of DAT editing is done on computer systems. Content is downloaded on the HDD of the computer. The, it is edited. Finally, it is recorded. The audio content has to be in digital format in this process.
Mini Disc Editing. An order is given to the audio signals recorded on the mini disc The editor changes the order (on the PC monitor) with the help of an appropriate software tool. If need be, he can listen to the beginning part of a signal to reach what it really is. Alternatively, he can give an appropriate name to the file when the sequence of the old-recoding is not changed, but a » new sequence is generated and played. This process is called Non-destructive editing. The editor should no delete any editing audio signal during the process.
The disk can also be downloaded on to the HDD of the computer. The new sequence can be given to the audio signals; such signals can be edited with the help of a software package. Later, the new sequence can be recorded on the original or a new mini disk.
Tape Editing. Tapes of the size of 0.25 inch are cut at the edit points. The unwanted table is removed. The editor physically rotates the tape across the replay head of a machine and finds out the arts of the tape that must be done away with. The first word from which, cutting is to be done, is marked with the help of a chinagraph pencil. The tape is moved forward with the help, of the hand, and the editor listens to the sound through a headphone. The next word that is to be included in Lie final cop is also marked with the help of a chine graph pencil. The tape between these two marks is cut. The remaining parts (sans the unwanted audio signal) are joined with the help of an adhesive tape of 3cm size.
DiscussT.V. Software e.g.T. V. News/program,T.V. on chosing, techniques of interviewing, group discussion and presentation, script creation for selected T.V. programmes etc.
TV programmes arid soap operas are trying to perpetuate the sales of those products/ services whose manufactures are sponsoring such soap operas.
The agreement under which, the sponsor is required to sponsor the costs of making a serial clearly states that the said sponsor can advertise his products/ services during the course of telecast of that serial. Normally, in a period of 30 minutes, 10 minutes are allocated to advertisements and 20 minutes are used for telecasting the serial or soap opera. But the sponsors try to extract the maximum time for their promotional exercises. So, the viewer gets nothing but advertisements; he gets very little of the soap opera or serial in question.
Serials. Further, many programme producers make serials in such a manner that these extend over 300-400 episodes. In one episode, these producers let the story of the serial move at a snail’s space. The rest of the time is devoted to advertisements. The viewer gets bored when the slow pace of the serial pinches him. He either switches off the TV or shifts to another channel. In this high-speed era, a slow TV serial or soap opera blows the minds of viewers.
They become frustrated but they cannot do anything. They can only change the channels in such cases. The arts, dances, folk dances, theatre, and other fine content is not promoted or imbibed due to this ugly trend. Rather, these are subdued by a mechanism, which is very calculative, materialistic and, in many cases, harsh. Hence, we can conclude that TV channels are not serving the art forms, literature, folk dances, culture, and society of India. These are using them to serve their own base interests. Ironically, these trends cannot be reversed.
Software. As stated earlier, when DD started its operations under Akashwani in 1959, its software was not up to the mark. The cameramen had not learned the camera movements. The studios were primitive and lighting arrangements were anything but perfect. Note that lighting of a studio or set is a great science and every person cannot take a plunge into this gargantuan field. Further, television programmes are recorded by expert cameramen. The latter were hardly available. Some popular expert cameramen had the qualification of the WICA, but they were working mostly in Bombay Madras, and Bangalore in the film studios of repute. Thus, lack of infrastructure, manpower and artists could not allow TV producers to create fine programmes during the early sixties.
The situation changed, however, during the mid-sixties. People became interested in TV. During the early seventies, several studios were opened in India to process VTR rolls. Mumbai led this revolution because it had the best film studios of those times. Delhi had the infrastructure only for the DD. Private music and film studios came up during the late eighties and early nineties. During the late nineties, full-fledged studios were opened at NOIDA (UP). Zee telefilms Ltd was the first company to start its studio for production and processing purposes at NOIDA, although its corporate headquarters were located at Lawrence Road and Asaf Ali Road (both in New Delhi).
Many south Indian producers produced programmes in studios located at Chennai and Bangalore. Mumbai remained the chosen destination of producers of the western parts of the country, it is still the hot spot for producers of the west and the south (in the context of Indian cinema) because it has many studios that cater to the needs of movie producers of Mumbai. If we move up towards north, we find that Jalandhar has become ‘a key destination of producers of s Doordarshan Kendra (Jalandhar). Private TV producers are also flocking to this city to produce their programmes. But most of them depend upon Doordarshan Kendra (Jalandhar) for technical facilities. Most of die studios of Doordarshan Kendra (Jalandhar) are meant for the producers of the Kendra itself. Doordarshan Kendra (Srinagar) also has good production facilities, though the problem of Jammu and Kashmir does not allow the artists of Jammu and Kashmir to fully utilise the same.
In the southern states of India, DD (Hyderabad) has excellent facilities. The posh area of Banjara Hills (Hyderabad) provided excellent locales for shooting of movies of the south. It has also become a favourite spot of the of the TV producers of the south. Other locations for shooting TV programmes and serials are – Lonavala, Kandivali, Khandala, Mahabaleshwar, Chennai (the coastal area of the Bay of Bengal), Ooty, Kolkata, the Gateway of India (Mumbai), Manali, Kulu, The Taj Mahal and areas surrounding the same, Mauritius, Kozhikode, Gorai Island ( the site of Essel world and Water Kingdom), railway stations of Greater Mumbai, Kovalam Beech, Dalhausie, temples of Jammu, KRS Dam near Mysore, Vrindavan Gardens (near KRS Dam), Kanyakumari, Meenakshi temple, Jagannath temple at Puri, Dwarka, Gangtok, Rohtang Pass, the banks of river Lohit in Assam, Thiruvananthapuram, the Neelgiri mountains in Tamil Nadu, Mudumalai forests.
Bandipur National Park, Ahmedabad, Marble Rock (near Jabalpur), and the ravines of Chamba valley. This list is not exhaustive. Several hundred serials have been recorded at these locales and TV producers have either made fictions serials or captures the history or scenic beauty of these spots. India is a beautiful country and her terrain is full of such picturesque spots as offer the best locations for shooting TV serials. TV producers also find these spots useful for their shooting schedules; these have also been used by movie producers. Some TV producers are also recording their serials and soap operas at the finest of tourist spots abroad. Such efforts would prove to be costly, though. These foreign tours would naturally increase the cost per episode of the serial in question. Only MNCs and large TV production studios of India can bear such high costs.
Most of the software or the DD focuses its attention on national integration, ancient history of India, life and culture of peoples of the country, news, views, international relations, movies, arts and crafts, music, painting, tribal life, economic issues, social beliefs, dogmas, and education. Private TV channels, on the contrary, concentrate on family soap operas, entertainment programmes, modem music, movies, news, hot topics related to national and global polity, science fiction, interviews of celebrities, raunchy news, and live coverage of news that are of vital importance to the nation Example: Recently, Zee News covered the live telecast of attack of militants on a polling booth in Srinagar. The security forces were shown attacking that house-in which, militants were hiding. This was the pinnacle of broadcast journalism in India.
Never before in the history of TV journalism, had the cameramen and TV journalists covered this type of news live to show it directly to the viewers of the country. Barkha Dutt (Star News) covered Operation Vijay under the incessant fire of bullets and mortars in July, 2001. Prabhat Shunglu also went to Kargil in 1999 and saw’ how the Indian army was facing the rain of bullets an mortars aimed on its soldiers by the enemy. Deepak Chaurasia (Aaj Tak) covered the attack on the Indian Parliament on December 13,2001. Earlier, the CNN had covered the live telecast of the attack on WTC towers in New York on September II, 2001. \
Perhaps, the Indian media did not want to stay behind CNN and did every thing, even at the risk of losing the lives of their TV journalists, to cover dangerous other events live on their channels. This voluntary dedication to bullets and mortars has become a fashion in all the TV channels. Today, every TV journalist wants to be the first one to cover the news of a bomb blast, communal carnage, or hijack of an aircraft. Our journalists were present even outside a theatre in Moscow in which more than 500 people were held as hostages by the Chechen rebels in November, 2002. The arrest of Abu Salem was covered with finesse. The TV channels of India had also covered and telecast interviews with the Portuguese officials regarding the deportation of Abu Salem and Monica Bedi.
Further, many channels like Zee News keep on updating the Indian audience about the burning issues of the present times. These channels cover several such issues as drought, corruption in government offices, torture of Dalits, ecology and environment, election campaigns, entry of anti-social elements in politics, arts and crafts, rape of women, rain water harvesting, capital sentence, poverty in villages, sharing of river waters, the police force, bureaucracy and many more. We The People (Star) is one such programme, which is compared by Barkha Dutt and telecast every Sunday evening.
Further, these channels collect data regarding the topic to be discussed, interview people and officials, collate and analyse data, and give impartial and neatly prepared views about the topic in question. Thus, they keep the audiences updated on the burning issues of national importance this trend had started only from 1998. No politician, bureaucrat, businessman, or common .man is spared in such exercises.
Another feature of TV transmission in India is a unique one – the local TV channels. They are meant for viewing by the people of only one city. Example: In Delhi, Siti Cable is catering to the information needs of Delhites. Besides, it also telecasts movies, soap operas, comedy shows, and Chitrahaars. Many viewers avidly watch such channels and give very high ratings to their content. Some cable TV operators connect their VCRs and DVD players to the cable TV network. Normally, they use two or three channels for transmitting their programmes. However, these programmes (most of which, arc movies and stage shows) can be viewed by only those viewers who are linked to the cable service provider of their area. During the early nineties, several cable TV operators used such channels to show pornographic movies after 11 pm. However, when the law-enforcing agencies dealt with them with an iron hand, they stopped showing such obscene programmes.
Nowadays, they show movies, comedy shows, Chitrahaars, and fashion shows on these private channels,” which are, in fact, ‘owned’ by them. All the major and minor cities have these local TV channels, which cover the social, cultural and political activities of their respective cities.
Night Owl Viewership (NOV) starts from 11.00 pm and continues up to 6.00 am. In die USA, NOV starts from 1.00 am and continues up to 6.00 am. In the USA, during 1999-2003, prime time viewership reduced by three -percent, in the age group of 18-34 years, according to Nielsen Media Research. That was because there was a rise of 35 per cent in NOV. Similar trends are being observed in India too.
Reality TV is a new dimension in the field of audio-visual entertainment. The TV channel shows a live programme without any initial spadework. However, initial production planning is required to telecast most of these live shows. The word ‘reality’ may include real-time adventures, crimes, rendezvous of the police with criminals, expeditions around the world (to famous or unknown spots),’and anything that may make the viewer fne] exhilarated by the De facto situation being telecast. This type of entertainment is likely to become a fashion by the year 2008. Reality TV is a popular TV channel. It was launched in October, 2002 in the UK. In India, it would be managed by Zee-Turner Ltd.
It was made operational in February, 2003 in India. It is showing the recordings of live coverage Of adventures of The Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Haqueqat is another serial that deals with the reality aspects of events. Another serial is Reality Bites (Star). We expect many TV channels to offer these types cf reality shows to the Indian masses. However, the swiftness of the anchor and speed of movement of the camera must be in tune with the pace of the event, which cannot be controlled or stopped. In the West, reality TV is a rage because it offers the real thrill, unlike the concocted or “artificially made up” soap operas. People are fed up of artificial stories and war sequences, which, according to them, are the repetitions of movies and serials of the immediate past. Therefore, they want to feel the chill of reality through the live coverage of such’ programmes as are different and real.
Interaction of the audience with the TV anchors actors and producers of a TV show brings new ideas. Such ideas are implemented by TV producers, actors, and TV anchors. Thus, the quality of TV software improves and loyalty of viewers to a particular programme (or TV channel) increases. That is why. Interactive TV (iTV) has become popular since 1998. The contents of a TV programme were not changed earlier. The producer, actors and other people involved in the production of soap opera were simply thrusting the opera over their audience. Nevertheless, in the case of interactive TV, the audience are deemed supreme. They use telephones, SMS messages, cellular telephones, fax messages and E-mail transmissions to dictate their terms.
Example: the TV programme asks, “Should Shruti marry Rishabh?” The audience respond with ‘Ayes’ and ‘Nays. ’ If the number of ‘Ayes ’ exceeds the number of ‘Nays, ’ Shruti marries Rishabh in the next episode of the soap opera. If the number of ‘Nays’ exceeds the number, of ‘Ayes/ Shruti does not marry Rishabh in the next episode of the soap opera. Cellular phone messages, MMS, SMS, telephone calls, and E-mail are used respond to these queries. Thus, the viewers can mould the course of events in a soap opera.
“Music on demand” is also another format of interactive TV. Example: In Delhi, a new (local) TV channel. Seven Star Music Express, plays the songs that the viewers want it to play. Similar channels abound in other metres. In other programmes, viewers call particular telephone numbers and tell the TV anchors to telecast songs of their choice. These TV anchors telecast those songs and win the loyalty of viewers for that channel for which, they ran such types of shows. The idea is to keep the viewer hooked on to a particular channel through such gimmicks. If a viewer hangs on to a channel for a longer duration, he is likely to watch the advertisements of products/services being telecast on that channel. This information goes to his subconscious mind, especially when he keeps on watching a particular channel for long periods. When he goes to the market to buy products/services, the data from his subconscious mind is transferred to his conscious mind.
Thus he asks for those products and services, which he had watched in such TV advertisements. Interactive TV increases the viewer’s loyalty to a particular channel. Thus, that channel is an ideal platform (for the producers of products/services to promote, announce, and sell various products/services being telecast on that channel. This information goes to his subconscious mind, especially when he keeps on watching a particular channel for long periods. When he goes to the market to buy products/ services, the data from his subconscious mind is transferred to his conscious mind. Thus, he ask for those products and services, which he had watch in such TV advertisements. Interactive TV increases the viewer’s loyalty to a particular channel. Thus, that channel is an ideal platform (for the producers ‘ of products/services) to promote, announce, and sell various products/services.
Finally Web TV has become an important part of lives of Net surfers. In order to hook on to Web TV, one must have a computer system (of a CPU. speed of 733 MHz or more), a HDD of 20 GB or more, multimedia kit, an Internet browser like Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer, operating system software like Windows 98, Windows XP or Linux, an Internet keyboard, and a scroll mouse. Several TV channels broadcast TV signals
through the Net nowadays. Example: The web site www.zeenews.com can be surfed by our valued readers to get (and watch) detailed news and analyses of events of the Myriad kind. Many web surfers find it more convenient to watch TV on the web. That is because they are on the Net most of times and do not have enough time to switch on the TV and watch programmes of their .. choice. Therefore, they take an interlude from work while they are on the Net.
They watch their favourite TV programmes or chat shows and then, go back tc web site, through which, they had been surfing. Thus, Web TV is a convenient mode of keeping in touch, with the TV world. Citizens can also . read newspapers and magazines online as most of these are available on the Net. Although it is more convenient to ‘read’ a newspaper than to ‘watch’ it yet some Citizens find it more convenient to watch’ it. Watching web TV is a slightly costly proposition because the fees for booking on to the Net as well as the rent of telephone connection are much more than the monthly fee paid to the cable TV operator.
Popular Soap Operas –
It would be pertinent to mention the popular TV serials of India at this Juncture. Some of these are very popular and the audience have voted in their favour with great fervour.
The earliest family serial of Indian TV was Kkandan starring Mohan Bhandari, Shri Ram Lagu, a;.d other accomplished artists. This serial became a rage in 1983-82. Then, came the famous Hum Log. It was penned by Shridhar Kshirsagar. It was telecast for nearly 2.5 years by the DD during 1983-86. Its anchor was Ashok Kumar (Dada Moni), who used to conclude every episode on positive and dramatic note. Hum Log was the story of a family of lower- middle income group that lived in a slum colony of Delhi. Its trials and tribulations became popular across the country. Several reputed artists took part in it. Some of them Were Vinod Nagpal, Rajesh Puri, SMH Zaheer, Abhinav Chaturvedi, Divya Seth, Lehri Singh, Joyshree Arora etc. This list is not exhaustive.
In 1986, BR Chopra started working on Mahabharata. It was a magnum opus, which continued for nearly three years. It was telecast from the year 1987 onwards. Popular actors, who acted in this serial were Gajendra Chauhan (Yudhishthira), Rupa GangUly (Draupadi), Virendra Razdan (Vidura), Nitish Bhardwa; (Krishna), Surendra Pal (Dronacharya), Dharmesh Tiwari (Kripacharya), Girija Sankar (Dhritasrashtra), U 5 ‘Gandharai) Parveen Kumar (Bhima), Arjun (Arjun), Puneet Issar (Duryodhana), Mukesh Khanna (Bhishma), and many more. Ramanand Sagar made Ramayana, was as a “slow serial.” That was because the director did not increase the pace of the serial and tried to spread it over the maximum number of episodes.
The popular. artists of this serial were Aran Govil, Deepika, Dara Singh, Vijay Arora, Arvind Chaturvedi, Sudhir Dalvi, and many more its telecast w’as started.ln 1989. It continued for nearly three years. Riding on the wave of success of Ramayana, Ramanand Sagar made another serial, Krishna. The music of the latter was given by Ravindra Jain. Sarvadaman Banerjee played the role of adult Krishna m the serial. Swapnii Joshi, who had played the role of young Krishna, won the hearts Of millions with his bewitching smile. The serial was telecast during the early nineties. ”
Other popular serials of the idiot box were Boog.e Woogie, Kyonki Sans Bhi Kabhi Bahti Thi, Kahin Kahin kissi Roz, Shaka Luka Be vn Boom, Adhat, Shh….Koi Hai, Jungle Book, Neev, Ek Do Tin Char, Junoon, The Sword of Tipu Sultan, The Great Maratha, Chanakya, Mirza Ghalib Ji, Mantri Ji, Shaktimaan etc. Popular foreign serials were – Bay Watch, Ripley’s Believe it or Not, Little Wonder, The X-files, The Power Puff Girls, Tom and Jerry’, and several cartoon shows.
Earlier, only the DD was telecasting soap operas and family serials. However, when private TV channels entered the fray, they shared the limelight on the idiot box. Sony Entertainment Television (SET) and Star Plus produced the maximum number of family serials during 1998-2002. Zee TV also produced sonic good TV serials for the Indian masses. Religious serials were also produced by many movie makers. Sanjay Khan produced and directed Jai Hanuman. Dheeraj Kumar produced and directed Om Namah Shivai and Shri Ganesh. Raj TV, Gemini, and Asiasat produced several family serials and religious programmes in the languages of their respective regions. English programmes and serials were watched on Zee English, Star Plus, Star News, and the BBC. Zee MGM, Hallmark, HBO, and AXN telecast English movies. Music television showed the popular video hits of English and Hindi songs.
Comedy serials also enthralled the audiences during 1991-2001. Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi was telecast in 1984-86. It had Satish Shah, Rajesh Puri, Swaroop Sampat, and Rakesh Bedi in lead roles. Shall Inamdar also was a part of it. However, his untimely demise forced the director of the serial to cast Satish Shah in the role of the doctor. Other comedy serials of the present times were Tu Tu Main Main, Khichdi, Shreeman Shrimati etc.
Further, the DD earned the kudos in the field of art-oriented teleserials by telecasting Surabhi. Its anchors were the bespectacled Siddharth Kak and the ever smiling Renuka Shahane. It covered the social, cultural, and artistic events of the country. The news or event coverage teams were well equipped. They left no stone unturned to make this serial a grand success. Later, the episodes of the serial were telecast by the DD time and again. This serial won the hearts of all the strata of the’Indian masses. Currently, Surabhi is being jointly hosted by Irawati Harshe and Mahesh hakre.
Private TV channels were careful in selecting the cast for their serials. Their resources also proved to be an asset. Further, these channels were able to get effluent sponsors, most of who were MNCs and large corporate houses of India. Hence, the quality of serials produced by private TV channels was better than that of serials produced by the DD. However, the DD can be given the credit of starting a new era of commercial serial production. It also has many feathers in its cap, as far as production of poplar family serials is. concerned. We can conclude that the serials being produced are of better quality than that of serials produced in the West. The serials of Hollywood do not consolidate family norms but erode them through larger-than-life themes and science-fiction episodes. Popular movies, namely. Terminator II, Gladiator, King Kong, Saving Private Ryan, The Mummy, U 572, and The Ten Commandments, were telecast by many channels.
The Indian serials are gladly accepted by our masses. However, there is more demand of such question, c serials as are in the regional languages of viewers. Hence, regional channels have limited viewership because of the geographical limits within which their respective languages can be understood. Note that the Tamils can also understand Telugu or Malayalam. That is because all the four south Indian languages have the same origin. Nevertheless, the Tamils are found to be watching Tamil channels and the Keralites take pride in watching Malayalam-based channels. That is because viewers are able to identify themselves with the characters and problems portrayed in such serials. This is a healthy trend. However, our youths and children are not aloof from v the ill effects of western values, which are shamelessly depicted in many TV ‘ serials of the West. In general, our audience are able to imbibe both the western and Indian values and thoughts.
Thus, ours is a truly international society. Unfortunately, we cannot do away the ill effects of western values like free sex, disco culture, materialism, violence, and apathy towards parents or elders. We can only continue to display the healthy effects of our own value system through religious serials (like Shri Ganesh), sit corns (like Hum South Aath Hain) family soap operas (like Des Mein Nikla Hoga Chand) chat shows (like Weffe People) etc. Several religious preachers give moral and religious lessons on Sony, Aastha, Star etc. They are doing good jobs. However, their sermons can snowball into cults. This could create another problem in our society; instead of becoming tolerant people, we might become the followers of these “modem-day sages” and thus, complicate the communal scenario of our nation.
Our TV producers lack ideas and creative scripts. They copy the scripts of the West. The TV serial Karishma Ka Karishma, was based on a popular English serial Little Wonder. In this serial, a robot girl lives along with normal family members. The original serial in English also had similar insinuations. Further, Kaun Banega Crorepati was based on a popular English serial Want to be A Milliomaire? Amitabh Bachchan was the anchor in the Hindi version of the serial. True, it won wide acclaim and catapulted Big B into limelight.
The family dramas are a razzmatazz of emotions, humour, thrill, andd social values that the Indian society keeps on losing every day. Tear jerkers are popular among women and girls. Boys love to watch action serials like Krishna Arjun. Girls prefer dance programmes like Boogie Woogie. Talented girls and boys go to Mumbai to participate in such programmes. Children like Cartoon Network and are diehard fans of Scooby Doo, Noddy, Jerry the Mouse, Donald Duck, Tom the Cat, Batman and many more. Overlapping in viewing preferences is also seen in many places; some youths also love to watch movies instead of tear jerkers. Programmes on cookery are also popular. Tarla Dalai is giving a helping hand to a TV channel in this context, although she has many a competitor in the kitchen now.
Shekhar Suman hosted Simply Shekhar. However, he was not to be seen in the later part of the year 2003. Prabhu Chwla hosts Apni Baat on Aaj Tak. MJ Akhar grills people in AkbarKa Darbar. Rajat Sharma has organised courts on the idiot box and asked some direct and needle-sharp questions from his guests. Many celebrities, politicians and fijm celebrities have faced the wrath of these TV journos from time to time in these programmes.
Television Rating Points –
TRPs are used to assess the reach of a particular TV serial over a specified length of fame. The full form of TRP is Television Rating Point. The TV channel or marketing research agency selects a few homes at random and takes data from them in the context of TV programmes and serials watched by the residents of those homes. The time of study is one day, seven days or 14 days (2 weeks). These data are processed and TRPs are calculated for the popular TV serials in the specified time period. Refer Table 4-111 It shows theTRPs and ranking order offive serials being telecast on Star Plus.
At one time, Ekta Kapur (Bajaji Telefilms) was called Sultana of TV Serials. However, the TV serials of Balaji Telefims are dragging the stories unnecessarily. Serials are being unduly extended and made emotional, hackneyed and at times, disgusting. Other TV producers are also adopting the same tactics; their advertisers and sponsors force them to extend the serials. Many serials have been running for more than two years. However the experts of Ad World opine that if such trends continue, their TPR may fall so much that their banners would so fade into oblivion.