DU SOL BA 3rd Year Mass Communication Notes Chapter 3 Media of Mass Communication

DU SOL BA 3rd Year Mass Communication Notes Chapter 3 Media of Mass Communication

Question 1.
Account for the history of Print Media in India.
Print Media
History of Indian Journalism. “The over-200-year history of the Indian press, from the time of Hicky to the present day, is the history of a struggle for freedom, which has not yet ended. There have been alternating periods of freedom and of restrictions on freedom amounting to repression. The pioneering works on the Indian press, like that of Margarita Bams, were stories of arbitrariness and despotism, of reforms and relaxation. The story of the Indian press is a story of steady expansion but also one of press laws.”

The first newspaper meant for publication was ‘announced’ in 1776 by William Bolts. He asked those interested to come to his residence to read the news. This ‘newspaper’ had the twin function of informing the British community of news from ‘home’, and of ventilating grievances against the colonial administration.

Hicky’s Gazette. But it was not until James Augustus Hicky dared to start his Bengal Gazette (also called Hicky’s Gazette) in 1780 that the age of Journalism dawned in the country. England had already had a taste of the Spectator papers of Addison and Steele, and of lesser known periodicals as well, and ieamt about the power of the periodical essayists, to laugh to scorn the manners and mores of society’, and of those in high places.

Political and social corruption was rife among the British sent to rule the country when Hicky, a printer by profession, launched his Gazette ‘in order to purchase freedom’ for my mind and soul’. He described the Bengal Gazette (later called Hicky’s Gazette) as a ‘weekly political and commercial paper open to all parties but influenced by none His venom was aimed at individuals like Mrs. Warren Hastings and their private affairs. He published announcements of marriages and engagements, and of ‘likely’ engagements. The Gazette was, in essence, no better than a scandal sheet. Barely a year later, Sir Warren Hastings denied all postal facilities to Hicky who hit back with these ringing words:

‘Mr. Hicky considers the Liberty of the Press to be essential to the very existence of an Englishman and a free Government. The subject should have full liberty to declare his principles and opinions, and every act which tends to coerce that liberty is tyrannical and injurious to the community’.

In June the following year (1781), Hicky was arrested and thrust into jail, from where he continued writing for the Gazette. He was stopped from ‘bringing out his weekly only when the types used for printing were seized’.

Five newspapers made their appearance in Bengal in six years time – all started by Englishmen. Some of these newspapers received government patronage. The Madras Courier and the Bombay Herald (which later merged with the Bombay Courier) were then launched in the two cities. They were subservient to the government, and therefore flourished. The total circulation of all these weeklies was not more than 2,000; yet, the government issued Press Regulations (1799) making the publication of the name of the printer, editor and proprietor obligatory. The regulations also ordered these to declare themselves to the Secretary of the Government; and to submit all material for prior examination to the same authority. Pre- censorship was to dog the Indian journalist for many years to come.

Indian Language Press. The pioneers of Indian language journalism were the Serampore Missionaries with Samachar Darpari and other Bengali periodicals, and Raja Ram Mohan Roy with his Persian newspaper Miratool Akbar. The object of Ram Mohan Roy, the social reformer, in starting the paper was ‘to lay before the public such articles of intelligence as may increase their experience, and tend to their social improvement’, and to indicate to the rulers a knowledge of the real situation of their subjects, and make the subjects acquainted with the established laws and customs of their rules’. Roy ceased publishing his paper later in protest against the Government’s Press Regulations.

The Bombay Samachar, a Gujarati newspaper, appeared in 1822. It was almost a decade before daily vernacular papers HkeMombai Vartaman (1830), the Jan-e-Jamshed (1831), and the Bombay Darpan (1850), began publication. In the South, a Tamil and a Telugu newspaper was established with the aid of a government grant, and in the North West Provinces, a Hindi and an Urdu periodical started off under the government’s patronage. The Bangali press with as many as nine newspapers in 1839 had a circulation of around 200 copies each, even as the British press with 26 newspapers (six of them dailies) grew in strength and power, under the liberal rule of Lord Metcalfe, and later of Lord Auckland.

Censorship and the Mutiny. The year of what the British historians term ‘the Sepoy Mutiny’, however, brought back the press restrictions in the form of the Gagging Act, 1857. Lord Canning argued for them, stating that ‘there are times in the existence of every state in which something of the liberties and rights, which it jealously cherishes and scrupulously guards in ordinary seasons, must be sacrificed for the public welfare. Such is the State of India at this moment. Such a time has come upon us. The liberty of the press is no exception.’

The Mutiny brought the rule of the East India Company to a close, with the Crown taking over the ‘colony’, with the promise of religious toleration and press freedom. The main topics of discussion in the English and vernacular press before and after the Mutiny were satf caste, widow remarriage polygamy, crimes, and opposition to the teaching of English in schools and colleges. Bombay’s Gujarati press, in particular, excelled in the defence of the Indian way of life. In 1876 die Vernacular Press Act was promulgated.

Lest Decades of 19th Century. During the next two decades The Times of India, the Pioneer; the Madras Mail, and the Amrit Bazar Patrika came into existence – all except the last edited by Englishmen, and serving the interests of English educated readers. The English press played down the inaugural meeting of the Indian National Congress on December 28,1885 in Bombay, but it was reported at length by the vernacular papers such as Kesari (founded by Lokmanya Tilak). The Amrit Bazar Patrika and Kesari soon gained a reputation for opposing government attempts to suppress nationalist ‘aspirations.

The Amrit Bazar Patrika, for instance, denounced the deposition of the Maharaja of Kashmir, and Kesari was foremost in attacking the Age of Consent Bill of 1891, which sought to prohibit the consummation of marriage before a bride completed the age of 12. The Kesari’s stand was endorsed by the Amrit Bazar Patrika and Bangabasi of Calcutta on the ground that the government had no right to interfere with traditional Hindu customs. Tilak charged the government with disrespect for the liberty and privacy of the Indian people and with negligence in providing relief during the countrywide famine in 1896-97, which resulted in the death of over a million people

Sedition Laws. Such savage anti-government sentiments could not be allowed free play and so Lord Elgin added sections to the Indian Penal Code to enable the government to deal with promotion of disaffection’ against the Crown, or of enmity’ and hatred between different classes. Also prohibited was ‘the circulation of any reports with intent to cause mutiny among British troops, intent to cause such fear or alarm among the public as to cause any person to commit an offence against the State, or intent to incite any class or community to commit offences against any other class or community. The penalties for offences ranged from life imprisonment to short imprisonment or fines.

The man who became the most noteworthy victim of these new laws was none-other than Bal Gangadhar Tilak, editor of Kesari and its English companion, Maratha. He was arrested, convicted and jailed for six years, but Kesari continued to build up its reputation and influence as a national daily, as India woke to the 20th century. Other champions of press freedom who were prosecuted at about the same-time were Aurobindo Ghose of Bande Mataram, B.B. Upadhayaya of Sandhya, and B.N. Dutt of Jugantar.

Indian Press Act. In 1910, the Indian Press Act clamped further controls on newspapers in the wake of the partition of Bengal and violent attacks by terrorists in Ahmedabad, Ambala and elsewhere. The Act required owners of printing presses to deposit securities of Rs. 500 to Rs. 2,009, which were forfeited if ‘objectionable matters’ were printed. The threats of seizure of the printing press, and confiscation of copies sent by post were also included in the Act. The vernacular press suffered rigorous suppression during this period (1910-1914). The government banned 50 works in English and 272 in the vernacular, which included 114 in Marathi, 52 in Urdu and 51 in Bengali.

Undaunted Nationalism. World War I introduced still more severe press laws, but there was no let-up in nationalist agitations. Annie Besant’s New India became the mouthpiece of Home Rule advocates, ably supported by the Bombay Chronicle (edited by Benjamin Homiman), Maratha (edited by N.C. Kelkar) and other publications. The government reacted swiftly by exiling Annie Besant, deporting Homiman and imposing new securities on offending publications.

The Rowlatt C Act of 1919 infuriated Indian Opinion, which now came under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. His Non-Cooperative Movement took the press by storm. Gandhi was to remain front-page news for years to come. His arrests and imprisonments were covered with relish by the English and the vernacular press, whose readership now rose dramatically. The Swaraj Party led by C.R. Das, Vallabhbhai Patel and Motilal Nehru, launched its own publications – the Banglar Katha in Calcutta, the Swadesh Mitram in the South, and Hindustan Times, Pratap and Basumati in the North.

Indian Press Ordinance. The Indian Press Ordinance (1930), like the Press Act of 1910, and five other Ordinances gave added power to the government in dealing with acts of terrorism, and inflammatory literature.

The Swadeshi Movement, covered prominently by the press,-as in The Hindu (Madras) led to the imprisonment of leaders like Gandhi and Nehru, and of editors like S.A. Brelvi of Bombay Chronicle and Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi of Pratap. The Indian Press (Emergency Powers) Act of 1931 raised deposit securities and fines, and gave Magis.rates the power to issue summary actions. . Several other Acts were made law during the thirties, forcing the closure of many presses and publications.

News Agencies. Meanwhile, the Free Press of India, which began as a news agency, started The Indian Express and Dhenamam in Madras, the Free Press Journal in Bombay, and Gujarati and Marathi journals. The news agency collapsed after it forfeited Rs. 20,000 security under the Indian Press (Emergency Powers) Act, but its publications continued under different owners, and the Free Press editors started a new agency called the United Press of India (U.P.I.)

Role in Quiet India Movement. Then came the Quit India Movement, and World War II, and the press in India, including the English language press and that in the Indian Native States played a commendable role in reporting the straggle for freedom fairly. It opposed communal rots and the partition of the country, and when partition did take place in the glorious year of independence, lamented it. Indeed, it could be said that the press played no small part in India’s victory to freedom. Free India’s Constitution upheld the citizens’ right to freedom of speech and expression, which included die freedom of the press. While the obnoxious Press Acts were repealed or amended, the Official Secrets Act and Sections of the Indian Code dealing with disaffection, communal hatred and incitement of armed forces to disloyalty, were retained.

Press Act 1951. The Nehru Government passed in October 1951 the Press (Objectionable Matters) Act which was reminiscent of earlier press laws enacted by the colonial rulers. The ‘objectionable matters’ were quite comprehensive. So fierce was the opposition to it that in 1956, it was allowed to lapse, and the first Press Commission was formed.

The national and regional press covered the campaigns of the first national elections of 1951 -1952 with professional skill. So were the other events of the Nehru era, like the formation of the linguistic States, the second and third general elections, the Chinese attack, and the take-over of Goa. Unlike her father, Mrs. Indira Gandhi had never been at ease with the press.

‘How much freedom can the press have in a country like India fighting poverty, backwardness, ignorance, disease and superstitions?’ asked she in the first year of her regime. The national dailies grew strident in their attacks on her government, especially on the question of nationalisation of banks, privy v purses, the Congress split, but joined forces with her during the Bangla Desh war of liberation. The attacks reached their climax in the period prior to the emergency, with open accusations of rampant corruption, and demands for her resignation, followed by the Allahabad High Court’s verdict of her being guilty of corrupt electirn practices.

Press Censorship under the Emergency. During the British regime, Indian newspapers were not allowed to publish any material considered ‘seditious’. Yet few printing presses were confiscated, and fewer journalists arrested. Complete censorship was imposed only on rare occasions as when Gandhiji’s arrest led to countrywide disturbances and the detention of over 60,000 persons.

Though some papers like the Bengali weekly Jugantar, or the daily Sandhya (also Bengali) were banned in the thirties, they were published secretly. Restrictions were imposed on the press during the Quit India Movement of 1942. Yet major papers could publish the arrest of national leaders and reports of demonstrations and protests. Moreover, pre-censorship was never enforced and that explains why articles critical of the British Government were carried freely.

In 1975, however, an internal emergency was clamped on the nation, and pre-censorship imposed .in a draconian manner. The government suppressed transmission of news by imposing censorship on newspapers, journals, radio, ” . TV: telex, telegrams, news agencies and on foreign correspondents. Even teleprinter services were subjected to pre-censorship. The censorship was total and unparalleled. News agencies had to get all their material censored in Delhi prior to transmission. Further, newspapers had to submit already censored v news for re-censorship in their respective headquarters. What is more, even advertisements, cartoons, and comic-strips were subjected to pre-censorship. Foreign papers and journals were confiscated if they carried criticism of the emergency; some issues of Time and Newsweek were banned outright.

Underground Press. The underground press was, however, very active. More than 34 printing presses were seized and over 7,000 people arrested in connection with the publication and circulation of underground literature. Small publications such as A.D. Gorwala’s Opinion, A.B. Shah’s Quest (now New Quest), were forced to close down. Underground literature flourished in Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Bihar and Maharashtra. Letters from Jayaprakash Narayan and George Fernandes were published regularly and distributed discreetly around the country. From Bihar alone more than 2,000 titles were circulated.

The RSS distributed underground literature in the form of news sheets which contained only news and quotations. They were published in English and the major Indian languages. Indians abroad published anti-emergency literature e.g., S’varajya (England), Satyavani, Indian Opinion (USA).

Among the few over ground publications that opposed the emergency ‘ despite stringent censorship regulations were: Sadhana (Gujarati), Himmat (edited by Rajmohan Gandhi), Freedom First (owned by M R. Masani), The Statesman, The Indian Express, Daily Morosoli (Tamil), Tughlak (Tamil) and Radical Humanist. Most other major national dailies like The Times of India, _ The Free Press, the Hindustan Standard, and the National Herald “crawled when they were only asked to bend”.

Post Emergency Period. The post-Emergency period too was witness to attempts by the Congress Party to control the press. In 1984, Bihar’s Chief Minister, Dr Jagannath Mishra, mooted the Bihar Press Bill, but protests by journalists forced him to withdraw it. Three years later, an Anti Defamation Bill (1987), initiated by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi also met the same fate.

Question 2.
Discuss the making of a News Paper.
News Paper
News Reporting. Making of a news paper starts from news reporting. News reports are class fied into two broad types: straight news reports, and investigative or interpretative reports. Straight news reports present what has happened in a straightforward, factual, and clear manner. They draw no conclusions, nor offer any opinions. There is no attempt to probe deeper than the surface happenings, or to provide elaborate background information, or even to examine claims made. The main sources are Government officials, elite groups, news agencies, eminent people, businessmen, and others.

Both these types of news stories merely present the claims, without in any way trying to question or rebut, or ask why. Investigative reports, on the other hand, would make an effort to go behind the claims, and see how valid ^ they are. ‘t hey report happenings in depth, present fairly all sides of the picture ‘ in the context of the situation, and generally, put some meaning into the news so that the reader is better able to understand and analyse the event.

Disaster stories e g. accidents, famines and floods get pride of place in the daily press, and these provide many ‘human interest’ stories. Developments – in science, industry and agriculture are increasingly coming to be considered as interesting news, as also the exposure of corruption in high places, the exploitation of the lower classes and workers, and social injustice and inequalities resulting from the social, economic and political structures. Of course, all the news reported is not news of the highest interest to everybody. Politics interest some, sports others, crime still others. However, it is rare that newspapers touch on the information needs and interests of the poorer sections of society.

Investigative and Interpretative Reporting. Investigative and interpretative reporting is not necessarily getting ‘scoops’ and sensationalising them but rather ‘situation reporting’ in place of event or personality reporting.

It is indeed a calm, restrained and detached manner of arriving at conclusions or at studied opinions from factual bits of evidence at hand. It may be reflective, even speculative, but always based on hardcore evidence.

An investigative report begins with a hunch that there is something more than meets the eye. Ashwini Sarin of the Indian Express had heard of the wretched conditions in the Tihar Central Jail, but felt there was much more than mere hearsay in the reports. He wanted to do an investigative report on the jail and so got himself arrested on a flimsy charge. In mid-1979, the Indian Express carried four investigative reports by him on the inside story of Tihar Jail. More recently, the same reporter disguised himself and ‘bought’ a girl to acquire firsthand knowledge of, and report on, the ‘flesh trade’ in an area not far from Delhi. News magazines like India Today, Outlook, Sunday and The Week have exposed the Bhagalpur blindings, and other police atrocities (often termed ‘encounters’) in many parts of the country.

Newspapers and news magazines are turning more and more to investigative and interpretative reporting, as TV, radio and the Internet have a clear edge over them in giving up-to-the minute radio cannot match the press in in-depth reporting and critical analysis.

Report Investigative Stories. Investigative stones have to be one with the active support of the editor, else they may be ‘killed’ at the last minute. That is because such stories could tread on many toes, especially governmental and business toes. They often demand months of tedious work, and when finally published can have dramatic effects. An offshoot Of investigative reporting is consumer reporting, which exposes business practices that exploit consumers. Our newspapers have yet to take on big business in a big way. Occasional reports have focused on drug and soft-drink companies, but without much dramatic impact. The findings of consumer organizations and Consumer Redressal Courts are rarely given wide publicity, and ‘complaints’ columns in the press do not follow-up the complaints made. As M.V. Kamath I points out, “the line dividing an in-depth (report) from a feature article or an investigative report is pretty thin indeed and one can often be confused for the other”.

Team Efforts. In the ultimate analysis, the daily newspaper is the result of a glorious team effort. The members of the team are often a restless lot getting on each other’s nerves, but pulling together nevertheless. They know ; that come what may, it’s better to hang together than to hang separately. For they share the ‘values’ of the profession. Indeed, even as they belong to one big team, (if they work for a large national daily) they are also members of smaller teams called ‘departments’. For instance, reporters, sub-editors, news editors, assistant editors and editors belong to the editorial department.

Compositors, makeup men and printers form the printing or mechanical department. But it isn’t enough for the paper to be edited and printed; it needs to be advertised (more importantly, to collect and handle advertising), and sold, and regular accounts have to be maintained. The three departments responsible for these activities are the advertising, circulation, and accounting or accounts departments respectively. The five departments work in close co-ordination.

Small Newspapers. Such newspapers have limited circulation. These are local or regional newspapers and have limited numbers of readers. They cover local news, national political events, sports, travel, arts and crafts, local time tables, and fairs and festivals. Due to their limited circulation, these are unable to get advertisements from reputed corporate firms, MNCs, and foreign firms. As such, their revenues do not touch decent levels to enable them to think big. Language is another problem; most of the small newspapers are published in local or regional languages or dialects. In addition, it is not possible for them to shift to a major language like Hindi or English.

The quality of printing is also poor. Many newspapers of this category have started using imported offset presses to print their products. Still, they have a long way to go. Their future is moderately bright only in their respective regions. They are not likely to become state-level or national-level newspapers. The quality of editorials, articles and features of such newspapers is doubtful. Reputed authors and feature writers do not support them because of their inability to pay good remuneration to these authors and writers.

Most of these newspapers are published in black-and-white, though some of these have come out with colour editions (or supplements) as well. These newspapers are cheap and easily available in their respective regions. Many of them are also being circulated the major cities of India. We have seen some south Indian magazines in tie bookstalls of Delhi.

The Toppers. In 2001, the total circulation of newspapers was 11,82,57,597 copies. The Hindu was published from Chennai and printed at Chennai, Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Madurai, Visakhaatanam, Delhi, Thimvananthapuram, and Kochi. It is the largest circulated single edition daily with a circulation of 9,37,222 copies, It is followed by Hindustan Times, an English daily published from Delhi and printed at New Delhi, Chandigarh, Bhopal, Jaipur, Raipur, Kolkata, Ranchi, Muzaffarpur, Bhagalpur, Varanasi and Patna. It has a circulation of9,09,278 copies. Anand Bazar Patrika stands at the third spot in terms of circulation (8,76,727 copies). It is published from Kolkata. Finally, The Times of India, which is published from New Delhi, is at the fourth spot; it has a circulation of 8;43,874 copies.

The Times of India has nine editions and a total circulation of21,52,046 copies. It is the first among multi-edition dailies. Matayala Manorama has nine editions with a circulation of 12,72,823 copies; it is at fee second spot in the list of multi-edition dailies. Dainik Jagran has eleven editions and a total circulation of 12,72,715 copies. It occupies the third spot in the list of multi-edition dailies.

Growth of English Newspapers. In sum, the circulation of Hindi and English dailies and fortnightly magazines is increasing in India. As per Census (2001), the literacy rate of our country is 65.38 percent. The rising levels of literacy have also promoted the sale of English dailies. That is because people can understand and read English wife ease, but they are not keen to learn regional languages of other areas or states.

Thus, English is emerging as a common language for mass communication and education in India Regional newspapers and magazines do not bind the nation but English newspapers (even if these are regional ones) give a unique identity to our masses. The concept that “only literate people read English newspapers and magazines” has become obsolete. Many moderately educated people also read English newspapers and periodicals with enthusiasm.

Components of News papers. Besides dews views and editorials a feature, then, is an essay-like piece written for publication in a newspaper or magazine. News reports dominate in a newspaper, but in magazines features take up v most space. ‘Cover stories’ in magazines are usually written in the form of features, while In newspapers the main or lead story would be written in the form of a news report. Newspapers do not usually carry features on the front page, except perhaps in the ‘anchor’ position. Features also figure on the editorial page and on the op-ed page’, as well as in the Sunday/magazine supplements.

Interviews. Features may sometimes take the form of interviews, or use interviews as important sources of information. Features frequently quote several opinions which have been collected through interviews. The Sunday papers carry interviews with eminent people in art and literature. These interviews are sometimes presented in a question and answer format, without any comments from the writer; at other times the interviews are presented in the form of a news report or a feature where excerpts from the interview are highlighted, but the whole interview is not presented verbatim.

Interviews are a major source of information for a journalist. Interviews are conducted over the phone, in person, or at foe time of press conferences. Journalists are not expected to offer their own opinions in news reports; they are expected to give the views and opinions of people in power. Common people are asked their views when the issues concern them. But common people are rarely ‘nominated’, whereas eminent people always are. The reasoning behind this is that people with power and position make news while common people do not. This is a major ‘value’ among journalists the world over.

Question 3.
Discuss the recent growth of magazines and their genres in India.
Magazine boom. The 1980s saw a boom In the publication of magazines in India, not only in English but in foe major Indian languages as well. Indeed, nearly four out of every five Indian periodicals are in foe Indian languages, and they have a circulation which is nearly three fourths of the total circulation. Hindi has the largest circulation (57.9 lakhs), with over 3,000 periodicals followed by English which has 2,670 periodicals with a circulation of over six million. Periodicals in Tamil, Malayalam, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, Urdu and Telugu too enjoy a fairly good circulation.

The magazine boom was perhaps set off by the launch of India Today in the mid-seventies, and foe new-look Illustrated Weekly of India under the editorship of Khushwant Singh. (India Today was initially targeted at Indians settled abroad, but having failed miserably to make an impression, changed gears to target its product at the upper and middle class at home).

Its inspiration right from its red-border cover page to its mode of gathering and editing and ‘packaging’ news has been TIME – International. So it came as no surprise when in 1992, India Today became the official agent of TIME magazine in India, collecting subscriptions and advertisements for it. It was only the national policy opposed to the entry of the foreign press that has kept TIME from publishing its Asian edition from New Delhi. (The living Media Group which publishes India Today has, however, launched the publication of ‘Cosmopolitan’ under the pretext that it is an Indian magazine).

Other magazines to be launched in quick succession in the early eighties included Gentleman, Gentleman Fashion Quarterly (GFQ), Onlooker, New Delhi, Bombay, The Week, G and others. Several new film magazines and computer magazines also took off around the same time. The new magazines introduced colour, gloss and a snazzy style of reporting which ‘personalised’ and’ dramatised’ issues and events. Photographs, illustrations, charts and graphs enlivened each page, and the focus was on ‘soft’ features. High quality printing on imported glazed paper lent the magazines an expensive look. This pleased the advertising community immensely.

The boom continued into the 1990s despite the closure of long established magazines like. The Illustrated Weekly of Indian and Bombay. The growth was spectacular in the case of special interest magazines; especially those dealing with business and finance, computers and electronics. Several special interest periodicals were launched in 1993: Parenting, Young Mother, Auto India, and Car & Bike. Other new magazines of the mid-1990s included Studio System, a bi-monthly on audio, video and recording, Eating Out, Indian Thoroughbred (on horse-rearing), Golfingly Yours, Dost (for homosexuals), and TV Today. The last, a publication from the Living Media stable, folded ten months after it hit the stands.

Magazine Genres. Broadly speaking, there are two types of magazines: general interest magazines and special-interest magazines. General interest magazines are those that attempt to cater to a wide variety of reading interests such as India Today, The Illustrated Weekly of India (now defunct), The Week, Frontline, ‘G’; and several others. Though they are largely newsmagazines, such magazines carry features on the arts, culture, environment, films, reviews, business and economics, gossip, etc. General interest magazines with the focus on news and current affairs number over 500 and have the largest readership.

Special interest magazines are those that cater to the interest of a specific profession or group. Thus business magazines like Business India, Business World and Business Today are of special interest to the corporate world and to business and finance professionals. Money, Investment and similar magazines cater to the interests of investors in the stock market.

Other genres. Other genres in the special-interest category are film magazines (Movie, Filmfare, Stardust, Cine Blitz), women’s magazines (Femina, Savvy, Women’s Era, Celebrity), computer and technology magazines (Computers Today, Computers & Communications, Telematics, Computer Express), science magazines (2,000 A.D.), children’s magazines (Target, Chandamama), career and competition magazines (Career and Competition Times), police and detective magazines (Police Times, Dakshatha), and many others targeted at readers interested in astrology, agriculture, literature, environment, interior decoration, architecture, sports, etc. Besides these genres there are trade magazines and technical magazines catering to each trade and each branch of medicine, engineering, management, etc.

Periodicals. News and current affairs periodicals which number nearly 4,500 have the largest readership – around 27% of the total periodical circulation. Next in popularity are literary and cultural periodicals (around 2,000), commanding a circulation of around 25%. An example of this type of periodical is the Tamil magazine Kumudam, which has a circulation of nearly half a million copies. Surprisingly, religious or philosophical periodicals have a circulation of over 8% of the total distribution.

Film magazines are growing in number and circulation. Often obscene ‘stills’ from films accbmpany serious reviews. Even the so-called respectable family magazines resort to this gimmick to step up sales. Political and film gossip makes up the staple fare of most general-interest and news magazines, which in terms of circulation are on the decline compared to specialised periodicals aiming at target-groups such as youth, children, women, film buffs, professionals, executives, business groups, computer users, sports lovers and others.

Investigative Reporting. With the dramatic spurt in the number of dailies and periodicals has come’ investigative ’ reporting, though some of it invades privacy and verges on gossip. The film magazines are particularly guilty of this approach to journalism. However, exposes of corruption in high places have given the national dailies in particular a new crusading spirit. Further, severe competition has shaken the complacency of the so-called monopoly press which has begun sending out more reporters into the field for ‘spot’ and investigative reporting.

Advertisers. Advertisers like to target their products and services at specific rather than general audiences; they term this strategy ‘niche marketing’. They like, for instance, to target housewives who they believe are the chief decision makers in Indian homes, especially with regard to consumer and consumer durable items. So, women’s magazines are selected for peddling not only products of interest to women, but also products for other members of the family. Upmarket premium products are advertised in expensive English magazine? while the down-market products are advertised in low priced and not-so-glossy magazines.

Segmentation. In advertising, the name of the game is ‘segmentation’ – the categorisation of potential consumers in terms of demographics, psychographies and lifestyles. The advertiser aims at giving potential consumers the maximum number of‘exposures’ to a ‘vehicle’ which carries an ad: that is, the maximum number of OTS (opportunities to see). The greater the exposure to an advertisement the greater is the chance of the product being purchased: so goes the assumption. Quality, price, usefulness, relevance, are criteria which do not concern the advertiser very seriously when it comes to exploiting magazines for selling products, services and ideas.

Readership and Popularity of Magazines. Readership and popularity are not necessarily identical. A large readership might be one of the indicators of popularity, though not the only indicator. While readership relates to an activity, popularity relates to a positive feeling, of liking and of enjoying what one reads. But who is a ‘reader’ in the first place? Is a ‘reader’ one who has “ merely ‘seen’ a magazine, as market researchers assume when they conduct National Readership Surveys (NRS)? Then there are what might be termed ‘primary readers’ and ‘secondary readers’ or even ‘tertiary readers’.

Primary readers are those who read every piece in the magazine with attention and care and are not distracted by other activities. Secondary readers are those who read magazines while they are watching television, listening to the radio or to the audio-recorder, looking after children, answering telephones or doorbells, etc. For a third group of readers, magazine reading is an incidental superficial activity carried out while changing nappies, laying the table, cooking for the family, washing clothes, etc.

Guesstimates. A further complication arises because most magazine readers are selective in what they choose to read. And what they select to read may not sometimes be to their liking. Measuring popularity is as slippery-an exercise as the attempt by marketing agencies to measure ‘readership’. Such attempts can at best provide only ‘guesstimates’ rather than accurate statistical data. But since such guessing exercises are presented in statistical terms and in convincing graphics, the impression propagated (by the media primarily) is that ‘scientific’ surveys have been conducted.

Question 4.
What is a News Agency? Discuss the development of News agencies in India and abroad?
News Agency
Definition and basic concept of News Agency. A news-agency can be defined as “an undertaking whose principle objective, whatever its legal form, is to gather news and news material the sole purpose of which, is to express and present facts, and to distribute this news to a group of news enterprises, and in exceptional circumstances, to private (media) industries, with a view to providing them with as complete and impartial a news service as possible against payment and under such conditions as are compatible with business laws and usage.” This definition was given by the UNESCO.

The aforementioned definition encompasses the operational gamut and mission of the news agencies of the world. They are also called Wire Services. These agencies serve the MNCs, media empires, media businesses with low turnovers etc.

Wire Agencies. The wire agencies of the new millennium maintain regional, national, and global wires for the purpose of disseminating news. They have their representatives or news gatherers spread around the world. These dedicated staff collect information from Ground Zero, a term popularised after the “September Eleven” attacks on the WTC towers in the backyard of the home of Uncle Sam. The CNN covered this event almost live; so did some other TV channels of the United States.

The news travelled almost instantaneously to all parts of the world, thanks to the efficient coverage of wire agencies. Small newspapers may get only one wire. Moreover, they may get only limited news content. The news devoted to sports, financial upheavals, visits of international dignitaries, wars, famine, draught, global climate etc are given priority by the wire services of the world. However, the commercial needs Of the clients of a wire news agency have taken precedence over the need to disseminate mass-oriented and socially relevant news.

Consumers. The newspaper publishing industry is a heavy consumer of such wire news. The news editor mayor may not use the news sent by the agency, however. Depending upon the content received, he may use it on some other day of the week or in a separate section of the newspaper. The quality of news content would decide how the newspaper would perform in its targeted market niches. As such, newspapers try to get news inputs from the best news agencies of the world.

Currently, the six globally known wire agencies are supplying news content to nearly 70-80 per cent media around the world. These agencies are as follows:

  1. Associated Press.
  2. Reuters.
  3. Agence Press France.
  4. United Press International.
  5. Tass.
  6. Xinhua.

Other authors have defined only five major news agencies of the world. Further, all other agencies are primarily regional or national news agencies; here, the word region means a large geographical area that includes many neighbouring countries. Example: The nations of south-east Asia. Text, video images, photographs, and data are provided by these news agencies to their clients. In return, these clients pay them hefty amounts of money so that they could regularly publish information (provided by these wire agencies) and retain their own markets. Thus, both the poles depend upon each other. The first pole (wire services) is based in the masses (i.e., the representatives of wire services are stationed where the events would take place).

The other pole is the supplier of refined information to the masses, but its targeted markets could be regional, national, or global. Thus, the media, wire services”, and the masses are a part Of this complex milieu. In this milieu, every person depends upon another. Because of the impersonality of the mass media and lack of time on the part of people, this relationship is not clearly visible. Nevertheless, all of them are a part of this dynamic complex milieu. This status quo is likely to be maintained in this century.

Major financial news agencies of the world are as follows-

  1. Dow Jones.
  2. Reuters.
  3. Bloomberg Information Service.
  4. Bridge Information Systems.

Note that Dow Jones has sold its market information systems to Bridge Information Systems for US$ 510 million; the deal was struck in 1998:

Development Of News Agencies In India

The development of news agencies in India can be discussed in a chronological order, as follows-

(a) KC Roy set up the Press News Bureau (PNB).
(b) S Sadanand, one of the finest journalists India has ever produced, set up a nationalist news agency during the 1930s. it was called Free Press of India (FPI). However, it could not be operated for more than two years.
(c) In 1933, the UPI rose from the ashes of the FPI. It proved successful in its new reincarnation.

(d) Until independence, the UPI and Reuters were the only two news agencies, which supplied news for Indian newspapers. The British were not keen to grant freedom to the Indian news services. They had fears that vociferous journalists like Tilak and Gokhle would incite the masses against the Raj. Hence, they controlled the flow of news to and from India. That could be the reason why we won our independence after a long struggle.

(e) Independence of India came as a whiff of .relief for the Press and media of India. New newspapers were started soon after independence. We are excluding the details here. Read Chapter 4.

(f) The Press Trust of India was set up on August 27, 1947. It started functioning from February 1, 1949.
(g) By 1949, the Indian and Eastern Newspaper Society had staited its own agency, the PTI. The PTI bought Reuters (in India). In the meantime, the UPI struggled to keep itself afloat. However, it was closed in 1958.
(h) The United News of India (UNI) was set up oh March 21; 1961.
(i) Bhasa (of the PTI) was formed subsequently.
(j) During the seventies, there were two multilingual wire services in India, with Hindi their base language. These were-Hindustan Samachar and Samachar Bharati.
(k) In 1975, four news agencies (Hindustan Samachar, Samachar Bharati, the PTI, and the UNI) were merged to form Samachar. Those were the days of emergency.
(l) In 1977, the Congress lost general elections. The Status quo ante of four news agencies was restored. Hence, these four agencies were revived by the new government.
(m) The Non Aligned News agencies Pool (NANAP) was formed in 1976. India was made its first chairman. This Pool exchanges news in four languages-French, English, Spanish, and Arabic.
(n) Univarta, a Hindi news service, was started in May, 1981,
(o) In 1987, the MV I started a Photo Service. It collaborated with the AFP (France) for providing this service. This service has also started providing computer-aided graphics to Hindi and – English newspapers.
(p) Currently, the PI I, Univarta, and UNI are covering the entire country
for collecting news. They are also in touch with the international news agencies for the purpose of exchanging news and information with them.

Press Trust of India (PTI). It is India’s largest news agency. Fondly called PTI, it is a non-profit sharing cooperative owned by the country’s newspapers, and provides efficient and unbiased news to all subscribers. Founded on August 27, 1947, the PTI began functioning from February 1, 1949. It offers news services in English and Hindi languages. Bhasha is the Hindi language news service of the PTI. Its subscribers include 500 newspapers in India and many more abroad. All major TV/radio channels in India and abroad, including the BBC, receive news from it.

It has its own satellite delivery system through a transponder on an INS AT satellite. While delivery by the old land lines continues, more subscribers are opting for satellite reception. Its photo service is delivered by satellite and also, by the dial-up service. The PTI is on the Net as well. Its website address is:

http://www.ptinews.com. :

It has a staff strength of about 1,500, including 400 journalists. It has over 100 bureaus across the country and foreign correspondents in major cities of the world, including Beijing, Bangkok, Colombo, Dhaka, Dubai, Islamabad, Kathmandu, London, Moscow, New York, and Washington. In addition, about 500 stringers contribute to the news from rest of the world’. Besides the news and photo service, other services of the agency include mailer packages of features, Graphics, Science Service, Economic Service, Data India, and screen- based services like News-scan and Stockscan. A television wing, PTI TV does features and undertakes corporate documentaries on an assignment basis.

‘The PTI has arrangements with the Associated Press (AP) and Agency France Press (AFP) for distribution of their news in India. The AP’s photo and international commercial information are also distributed in the country through the PTI. It is a partner in Asia Pulse International, a Singapore-based firm. This firm was formed by the PTI and five other Asian media organisations to provide an on-line data bank on economic developments and business opportunities in Asian countries.

The PTI is also a participant in an Asian cooperative arrangement among twelve news agencies of the Asia-Pacific region for the distribution of corporate and government Press releases. It is a leading participant in the pool of news agencies of the NAM nations and Organisation of Asia Pacific News Agencies. It also has bilateral news exchange arrangements with several news agencies belonging to the countries of Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America.

United news of India (UNI). The United News of India (UNI) was launched on March 21, 1961. Today, it is one of the largest news agencies of Asia. It has 76 bureaus in India and abroad. It has more than 850 subscribers in India and abroad, especially in the Gulf nations. It has correspondents in all the major cities and towns of India as well as several major world capitals. It has agreements with several foreign news agencies, including Reuters, the DP A, RIA Novosti, Xinhua and United News of Bangladesh. It has about 340 journalists and more than 277 stringers.

It launched a full-fledged Indian language news’ service, Univarsta, in Hindi in May, 1981. A decade later, it launched a wire service in Urdu for the first time in the world. In 1987, it launched a national Photo Service. It has collaborated with the AFP of France for this service. The UNI also supplies computer-deigned graphics in ready-to-use formats on economic and other topical subjects every day to newspapers in English and Hindi.

Non-Aligned Ness Agencies Pool (NANAP). We have mentioned the origin of this agency in Chapter 7. It is an arrangement for exchange of news among the news agencies of non-aligned countries who were the victims of imbalance and bias in the flow of news. The Pool came into existence in 1976 with India as its first Chairman (197679). It is a world-wide operation embracing four continents, viz, Asia, Eui ape, Africa, and Latin America. Its news is exchanged in four languages- English, French, Spanish and Arabic.

Its activities are coordinated by an elected body known as Co-ordinating Committee. It has a Chairman as its head. The Chairmanship is co-terminus with the tenure of the Co-ordinating Committee. The members of the Committee are elected by a General Conference. This Conference is the top decision-making organ of the Pool. The members of the Co-ordinating Committee are elected on the basis regional representation, continuity, active participation, and rotation.

Activity. Six General Conferences an3T7 regUfSrrffeetings and one special meeting of the Co-ordinating Committee have taken place since the inception of the Pool. The last General Conference of the Pool was held in Teheran in June, 1992. At that time, the Iranian news agency, IRNA, had assumed the Chairmanship of the Pool from the ANGOP of Angola. The Coordinating Committee held a meeting in Belgrade in September, 2000. It was hosted by the Yugoslavia news agency, Tanjug.

Member Countries. The countries represented on the coordinating Committee are-India, Indonesia, Vietnam, North Korea, Kuwait, Mongolia, Bahrain, Afghanistan, Lebanon, and Oman from Asia; Angola, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Congo, Ethiopia, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Zambia from Africa; Yugoslavia from Europe; and Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela from Latin America.

The Indian News Pool. The India News Pool Desk is operated by the PTI. The agency receives news copy from Pool partners. It also contributes Indian news into the exchange arrangement on a daily basis. The incoming news traffic from Pool member agencies into the PTI is in the range of 15,000 to 20,000 words per day with about one-tenth of the matter received being used. The PTI’s contribution into the network is between 8,000 to 9,000 words per day. The news is exchanged through a network of satellite/terrestrial/E¬mail communication links with Ankara (Indonesia), Bemama (Malaysia), BSS (Bangladesh), GNA (Bahrain), MAP (Morocco), Montsame (Monogolia), NAMPA (Namibia), Prensa Latin (Cuba), RSS (Nepal), SANA (Syria), and VNA (Vietnam).

As a vital part of the News Pool operation, the IIMC has been offering a regular course in news agency journalism. The five-month twice a year course is popular with journalists of NAM nations who work for the print and electronic media.

Question 5.
Discuss book publishing in India.
The Beginning. The beginnings of the book publishing industry in India can be traced to the establishment of the first printing presses in Goa in 1566, and in Tranqabar (near Madras) and Serampore (near Calcutta) two hundred years later in the 18th century. Between 1801 and 1832, the Serampore Mission Press alone published 212,000 volumes in fifty languages.

The volumes were not restricted to religious books in English and the Indian languages; indeed, a substantial part of it was devoted to secular and educational materials. It was only after the colonial government’s decision in 1835 that all higher education would be through the medium of English that book publishing came to be dominated by English because of the need for textbooks in that language. In 1881, a survey of books published in Bombay Presidency indicates that 931 books in European and Indian languages were published. Of these, only 117 were in European languages; the other books were in Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada, Sindhi and Hindi, with a few in Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic and two each in Zend and Magadhi. Thus, only 12% of the books published in the Bombay Presidency were in English as against 40% today.

Textbooks. The Indian branches of major British publishers were the first to capitalise on the demand for textbooks in English for high schools and colleges. By the thirties, Indian publishers too had entered the business of textbook publishing, and despite shortages of paper during the war years considerable progress was made in the field. The publication of fiction and non-fiction as well as scholarly books also progressed moderately. Pre¬independence publishing ofbooks of general interest was largely influenced by the national struggle for freedom. Even much of the fiction written in those times reflected these national concerns. Thus general publishing in India during the years between the wars was often politically and socially oriented. Much of such material was published in Indian languages, but a majority of the longer works were in English.

The Boost. The years of World War II witnessed a growth in political and social consciousness, and this gave rise to political publishing; this trend continued in the years preceding independence and the decade that followed the attainment of independence. The rapid expansion of education across the newly formed linguistic states in the country, and with this ihe establishment of the libraries in schools, colleges, universities and other institutions of learning, led to the further expansion of the book publishing industry. Immediately after ‘Independence, several Indian publishers moved into textbook publishing for schools (where British publishers still dominated), but the ‘nationalisation’ of this sector brought an end to such ventures. University textbooks continued to remain in the private sector, but here too the United States and British publishers dominated with their cheap reprints of standard texts in medicine, engineering, the natural and social sciences and literature. A Subsidy Scheme assisted some Indian publishers of university textbooks.

Publishing after Independence. During the fifties and sixties the publishing industry grew steadily, but suffered a severe setback in the early seventies when the official prices of paper shot up and there was an acute scarcity of supplies. The Government stepped in with a control and concessional regime of paper production and supply.

In 1967, the, National Book Development Board (later the National Book Development Council) was established to promote the development of the book trade and industry. Besides setting up bodies like the National Book Trust and the Raja Ram Mohan Roy Educational Resource Centres, the Central Government launched a number of schemes or the publication of low-cost editions of foreign reprints, and a massive programme ofbringing out university level books in Indian languages. In this programme, the Centre finances and coordinates the work of State institutions and universities engaged in the work of translation, compilation, writing and publishing of university level books in Indian languages.

Cottage Industry. The Indian book publishing industry today is a ‘cottage industry ’ comprising the public and private sectors. In the public sector, book enterprises range from those of the various ministries of the Central and State Governments to semi-official and state-funded bodies such as the National Book Trust, the Children’s Book Trust, the Sahitya Akademi and the Indian Standard Institution. Over 450 agencies in the public sector publish on a regular basis. The leading publishing house in the public sector is the Publications Division, a unit of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The unit was established in 1941 as a branch of the Bureau of Public Information and ‘publishes’21 journals and around a hundred book titles each year in English, Hindi and other Indian languages. .

Private Sector. The private sector is organised around small and medium-sized firms, It is estimated that there are around 10,000 small publishers, 2,000 medium-sized publishing firms, and 300 large publishing houses. No more than around 25 of the large publishers are equipped with adequate distribution facilities, sources of capital and professional expertise. The small and medium-sized publishers release books sporadically. A good number of authors publish their own books.

India’s Position. India is one of the top ten publishers in the world, and the third largest publisher of books in English (around 11,400 titles per annum) next only to the Great Britain (95,000 titles) and the United State (51,800 titles). On average, around 22,000 new tides are brought out each year, with over half the titles being in English. The share of titles in Hindi is around 15%, Tamil around 9%, Marathi 7.5%, and Bengali 6.5%. However, India’s share in the world’s book market is barely three percent. This works out to about 20 books per million of India’s population in comparison with 420 books per million of the population of Europe.DU SOL BA 3rd Year Mass Communication Notes Chapter 3 Media of Mass Communication 1

Paperbacks and Textbooks. The paperback movement was ushered into India by Jaico Publishing House in the 1940s, just a few years after the launch, of Pocket Books in the United States, Penguin Books in Britain and Albatross Series in Germany. Hind Pocket Books too went into paperback book publishing two decades later. Some of its titles in English, Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi have had print-runs of over 100,000 copies. Their nationwide distribution channels have ensured phenomenal sales. Hind Pocket Books’ series on self-improvement, India’s poet-saints, Indian language fiction and translations of popular writers in regional languages have earned it the gratitude of book lovers. Its book club, Gharelu Library Yojana, which has a membership of more than a hundred thousand ensures regular sales of its titles.

Star Publications (Private) Ltd. too has made a name for itself in the world, of paperbacks. Taking their cue from HPB and Star, other major publishers have set up their paperback units. Orient Longman’s paperback unit is Sangam, Amold-Heinemann’s is Mayfair, Oxford University Press’ is Three Coins, Vikas’s is Bell Books, and Vision’s is Orient Paperbacks. Thus it is that renowned Indian and foreign writers have come within the reach of the literate masses.

Children Literature. In the area of children’s literature, India Book House, the National Book Trust and the Children’s Book Trust, Chandamama and Living Media are the leaders. However, the number of titles for children barely exceeds 500, excluding titles in comics. With a child population exceeding 45 % of the total, such an output is woefully .inadequate. Children’s Book Trust is perhaps the only non-government organisation dedicated solely to publishing books for children in Hindi and English.

Comics. The craze for comics mushroomed in the early 1980s after the : success of the Amar Chitra Katha series of India Book House. The focus was on biographies of eminent men and women and Indian myth and folklore.

New titles were issued every year, some of them translated into several Indian and foreign languages. Indrajal Comics of the Times of India Group proved very successful in the Indian and export market. Other titles in the series included Phantom, Bahadur and Garth.

Textbook Sector. However, the most lucrative sector of Indian book publishing is the textbook sector. The nationalisation of the text book industry (especially for schools) hit the private sector hard, even as it gave rise to a racket in cheap guides and texts brought out by small publishers. The National Book Trust, the National Council for Educational Research (NCERT), the University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council for Social Science Research (ICSSR) and other autonomous bodies succeeded in marketing a good number of subsidised textbooks in English and the regional languages. Around 200 million copies of school and college textbooks are sold each year in the entire country. Besides, a fairly large library market in the states and relatively low publishing costs make book publishing an attractive investment opportunity for the informal business sector.

The Multinational Presence. Indian book publishing in English is dotriinated by Orient Longman and the Oxford University Press for academic literature and by Rupa (which has a tie-up with Harper Collins) and Penguin (which has a joint venture with Ananda Bazar Patrika ) for general fiction and non-fiction titles. Oxford University Press (India) is a full-fledged subsidiary of Oxford University Press, with offices in .the four metros and showrooms in six cities. It exports over a quarter of its Indian titles. Few books in English have print runs exceeding 350G copies. The best selling authors in the fiction category include Shoba De, Vikram Seth and Amitav Ghosh. British publishers account for over 55% of total imports from India; British book exports to India amounted to £6.4 million in 1991 and £17.2 million inl995.10

Outlets. The major book distribution outlets are India Book House, IBD and Westland Distribution. India Book House distributes the publications of Penguin India, and also children’s books, mass market books as also cookery, management and coffee-table books. Penguin India has given its travel books to IBD for distribution, and also has its own regional network in four’major cities. IBD has exclusive distributorship rights for most foreign travel publications. IBH is the exclusive distributor for Fortune International, The Economist and the Asian Wall Street Journal, and also owns the chain of Crossword book stores, and promotes Book Clubs, while IBD runs the Fountainhead retail leisure stores in Bangalore and Madras.

Distribution. Westland Distribution is a collaboration between the Landmark retail chain and East-West Books (Madras), covering 250 booksellers in the region. East-West Books represents 40 United States and British publishers including Academic Press, Routledge and Faber and Faber; It also distributes the publications of Rupa and Rupa Harper-Collins. Perhaps the biggest publisher in the world is Bertelsmann which recently acquired Random House, the largest publisher in the United States. On the international scene, ‘the old model in book publishing was signing big authors; the new model is marketing’. Over 60% of books are now sold in chains and supermarkets, through book clubs, and over the Internet. The Bertelsmann Book Club has more than 25 million members in 19 countries, while Amazon.com, the world’s largest cyber bookstore, sells over a million titles, Several Indian publishers are now on the Net, and publishing houses like the Indian Express, Jaico and Hind have launched their own book clubs.

Areas of Concern. The central government’s import policies, the domination of the industry by English language publishing, the strong multinational presence, piracy and above all the exorbitant price of paper, are the major areas of concern for the Indian book publishing industry. Import policies are meant to give an impetus to indigenous publishing, and to help Indian publishers to compete with the multinational houses. Imported books form an important financial base for the Indian book industry, since there is a demand for the novels cf major fiction writers such as John Grisham, James Hadley Chase, Harold Robbins and Irving Wallace, and for scholarly academic
textbooks in medicine, engineering, and computers.

So, piracy of imported fiction is rather worrisome to Indian publishers; so is the practice of the flooding of the Indian book market by ‘remainders’ from the United States and Britain, which are sold at throw-away prices to Indian importers. ‘Remainders’ is a tag pinned on books that have outlasted their utility in the west, and so have little sale value. In Bombay, for instance, the book industry is worth around Rs. 2000 million annually, out of which Rs. 600 turnover comes from sales of imported books, and the ‘remainder’ business accounts for Rs. 200 million Even some of the established distributors who deal in imported books also deal in ‘remainders’.

Another common practice in Bombay for private distributors of American books like Rajesh and Co. buy ‘job lots’ and dispose them off to pavement dwellers. Reprinting of popular Western titles, especially of textbooks and novels, is yet another common practice. Publishing houses like Prentice Hall and Tata-McGraw Hill have churned out cheap Indian editions of Western titles since the seventies. Rupa and Jaico have been the leaders in the field, but Penguin too, entered the reprint business in the eighties, Among the publishing houses active in the non-technical field have been IBH, Orient Paperbacks, Vision Books, Harper-Willis and L.B. Publishers. For technical books Wiley-Eastern, Affiliated East-West Press, Sterling Publishers, Allied Publishers and Oxford-India have been the leaders.

Question 6.
Explain the terms In vogue in book publishing,
Terminology Of Book Publishing
Terms in Vogue. In the field of book publishing, the following terms are in vogue.
Print Run. It is the number of books, of one edition, printed by a press on behalf of a publisher. It is a number and may be less than the total (annual) sales volume of the book.

Sales. Also called Sales Volume, it is the total number of books sold in one accounting year. It refers to the actual purchases made by the buyers and j not the sales figures of distributors or booksellers.

Return. It refers to the return of books in one accounting year. All the publishers receive back those books that have not been sold. Such books are given a crude but pragmatic term -Wapasi

Net Seles (Quantitative) = Print Run – Wapasi.

Complementary Copies. Some books are given by publishers to teachers, professors, experts, and VVIPs without realising their sales prices. These are called Complementaries or Complementary Copies. The publisher recovers the costs of such copies from the sales of the balance stock of the print run Thus, we have: Net Sales (Quantitative) = Print Run – Wapsi – Number of Complementaries

Trade Discount (TD). This is a discount offered by the book publisher to the members of the book trade. There is no hard and fast rule in the context of discount. However, it varies from 20 to 50 percent in most of the cases. This TD is always on the Li$t Price (LP). Obviously, the publisher has to recover the costs from the balance that he receives after deducting all the expenses. He has to make a decent profit too.

Revenues, Trade Discount and Profit. The book is sent to the distributor. He sends the book to his retailers that are spread in various parts of the region or country. Some distributors also export the books of various publishers. An example w’ould clarify the concept.

Example-Suppose that a publisher has sent 10/000 books to a retailer. The LP of the book is Rs 240. The TD is 40 per cent on the LP. The retailer has sold all the 10/000 books. Find the profit of the book publisher. Assume other figures.

LP = Rs 240 per book
Number of Books Sold = 10,000
Total Revenues = Rs 24,00,000
TD = 40 per cent on LP
= 24,00,000 x 0.4
= Rs 9,60,000
Neti Sales Value = 24,00000 – 9,60,000
= Rs 14,40,000
Printing Expenses= Rs 1,10,235
Paper = Rs 2,35,000
Administrative Expenses  = Rs 2,10,100
OTP Expenses (Pre-Press)  = Rs 34,690
Production Expenses (Pre-press) = Rs 25,680
Production Expenses (Post-press) = Rs 18,000
Author’s Royalty = 15 per cent on LP
= 24,00,000 x 0.15
= Rs 3,60,000
Total Expenses = 110235 + 235000 + 210000
+ 34690 + 25680 + 18000
+ 360000 = Rs 9,93,605
Profit of the Publisher =14,40,000 – 9,93,605 = Rs 4,46,395

Spine. It is the back of the book at which, the fornls of the book have been joined, sewn or glued together to give shape to it. The spine has to be strong enough to enhance the life of the book. Normally, the title of the book, name of its author and logo of the publisher are printed on the spine. Hardbound (HB) books invariably have these three elements, though publishers have started printing these elements on paperback (PB) volumes as well.

Bleed. It refers to printing a sheet of paper (belonging to a book, magazine etc) so that it runs off the page after trimming.

Font and Type Size. Various types of letters, which are used in the print media The most commonly used fonts are Helvetica, Times, New Roman, Verdana, Bookman Corsiva, Book Antiqua, Garamund, Arial, Gothic, QT Black Forest etc. Type sizes used in newspapers are eight points and nine points (for the text). News headings can be printed in 18-24 points. Books are printed in ten and twelve points; text is normally printed in ten points, but headings and chapter names can have a size of 10,12,14,16,18 or 24 points. Small pocket books are printed in 9 or 9.5 points. The editorial staff (and not the author) decides these issues. Read Chapter 10 in this context.

Recto. When we open a book, the page on the right hand side is called Recto. Chapters always start from rectos. A recto page is usually the odd- numbered page.

Verso. When we open a book, the page on the left hand side is called Verso. Chapters always end at versos. A verso page is usually the even- numbered page.

Print Area. This is the area in which, the book is actually printed. It includes the area of the text, the limits of running head at the top and folio (page number) at the bottom. Page numbers can also be written at the top. The plate includes this print area for the purpose of printing the sheet of paper. Further, good books contain the titles of chapters, along with folio numbers, on recto pages. The title of the volume is printed, along with folio numbers, on verso pages.

The popular print areas for books are-
(a) 6 inches * 8 inches;
(b) 4.5 inches * 7.5 inches;
(c) 6.5 inches x 10 inches; and
(d) 4.25 inches * 7.25 inches.
This list is not exhaustive.

Cut Size. It is the actual book size that shows its length and breadth after it has been trimmed and bound. The cut size is always larger than the print area of the book. Example: A cut size of 6.25 x 9.5 inches would include a print area of 4.5 inches x 7.5 inches.

Question 7.
Write a short note on handbills, leaflets, pamphlets and ottier forms of printed publicity.
Hand Bills And Other Printed Publicity
New forms of printing publicity. Along with the increased uSe to certain articles the printed publicity has come to occupy new horizons, e.g. postal articles such as covers, inland letters, offer good place for advertisements. The match box provides another example.

2. Direct Mail. This method is direct in its approach and hence referred to as ‘Direct advertising’. But it retains some of the characteristics of press advertising. For instance, here also printed materials are used to spread information. A mailing list of prospective customers are prepared and the message is sent directly to them. Direct mail may take various forms.
Leaflets, Folders, Booklet, Catalogue.


  • Selectively in the greatest advantage. The advertisement can reach any part of the country and have his message conveyed.
  • Ability in creating a personal contact. Press advertising is meant for large masses whereas direct mail is intended for the addresses only.
  • The messages that cannot be given though advertisements could be
    managed by direct mail.
  • It is very economical and minimum wastage is involved as the advertisement gets special attention.
  • The message and its frequency can be changed whenever necessary. Thus, it has flexibility.


  1. It is not cheap.
  2. The preparation of a proper mailing list is not an easy job.
  3. Its coverage is limited. It is not suitable for all types of products.

However, it is most suitable method in the field of publication of books. Readers Digest and other popular publishing companies adopt this method most effectively.

3. Outdoor Advertising or Mural Advertising. It is the oldest form of advertising and remains the most common medium even today. Press publicity is basically indoor advertising as papers are generally read indoor. Outdoor advertising projects the message to a large number of people of heterogeneous interests. The products that need a wide appeal use this method. Outdoor advertisements are meant for the moving public and provide the advantage of reminding the people frequently of the product. It has the advantage of repetition found in good advertisements. It includes the use of posters, bill boards, electric displays, well writing, sky writing etc.

Merits of Outdoor Advertising.

  1. Outdoor advertising is capable of gaining more and repeated attention.
  2. It offers great selectively. It could be used locally, regionally or even nationally.
  3. It is highly flexible and economical.
  4. It is semi-permanent. Once the board is exhibited it could be kept there for quite a long time.
  5. It is very good medium to stress brand names and package identity.
  6. Coverage is greater. Every moving person comes in contact.


  1. It has been brief. Detailed explanation is not possible.
  2. It has also presenting value. The exact effect created on prospects is very difficult to measure.
  3. It could be used only as a supplementary form to other kinds of advertising.

Kinds Of Outdoor Publicity

  1. Mural Advertising. It refers to posters which are often pasted on walls. Advertising for a movie is done in this way.
  2. Advertising Boards. These are also posters but are kept at certain fixed places especially at join-; where people frequently assemble. Bus stops, railway stations, etc. offer good places for this kind of advertising.
  3. Vehicular Advertising. This refers to moving advertisements. The advertisements on moving vehicles such as buses and railway trains offer examples of this. This type of advertising has very large circulation and is considered to be very effective. It is cost effective too.
  4. Electric Displays, Neon signs. This is the most attractive form of outdoor display. It attracts attention easily and acts as a memoriser when it is dark all around.
  5. Sky Advertising (sky writing). Notices and advertisement such as printed baloons etc. are distributed from aeroplanes usually near the circus tents, a huge baloon is floated from which a board hangs down depicting the name of the circus.
  6. Sandwichmen. They are hired persons who move in a procession with boards and notices and also playing musical instruments to attract the attention of the public. The cinema theatres usually arrange this kind of advertin g when a new picture is rates.

Question 8.
Discuss the various forms of electronic media. With their positive
and negative aspects.
Electronic media
The Moviea Media : Features
The movie media-

  1. is an audiovisual technology;
  2. is an ideal entertainment mode for the masses;
  3. is glossy, thrilling, and fascinating (a movie buff would explain that better!);
  4. use predominantly narrative fiction; _
  5. have benefited greatly from technology of movie production during the last 50 years;
  6. is subject to public regulation (censoring and classification of movies a must to restrict their viewing by those who are not supposed to view them);
  7. features ideological characters and larger-than-life images most of the times else people would not throng cinema halls); and
  8. promote hit cinema stars but dump the failed ones in the dust bin (Bollywood is an example). .

The Movie Media : Pros

If we view the positive side of the coin, movies-

  1. entertain the masses;
  2. educate them;
  3. make them patriots; and . .
  4. give them reprieve (a pleasant escape) from realities of life.

The Movie Media : Cons
If we view the negative side of the coin, movies-

  • change the habits, opinions, tastes, and ami-, tons of the fnasses more rapidly than other media possibly can;
  • lead to eye strain, backache, headache (if the movie proves a boring whimper at the box office); and
  • cheat the masses because they unnecessarily indulge in idol worshipping (the Indians are known idol worshippers).

The Broadcast Media : A Brief Synopsis

These media comprise radio, TV, and their modem variants like HAM radio, DTH etc. The electronics revolution has helped them rule the media scenarios the world over.

The Broadcast Media : Features
The broadcast media-

  • essentially use electromagnetic waves for transmission of their signals;
  • have large ranges, reach, and penetration (especially TV and radio);
  • use complex technologies and organisations to succeed in the markets they cater to;
  • have a distinct public or mass character;
  • are subject to regulation;
  • disseminate diverse content;
  • usegloss and ad world ,o grow in commercial terms;
  • need the services of professional script writers (in both radio and TV);
  • are known for their currency; and
  • effect deep-rooted changes in the societies they cater to.

The Broadcast Media: Pros
If we view the positive side of the coin, -the broadcast media:

  • give latest sets of information to the audiences;
  • entertain par excellence (TV is a paragon of entertainment the world over);
  • are cheap (for the hoi polloi);
  • are passive media (you can use them even while eating popcorn);
  • can effect healthy changes, especially in the contexts of community medicine, education, national polity* environment, ecology, dogma removal etc); and \ . .
  • are dynamic in the sense that new content is disseminated through them almost every fortnight.

The Broadcast Media: Cons

If we view the negative side of the coin,, the broadcast media-

  • are costly (for advertisers of all genres);
  • the Forts et origo of many an anomaly like TV addiction disorder,
    eye strain, poor vision, distractions during studies, poor academic records, political manipulation etc;
  • are being censured due to media ennui; .
  • are also being taken to task due to media footle; and
  • would continue to waste millions of man hours worldwide on a daily basis.

Question 9.
Discuss Radio as a major form of electronic media.
Development of Radio, Radio transmission is a part of mass media.
The advantage of transmitting messages through radio waves is that the sender can send his messages to a large number of audience without disturbing their daily routines. Example: A car has a radio receiver, which broadcasts news, music, chat programmes, and many other programmes of interest to the driver of the car. The driver does not: have to stop and listen because only his ears aye engaged in this process. A person, on the other hand, must sit attentively before the television to imbibe the messages telecast by various TV channels.

In the case of radio transmission, only one sense (hearing) is utilised by man whereas in the case of a TV broadcast, two senses (hearing and vision) are utilised by man. Freedom to listen is coupled with the ability to do other tasks. While listening to a radio, one can do many other things and save his time; this is a commendable feature of this medium. That is why, it has not lost its credibility even in this age of audio-visual revolution. Radio is the theatre of the mind.

Technical Data Related To Radio Transmission –

A radio receiver is an electronic device that contains some transistors, diodes, capacitors and other electronic devices. These devices are fixed on a ‘ Printed-Circuit Board (PCB). It is designed to catch the radio waves that are transmitted by a local rddio station in its vicinity. Radio waves are of 4 types, as follows-

  1. Short-Wave I Radio (2.3-7.0 MHz).
  2. Short-Wave II Radio (7.0-22.0 MHz).
  3. Medium Wave Radio (530-1,800 kHz).
  4. Frequency Modulation Radio (88-108 MHz).

Out of these, Frequency Modulation (FM) radio waves are able to transmit audio signals with least distortion and noise. Medium wave radio signals can be used to transmit audio signals over large distances of the order of 300-500 km. FM radio signals have a frequency range of 90-100 MHz; it is the VHF range. Medium wave radio signals have a frequency range of 10 MHz and are suitable for long-distance transmissions. Microwaves (having VHF, SHE and EHF ranges) are not used in radio transmissions. The closer the receiver (set) is to the transmitting station, better would be the quality of sound output. FM channels have limited frequency ranges.

Example: the frequency range of the Times FM channel of Delhi is 102.6 MHz. It is sufficient to transmit FM signals to such FM receivers as are located within the state of Delhi. However, we are unable to listen to FM channels in a far off place like Najibabad. Further, Radio Mirchi has started its operations in Mumbai. Only the residents of Mumbai can receive its signals. Example: A listener from Satara (Maharashtra) cannot listen to these signals.

The wavelength of medjum wave signals is of the order of 530-1,800 kHz. Hence, these signals are not heard (or received) in such areas as are very Close to the transmitting stations). However, these are clearly received at far off places. For example the Urdu Service of All India Radio is not clearly heard on the medium wave frequency band in New Delhi, though the transmission centre of this channel is located at Parliament Street. However, the same channel is clearly heard in Ludhiana, Jalandhar and Amritsar. Note that Amritsar is located at a distance of nearly 500 km from New Delhi.

Every country is allocated certain frequency bands for medium wave, short wave and FM transmissions. It cannot broadcast programmes out of such ranges as are specified for them. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) allocates these frequency bands to the nations of the world. Its regulations and norms ought to be adhered to. Moreover, if the radio signals go out of their previously specified frequency bands, there are possibilities of interference of such signals with other signals like those of aircraft, armed forces, intelligence agencies and the police fore.., uat could lead to a total chaos in the field of communication; this phenomenon is technically called Frequency Jamming. In India as well as in any other countries of the world, frequency jamming is a punishable offense under various laws.

Features Of Radio –

The following features are worth careful consideration:

1. Flexible. It serves as a national, local or regional medium. The advertiser can reach a mass audience within seconds. He can also serve selected market niches through this versatile medium.

2. One-way Mode of Communication. Radio is basically a one-way tool of mass communication.

3. Limited Interaction and Evaluation is Possible. True, it is a one¬way mode of mass communication. However, listeners can respond to the programmes and queries of radio announcers and Radio Joekeys (RJs). A telephone call would help them respond to the programme they are listening to. Nota bad idea for the youths, housewives and unemployed people.

4. Ad World is a Money Spinner. Vividh Bahrati’s Vigyapan Prasaran Sewa is simply magical. Most of the leading brands-are jostling their shoulders to advertise through this service. It is a big hit among the masses. Messages of sales, clearance sales, discounts, and additional (free) products at the old price are commonly sent across the audience. The product handled by the radio ads are IFMCGs, consumer non-durables, music CD-ROMs magazines, newspapers, clothes, fashion garments, cassettes, VCDs, spices, bicycles, locks slippers, leather goods (including shoes), undergarments, and consumer durables. There is no dearth of advertisements on radio and the quality has improved after the arrival of the FM wave. The youths and the poor strata of the society are the targeted audiences of radio advertisements.

5. Low Costs. Radio is a cheap mode of entertainment and news gathering.

6. High Convenience to Viewers. Obviously, the eye-free comfort of the listener enables the user to do many things at one time.

7. High Reach and Effectiveness Ratings. Hie advertisers contact adagencies to get the fines of advertisements made for themselves. These advertisements are broadcast throughout the day, in the hope that they would shoot down a few birds.

8. Direct Reception is Possible. The signal is relayed directly from the broadcaster to the listener. There are no middlemen involved in the process of communication.

9. Gives a Fillip to the Information Boom. Radio helps spread news, views, city information etc at low”costs.

10. News and Entertainment are the Major USPs. As on date* news and entertainment (mainly through music, movie songs and English music) are the major USPs of this medium.
11. Information is Current. News and views are broadcast live in most of the cases. News are broadcast after every hour by FM channels. The government has fixed the timings for broadcasting news through its channels. In any case, the information is current. The private channels as well as the government radio stations have also started collecting news from the sites of accidents and events. They report the news live from such sites/places. They have adopted this trend from TV channels. This’is a good idea.

12. Low Costs to Advertisers. Promotional efforts on the radio cost less than they do on TV or in the Print media.

Advantages Of Radio –
The following advantages of TV are worth mentioning-

1. Cheap Mode of Entertainment. Radio is the cheapest mode of entertainment. The user need only buy a radio tuner and he is fully equipped to ride the wave of news, information and entertainment. If need be, he can use earphones as well. They are very cheap nowadays Imported stereo systems (like Pioneer) are installed in cars and other vehicles. They have in built FM tuners. Local stereo systems with FM tuners are cheap.

2. Current New and Information. News and information are available round the clock.

3. City Information Is Always in One’s Ears. Traffic news, health care news, entertainment (like drama, cinema, and music programmes), and other vital data are broadcast on the radio. Thus, a city dweller remains updated about the city he lives in

4. Entertainment Galore. Music programmes, chat shows, and interviews inform as well as entertain audience.

5. Ideal For Mobile Users and Workers. Our valued readers must have noticed this trend. Radio sets play music in shops. They are helpful to die drivers. They are divine gifts for the youth. They are ideal companions for the housewives (but next only to their husbands). The reason is that they entertain these strata of the society even as they engage themselves in work of any kind. They are very convenient devices of entertainment and news collection.

6. No Health Hazard. Radio does not offer “health gifts” like eyestrain, backache, obesity, thrombosis, irritability and inaction of the body to its listeners.

Disadvantages Of Radio –
The following disadvantages of TV are worth mentioning-

1. Media Ennui. We have discussed this concept in Chapter 2. Many listeners do not want to listen to a particular song. Hence, they change the radio station. How long can they do ^o? Radio on demand is available but who has the time to make a telephone call? Most of the radio stations broadcast music and programmes that suit the tastes of their RJs and managers. They do not listen to the demands of the listeners. Even if they do, the percentage of satisfied radio listeners is not very high. Further, interactive radio programmes are in vogue. In these programmes, the RJ makes a telephone call or receives it from a listener. They discuss an issue for three minutes and then, the listener (after showering encomium over the radio station or the RJ) asks him to play a song for her. Ibis exercise seems to be very artificial and commercial.

2. A One-way Tool. Mostly, the messages are transferred to the audience through a one-way communication mode. Two-way communication is possible, but only the youth are making telephone calls to TV stations and studios to get their favourite songs broadcast. The masses are not fervently responding to the messages of radio. They are only entertaining themselves or buying such products as are advertised through the radio.

3. Exploitation of the Masses. Advertisements are thrust on the masses. They or their children are motivated by radio advertisements to buy those products that tney may not require.

Brief History Of Radio –

Radio was invented by Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian electrical engineer. He was bom in 1874. He invented wireless telegraphy too. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909 with Ferdinand Braun of Germany. Both of them got this honour because of their research efforts on wireless. An Indian scientist is also given credit for developing the radio but The West does not recognise his efforjs because India was a British colony during those times. Marconi invented wireIe§s|aj3rmofa radio) in 1895. In 1902, he demonstrated the first practical applicatioifUfradiotelegraphy by sending signals across the Atlantic Ocean.

He sent these signals from Poidhu (Cornwall) to Saint Helen (New Zealand). The earliest speech broadcast was done by Professor Reginald Fessenden (of the USA) in Brant Rock (Massachusetts) on December 24,1906. The radio of those times used big vacuum tubes and hence, was very bulky. The noise of vacuum tubes did not allow the sound signals to reach the ears of the listener in a perfect format. However, people managed to listen to the voices ofhumans who went speaking from a makeshift studio located hundreds of miles away from them.

Times changed soon, however. The transistor was invented and used in radio receivers. The credit for developing the transistor goes to Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattam (1948), who marked at Bell Laboratories. However, the first application for its patent was made by Dr Julius E Lilenfield in Canada in October, 1925. This invention changed the size of the radio; it became much smaller and used electronic components.

The noise in the signal was also reduced considerably. The advent of modem electronic technologies further reduced the size of the n dio. This happened during the mid-seventies of the last century. Invention solid-state devices like diodes, capacitors, filters, and amplifiers made radio the key beneficiary of the electronics age. It was further compressed during the mid-nineties when the FM technology of v radio transmission had arrived. Today, a good radio can be as small as a cassette and its earphones can be plugged into the ears of the listener for getting the pleasure of listening to high-quality music, news, discussions, sports commentaries, opinions and what not?

Note that public broadcasting day is observed on November 12 every year.

Arrival Of Radio In India –

Broadcasts of radio began in India during the early twenties of the last century. On August 20,1921, the first ever broadcast was done from the roof top of the building of The Times of India in Bombay. On February 23, 1922, the first transmission license was granted. In the same year, the first broadcasting conference was also organised on March 7. The first radio programme was broadcast by the Radio Club of Bombay in 1923. In November, 1923, Radio Club (Calcutta) was launched. On May 16, 1924, Madras Presidency Radio Club (Madras) was launched. Thus, there were 3 aiftateur radio clubs during those times, one each at Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. Madras Presidency Radio Club was handed over to Madras Corporation in October, 1927.

On March 27,1925, the government invited applications to start broadcasting stations. In 1927, two privately owned radio transmitters started regular broadcasting service in India, one each at ‘Calcutta and Bombay. On , . July 16,1927, The India Radio Times was started; if was the first radio journal of the country. Later, its name was changed to The Indian Listener and still later, to Akashwani. These were started by the Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd. On July 23,1927, the Bombay station started its operations. On August 26,1927, the Madras station started broadcasting.

But two private channels were dosed within a period of 2-3 years. In 1930, the Government of India took ever these two radio stations, which had weak transmitters. It started operating them under a new name, Indian Broadcasting Service. Its controller was Fielden. On June 8,1936, this service was christened All India Radio (AIR). The suggestion regarding this change ofname was given by Fielden. In 1938, Short-wave transmissions were started • in the country. In 1939, the External Services Division of the AIR was set up. In 1939-40, the total number of news bulletins oozing out of the stations of the AIR was 27. During the Second World War, the number of bulletins broadcast pet day by the AIR was 27. As a part of the Ministry of Intelligence Wing, two separate services of the AIR were made effective-he external services and monitoring services. When the War ended, these two were separated from each other.

In 1947, the AIR had a network of 6 stations and 18 transmitters. In 1947, the number of radio sets in India was 2.5 lakh. The coverage of the AIR was 2.5 per cent of the area and 11 per cent of the population.

In 1957, the AIR was Christened Akashwani. Further, every state capital had its own radio station. With passage of time, several district towns were allocated radio transmitters, which were used to transmit agricultural data, music, folk songs, news, discussions on topics of regional interests, movie songs and in some cases, stories of movies through their selected dialogues. Music broadcasts concentrated mainly on classical vocal and classical instrumental forms (of Indian music panorama);

The Sixties

In 1960, the number of licensed radio sets was 2.1 million. In 1971, there were 65 radio transmission centres m India, which sent signals to 12,8 million radio receivers. Later, the number cf such centres rose to 85 and the number of radio sets rose to 35.0 million.

Eventually, the Indian cricket team and hockey team started playing matches with other countries. These watches were covered live by the announcers of AIR. Thrill associated with listening to the proceedings of these matches was unequalled. And this new phenomenon led to sales of radio sets in large numbers.

The Indian audience could listen to movie songs on Radio Sri Lanka; it was also known as Radio Ceylon. The programmes recorded in India were sent to Sri Lanka. Biinaca Geetmala, a programme created and hosted by Amin Sayani, was a big hit. It was based on the songs of Hindi movies and was broadcast every Wednesday at 8 pm. The ranks of the songs included in this programme were decided by the sales of music cassettes and requests from the Radio Shrota Sangh.

Down Fall –

In 1995 there were 173 radio stations in India. These covered 97percent of In la s population and 89.6 per cent of her area. During the period starting from April, 1993 up to July, 1994, the AIR started new radio stations at Obra, Mercara, Bhawanipatna, Kavarati, Dharmshaia, Jailsalmer, Idukki, etc.

The advent of cable TV and a string of successful movies from Hollywood and Bollywood took die listeners away from their radio sets. The Vividh Bharti programmes remained successful and their reach was very high even during those troubled times. However, we must admit that interest of people in radio had declined during the last decade of the previous century. Tme, FM channels did attract the attention of the youth.


Radio is down but not out. In fact, it is alive and kicking. The FM wave has given it a new lease of life. Housewives, students, workers, and some executives are lending its full support due to its low – cost, convenience (the eyes are not engaged), ease of maintenance of the radio set and a variety of high-quality music and programmes. Today (in 2003), the AIR has 208 broadcasting stations that cover 90 per cent of the area and broadcast programmes for nearly 100 crore people of this vast country. It broadcasts programmes in 24 languages and 146 dialects.

Question 10.
Discuss Television as the most popular electronic media.
Early Experiments. Experiments in television broadcasting were initiated during the 1920s in the United States and Europe. These experiments used a mechanical scanning disc that did not scan a picture rapidly enough. In 1923, however, came the invention of the iconoscope, the electric television tube. The electronic camera and TV home receivers arrived in rapid succession during the next few years and by the 1930s the National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) had set up a TV station in New York, and BBC a TV station in London, offering regular telecast around the same time.

Impact of World War. The World War put a brake on further developments in television, though in Nazi Germany television was widely used as an instrument of political propaganda. Nazi Party conventions were televised, but the top event in the first chapter of German television history was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin which was staged as a gigantic propaganda show for the Third Reich.2 But by the late 1940s and early 1950s television had become a feature of life in most developed countries. In 1948, for instance, there were as many as 41 TV stations in the United states covering 23 cities through half a million receiving sets. Within a decade, the figure jumped to 533 stations and 55 million receivers. Canada, Japan and the European countries did not lag very far behind.

Satellite age. The age of satellite communication dawned in 1962 with the launching of Early Bird, the first communication satellite. The two big international satellite systems, Intelsat and Interputnik began operating in 1965 and 1971 respectively and from then on the progress was phenomenal. Today almost every country in the world has earth stations linked to satellites for transmission and reception. Communication satellites have literally transformed the reception. Communication satellites have literally transformed the modem world into what Marshall McLuhan, the Canadian media sociologist, liked to call ‘a global village’.

New Techniques. In the 1970s more sophisticated transmission techniques were invented employing optical fiber cable and computer-controlled network to carry two-way video information to and from households. The audio-visual cassette and the video tape recorder, closed circuit TV, and more recently cable television, pay-television and DTH (Direct-to-home) television have changed the course of the development of TV in new and unexpected ways. DTH and digital compression technology have enhanced the number of channels which can be accessed, as also the quality of picture and sound transmission.

Lopsided Growth. But this rapid growth has been rather lopsided. Most of the poor countries in Africa and Asia have still to possess their own domestic satellites or to provide an adequate number of production and transmission centres and receiving sets. The World Communications Year (1983), sponsored by the United Nations, sought to narrow this gap in technology hardware between the rich and poor countries, but, with, newer technologies of information and leisure (such as the Internet), this gap has indeed widened.

The Story of Indian Television. For more than a decade, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting managed to hold out against demands from educational institutions, industrialists, politicians and indeed the middle-classes in urban areas for the introduction of television. But then in 1959, Philips (India) made an offer to the Government of a transmitter at a reduced cost. Earlier, Philips demonstrated its use at an exhibition in New Delhi. The Government gave in, with the aim of employing it on an experimental basis ‘to train personnel, and partly to discover What TV could achieve in community development and formal education’. A UNESCO grant of $20,000 for the purchase of community receivers and a United States offer of some equipment proved much too tempting to resist, and on September 15, 1959, the Delhi Television Centre went on air.

Beginning. The range of the transmitter was forty kilometers round and about Delhi. Soon programmes began to beamed twice a week, each of 20 minutes’ duration. The audience comprised members of 180 ‘teleclubs’ which were provided sets free by UNESCO. The same organization concluded in a survey conducted two years later in 1961 that the ‘teleclub’ programmes had made ‘some impact’.

Entertainment and information programmes were introduced from August 1965 in addition to social education programmes for which purpose alone TV had been introduced in the capital. The Federal Republic of Germany helped in setting up a TV production studio.

Duration. By 1970, the duration of the service was increased to three hours, and included, besides news, information and entertainment programmes, two weekly programmes running to 20 minutes each for ‘teleclubs’, and another weekly programme of the same duration called ‘Krishi Darshan’ for farmers in 80 villages. ‘Krishi Darshan’ programmes began in January 1967 with the help of the Department of Atomic Energy, the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, the Delhi Administration and die State Governments of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The programmes could easily be picked up in these States, as the range of the transmitter was extended to 60 kilometers

Number. The number of TV sets (all imported) in 1970 stood at around 22,000 excluding the community sets. By the mid-seventies, however, Indian sets were in the market, and the number overshot the 100,000 mark in no time. By the early seventies the demand from the Indian cities, television manufacturers and the advertising industry as well as the Indira Gandhi Government’s popularity contributed to the decision to expand the medium nationwide. By the end of the decade there were more than 200,000 sets in Delhi and the neighbouring states. The Bombay centre was opened in 1972, and in the following year, TV centres began to operate in Srinagar, Amritsar and Pune (only a relay centre). In 1972, and Culcutta, Madras and Lucknow were put on the television map of the telecast at all the centres.

Separation. Another significant development during the same year was the separation of TV, from All India Radio. Television now became an independent media unit in the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, under the new banner – ‘Doordarshan’. Thus cut off from its parent body, hope were raised about improvement of the Quality and duration of its service.

In 1977, terrestrial transmitters were put up at Jaipur, Hyderabad, Raipur, Gulbarga, Sambhalpur and Muzaffarpur, to extend television coverage to a population of more than 100 million. For the first time in the history of Indian broadcasting, political parties shared equal radio and TV time with the ruling party for their election campaigns.

SITE. Meanwhile, the success of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) brought Indian international prestige; the country appeared ready for satellite television. NASA, ITU-UNDP, Ford Aerospace were major foreign actors in this success; the minor actors were General electric, Hughes Aircraft, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and representatives of Technology, and representatives of Western nations at the ITU’s World Administrative Radio Conference.

The INSAT series of domestic communications satellites and microwave cable networks have provided the country the infrastructure for a national satellite hook-up. However, as the table above shows, access is still limited, and as the Joshi Committee Report (1983) found, the development of indigenous software continues to serve the urban’elite in the main.

Impact of Asian Games. The Asian Games which were held in New Delhi in 1982 proved to give further impetus p the rapid expansion of the national television network. In the mid-1980s, a second channel was introduced first in New Delhi and Bombay, and later in the other metros; this second channel was to evolve into the popular Metro Entertainment Channel (or DD 2).

Soap Operas. With the success, of Hum Log and other soap operas like Buniyaad and Khandaan, Doordarshan’s revenue from advertising soared, and the sponsorship of indigenous soaps, sitcoms and other serials provided a spurt to production, sometimes taken up by the advertising agencies themselves (such as Lintas’ production of a popular detective serial, Karamchand).

The religious epics, the Mahabharat and the Ramayana, which followed the soap opera format, with a harking back to the magic of the early Indian cinema, proved to be phenomenal successes on the small screen. Advertisers discovered a new advertising medium and they gave it all their support. By 1987, over 40 serials had been produced; on average tw o were being screened each evening at prime-time; foreign serials were gradually edged out, and so were several prime-time talk shows, film-based programmes, and quiz programmes.

In 1987-88, Doordarshan’s revenue shot up to Rs. 136.3 million, and further rose to Rs. 256 million at the end of 1990, and to h whopping Rs.490 crores (Rs.4900 million) in 1997-98. At the close of the 1990s, there were 58 million television sets in the country, with around 15 million connected to neighbourhood cable networks.

Satellite Television. The satellite TV revolution in urban India was ushered in by five-star hotels in Bombay and Delhi which brought the ‘live’ coverage of the Gulf War to the small screen via the CNN (Cable News Network) of Atlanta, Georgia. STAR-TV (with four channels) was launched in 1991 when there were around 11,500 cable networks in the entire country. In Delhi alone, there were at the time around 45,000 households linked to cable TV: (STAR-TV added a fifth channel – the BBC World Service, on October 14, 1991). The number of cable networks increased steadily as it became clear that only a dish antenna would be necessary to transmit STAR- TV channels to basic cable-linked households. Around 78% of the cable households get STAR-TV programmes.

Effect. Satellite television has had some influence undoubtedly on the socio-cultural environment of the urban and rural groups that afford, access to the cable and satellite channels. The operas, sitcoms, talk shows and gan.e shows of the American British and Australian networks often deal with subjects that are of little relevance to Indian society; yet they are eminently watchabk. Zee TV’s shows are pale imitations of the American genres. The openness with which topics related to sex and violence are discussed or enacted, is passed in affluent societies; it is not so in most Eastern cultures. Constant exposure to ‘images’ and ideas from dominant and powerful cultures give rise to media and cultural imperialism.

Question 11.
Describe the development of Video Media in India.
Growth of Video business. Estimates of the number of videocassette recorders (VCRs) and videocassette players (VCPs) in India are hard to come by. Time was when flights to Singapore were known as ‘VCR Flights’. In 1984, India Today put the estimate at close to three lakhs (300,000) with an average rate of growth at 20,000 every month. A study by the Indian Institute of Mass Communications, New Delhi, in 1985 put the figure at around five lakhs (or half a million). Video advertising agencies claimed that there were many more. In mid 1987, a survey by Mode Services for Prime Time put the number at 1.8 million; Contrast Advertising believed, however, that the number of VCR sets did not exceed one million. In earl’s 1989, video companies claimed that the average figure for each film was 2 4 million viewers.

Video Boom. According to officials of the Film Federation of India, the video boom which followed the conclusion of the Asiad in 1982 in New Delhi, reached well over 400 towns in the country. The Study Team on Consumer Electronics reported in 1984 that 11 units in the organized sector and 60 units in the small scale sector have been granted licenses to manufacture 500 video¬cassette recorders each per annum. However, despite the further liberalization of imports of electronic items, and the entry of several multinational manufacturers, recorders continue to be priced far above international prices.

This gives a fillip to the illegal import and smuggling of sets. As regards video cameras, editing, duplicating and related technologies, the situation is very similar.

Access to Video. Video ownership is not the only means of access to video in India. Of the million or so viewers who watch video every day, the ’ majority club together to rent video-players, or go to video-parlours, video restaurants, video clubs, or watch video while travelling on ‘video buses’: It is estimated that a thousand video rental companies operate in each of the four metropolitan cities. In the other large cities, around a hundred to two hundred * rental companies/shops operate. Besides, over 50,000 video parlours do brisk business. Of the number of video restaurants, video clubs and video buses it is impossible to calculate even the approximate number. (Cable and satellite TV has however brought about a dramatic decline in the video business).

Mobile Theatre. The video has taken over the function of permanent and mobile cinema theatres. Paucity of exhibition, outlets has always been a major constraint on the expansion of the industry. By the mid-eighties, even remote areas in far-flung districts had access to video. In Madhya Pradesh, for instance, even tiny villages with a population less than 2,000 were equipped with videos. In the Chattisgarh region alone, 150 restaurants organize video shows regularly, with an admission fee of Rs. 5 per head.

The Vindhya and Malwa regions too have easy access to video. Restaurant owners in Punjab, Orissa, Karnataka, Kerala and even remote north-eastern states have cashed in on the video craze. There has been a let-up in the video boom of the mid-eighties because of the heavy hand of the law on video pirates. The whole video business even today is largely illegal as most tapes are transferred from film prints in a clandestine manner. Pirated cassettes reach India mainly from Dubai and Hong Kong. But Indian cinema producers and the NFDC (which has entered the video business in a big way) have banded together to have the Cinematograph Act amended to include films on videotape.

The amendment has made it illegal to screen films on video or cable without certification from the Central Board of Film Certification. Further, video parlours and video restaurants in some states are required to pay entertainment taxes. And frequent raids conducted by the police on video parlours that screen ‘blue’ films or pirated versions, have deterred many an owner of video-parlours. Whereas ’ earlier, cinema producers gave international video rights only to Esquire for distribution abroad, now they have began to offer video rights for domestic distribution as well. To counteract the video ‘menace’, producers frequently resort to ‘saturation releases’ in theatres, and later sell die rights to video companies at moderate prices. For example, Gold Video flooded the market with 90,000 video copies of ‘Shahenshah’ at a mere Rs. 135 each.

Video for Social and Political Education. Video is widely used in India at the time of regional and national elections to propagate the campaigns of political parties. For instance, during the 1984 national elections, Rajiv Gandhi’s speeches on videotapes were employed for electioneering: further over 500 copies of a 20-minute videotape of ‘Maa’ (on Indira Gandhi) were distributed. The opposition parties too exploited the new medium; over a hundred prints of a video film of the Tamilnadu Chief Minister, M.G. Ramachandran, undergoing treatment in a hospital in the United States, made the rounds in the South. The BJP, the Congress, and the Shiv Sena have used audio and video cassettes extensively for their political campaigns. ‘Video-raths’ (video vans) have now become a common sight at election time. In late 1993, the JAIN TV channel was launched to provide ‘infotainment’ a mix of entertainment and politics.

Video News magazines. Social service organizations like SEWA in Ahmedabad, and CENDIT in New Delhi are using the new medium for conscieniizing marginalized groups. Besides, news and film magazines such as India Today, Hindustan Times and Stardust got into the video distribution business during the late eighties and early nineties. India Today’s monthly Newstrack, Hindustan Times’ Eyewitness and Stardust’s Starbuzz, launched a new trend in ‘video news magazines’.

Other film video magazines ofthe time were: ‘Leheren’, ‘Chalte Chalte’, Eknath’, ‘Movie Magic’, ‘Sitaron Ki Duniye’, and ‘Bush Film Trax’. Sports week introduced the sports video magazine, ‘Sportstyle’. By late 1993, many of the video magazines had ceased production, owing to the explosion of cable and cross-border satellite channels on television. Some of the video news magazines like ‘Newstrack’ and ‘Eyewitness’ then managed to obtain slots on one of the many television channels.

Question 12.
Explain Film media with its merits and demerits.
The Origin of Cinema Film. The first musical film was invented by Dp Lee de Forest (USA) in 1923. The first demonstration of a music-based movie was given in New York on March 13, 1923. The first talking film was made by. Warner Brothers (USA) in 1926. The first talking film, Don Juan, was released in Warner Theatre in New York on August 5, 1926. Subsequently, Hollywood, a place in California, became the Mecca of cinema. Movies were also made in London: Documentaries were made by many directors. Many photographers also covered the Second World War amidst the bombshells and mortar fire. International was born in France on December 28, 1895. The first movie of the world was screened on this day in Grand Cafe. Only 30 persons turned up to watch’ this movie. Two persons, August^ Lumiere and Louis Lumiere, made this movie, which was aerode collection of some shots taken by novices.

Features Of Cinema

The following features of cinema are worth a careful consideration:

1. Combines Sound, Light and Action. Cinema is an audio-visual medium. It uses sound, light and action to convey various messages.

2. Flexible. It serves as a national, local or regional medium. However, the movie producer or advertiser reaches a mass audience after months or years. Selectee market niches can be; served through this versatile medium.

3. A Dream Realised. We may believe it or not but cinema is still our entertainment lifeline. It gives us pleasure and thrill. Raj Kapoor once said, “A film maker sells dreams.” He was, right. The Indian masses are struggling to make their ends meet (nearly 26 per cent of our masses live below the poverty line). They face challenges in business, families and social interactions.

Cinema relieves diem of tension. A theatre is a Utopian world for them sans tensions and stress. Cinema stars are demigods for the young and old alike. The audience forget their worries and enjoy 2.5-3.0 horns of movie under a heavenly bliss, literally.

4. Evaluation is Possible. Movie critics can inform about the quality, script, music, direction, and photography of movie much before the viewer make: a plan to watch it. Such critics get their reviews published in newspapers and magazines of repute. Examples: Bhavana Somayya is a popular movie critic. Somashukla Sinha Walunjkar is a popular feature writer of Hindustan Times who writes about latest movies, gossips and events related to Bollywood.

5. Ad World is a Small Money-spinner. Advertisers rely on the idiot box. Cinema slides and advertisements before start of a movie are popular, but they are not very much effective. TV is more effective than cinema because TV ads are more frequently watched, but people go to watch movies (and ads associated with them) only once a month.

6. Low Costs and Low Convenience to Viewers. Cinema audience have to go to theatres to watch movies. However, they do not have to pay for watching advertisements that are presented to them just before the movie starts.

7. Low Reach and Effectiveness Ratings through Theatres. In this context, TV advertisements have an edge over cinema advertisements and slides.

Ambience is the Key: In a theatre, the ambience of the premises helps effect sales. Nowadays, Priya Village Roadshow (PVR) and Wave Theatre are the new concepts in the field of cinema. The audience watch movies in four-star or five-star ambience: Hence, they become regular customers of these theatres just because these theatres offer them a high quality of living, albeit for short periods.

8. Facilita tes Entertainment Boom. Cinema is the driving engine of the entertainment revolution. Even TV depends upon it for survival and growth.

9. Entertainment is the Chief USP. It is obvious. However, the government also makes documentaries and other short-duration movies to educate and inform the masses on specific topics.

10. Information is Obsolete. Entertainment apart, cinema gives only stale scripts and stories. Most of the movies take 1 year to 2 years to make. Another three to six months are required to get the clearance of the Central Board of Film Censor. Therefore, we are watching a story or event that is at least two years old. In addition, the irony is that-we are told that it is a New Release.

Advantages Of Cinema –

The following advantages of cinema are worth mentioning:-

1. Low Costs to the Majority of Audience. The audience get information
and commercial messages at very low costs. In rural areas, costs of cinema tickets are low. The government waives entertainment tax on patriotic or socially relevant movies. This helps the theatre owner as well the viewers.

2. Entertainment is High-tech. Multimedia technologies have made it possible to create special effects. Example: Koi Mil Gaya. Colours, animations, sets, art, costumes of actors and actress, and foreign locales create a mesmerising effect on the minds of the masses. Thus, they remain hooked on to cinema. This helps the film industry. Popular USPs of Indian cinema are horror (Raaz, Darwaza), family problems, love (Dil, Maine Pyar Kr a, Bobby), business wars (Bazigar), patriotism (Kranti, Border), humour (Jaane Bhi Do Yaron), and fiction (Sholay, Road, Yalgaar). Science fiction is the latest chip on the block; its sole example is Roi Mil Gaya.

3. Regional Languages Get a Fillip. Regional cinema has many achievements to its credit. The cinema of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh is supported by fine actors, directors, script writers, and technicians. Their efforts help the masses identify’ themselves as specific language groups (like Kannada cinema audiences, for example) and support the activities of the film industry in that very language.

4. Changes Tastes and Preferences of the Audience. Cinema changes the buying habits, lifestyles and tastes of the viewers. It uses latest clothes, costumes, fashion tips, sets, locales, and techniques to do so.

5. Effects Societal Transformation. Over a period of 100 years, cinema has laughed and cried along with the audiences it has served. It has also changed their views; tastes, and preferences about the burning issues that were faced by our society from time of time.

It has tried to touch upon vital topics such as untouchability (Achhoot Kanya), crimes against women (Pratighaat), Sati, various dogmas (Godhuli), belief (Guide), Indian history (Razia Sultan, Taj Mahal, Mughal-e-Azam, Asoka) patriotism (Haqueeqat, Border, LOC: Kargil), women’s empowerment (Pakeezah, Chandni Bar, Damini), love of the youth (Bobby, Maine Pyar Kiya), war between clans (Rakh), the Mumbai underworld (Company, Satya), ecology and environment (various documentaries of the Films Division), exploitation of the rural folk (Mother India), exploitation of the Dalits and downtrodden (Bandit Queen), and many more. The masses pick up socially relevant messages quickly through cinema. If they are educated by learned scholars bn these issues, they ignore their sermons. Hence, cinema is a natural medium fox effecting societal transformation in a country like India.

5. Binds the Nation or Region. Hindi cinema binds the nation as a single entity. Regional cinema: unites the groups having the same race or language intact, irrespective of their family backgrounds and religions.

Disadvantages Of Cinema –

The following disadvantages of cinema are worth mentioning-

1. Health Hazard. It leads to eyestrain, backache, headache and thrombosis.

2. Creates the Dumb. Children watch movies almost every week, preferably in theatres. They do not play or study. Hence, they suffer in terms of health and academic record. They also become less creative because of the speeds of the audiovisual presentations and fixed formats of movies.

3. Develops Criminal Minds. Some children and youth are adversely affected by cinema. Many of them become thieves (Jugnoo), dacoits (Sholay), criminals (Apradh, Qurbani, Yalgaar), terrorists (Machis), rebellious lovers (Bobby), underworld dons (Company, Deewar, Satya, Parinda) or adventurists % (Bombay 405 Miles, Qayamat, China Gate, Kaante). No one adopts social values from cinema (Parichay, Ghar, Gharonda, Hum Aapke Hain Kaun, Khoobsurat). Further, no one learns such lessons as could transform die society in the long run (Chakra, Arth, Nishant, Junoon, Ardh Satya).

They imbibe the dirt (sex, sleaze, killings, violence, materialism, and fast life) first; there is no second ciiance for imbibing the pearls (socially relevant messages). No one likes to become a comedian (Beewi Number One, Auntie Number One, Chachi 420), However, everyone tries to imbibe the larger-than-life image of the hero or heroine that is portrayed in the movie he watches. Later, he or she tries to emulate that image. He or she wants to do some thing for which, he or she may be recognised, just like the hero or heroine of a particular movie. His-nr her actions and plans often land him or her in trouble!

4. Degrades Our Society, Violence, sex, declining moral values and materialism are portrayed without inhibitions in movies. Hence, people also become mean, Calculative and wily in their day-to-day operations. Despite the efforts of censor scissors, substandard movies are being screened all over India with ease. In addition, there are many takers of these movies in rural, urban, add suburban areas.

5. Media Ennui. We have discussed this concept in Chapter 2. Movies of India are’ based on a few major topics. These are family values (Hum Aapke Hain Kaun); love (Maine Pyar Kiya), patriotism (Border), humour (Beewi Number One)!, love rebellion (Bobby), premarital sex (Kya Kehna), love triangle (Silsilabhistoric sagas (Razui Sultan), science fiction (Koi Mil Gaya),? burning issues being faced by the society like dowry, crimes against women (Bandit Queen), Sati and women’s empowerment, police atrocities (Ardha Satya), fight Of a man for just Causes (Shoal), lost-and-found stories. (Amar. Akbar Anthony), Mumbai’s underworld (Company) etc.

The number of topics that can be solved the audience is limited. Hence, film produce is make movies on the same topics and fry to give twists to their scripts so that they could caD their creations a bit different from old ones. Thus, old wine is served in new bottles time and again. Hence, media ennui is generated in the minds of the audience. That is why, the years 2002,2003, ,2004 very bad for Bollywood. In 2004, only Khaki did good business.

6. Costs Are High in Hi-tech Theatres. In cities, the cost of a Balcony ticket in a theatre could be as high as Rs 150, thanks to the PVR revolution and Wave cinema. The youth are the most vulnerable targets of cinema. They cannot become heavy users of this medium though.

7. TV Has Penetrated Cinema’s Markets, TV entertainment is cheap. It is easily available. It can be enjoyed for 24 hours a day and for 365 days a year. Cinema straps the viewer to a seat in a dark cinema hall. He cannot do anything else. Housewives cook food even as they watch their favourite soap operas on TV, but they cannot do so when they watch a movie in a theatre. Convenience is the name of the game for many. Thus, cinema does not become a good companion of the audiences if we compare TV with it.

8. Only Entertainment: Read Point (G). Cinema only entertains but TV entertains, educates, informs, persuades, gives city information, and keeps us abreast of the latest happenings around the world through news and views. Cinema is highly entertainment-oriented. It cannot bring about deep-rooted societal transformation either. At the most, it can make people more pleasure-seeking nomads.

Question 13.
Account for the development of Indian Cinema.
Indian Cinema
Pioneers. One of the pioneers of the silent feature film in India was Dhundiraj Govind Phalke (alias Dadasaheb Phalke), a Bombay printer, painter and magician. It is reported that he was converted to cinematography when he saw the film, Life of Christ, at a Christmas cinema show. The idea of a similar full-length feature on the life of Lord Krishna took hold of him, and he made it his life’s ambition.

But financial stringency and the blatant unwillingness of women, even prostitutes, to act in his films; were crucial issues he would have to contend with through his long career as a film-maker. He broke ground in 1913 with Rajah Harischandra. So successful did it prove with audiences in all parts of the country (though it was hardly noticed by the English-language press) that Phalke went on to make more than a hundred films including short films and full length features. His most popular features were Savitri, Lanka Dahan, Sinhasta Mela, Krishna Janma, and Bhasmasur Mohini. The young man whom Phalke selected to play the women in his films was A, Salunke, a restaurant cook “with slender features and hands”.

Social Cinema. But the religious (or’ mythological’) genre held little appeal for some of the other film-makers of the ‘twenties and ‘thirties. D.G. Ganguly of Calcutta specialised in satirical comedies like England Returned (1921) and Barrister’s Wife, Chandulal Shah of Bombay in films dealing with social problems – Gun Sundari (English title: Why Husbands Go Astray), Typist Girl (1918), and Himansu Rai, sponsored by the Germans, made the brilliant films, The Light of Asia (1925), Shiraz (1926), A Throw of Dice (1929), and Karma (1934) which immortalized the actress Devika Rani.

South India. In South India, as in most other parts of the country (with …e exception perhaps of Kerala), the mythological genre held sway.

The foundation for a flourishing film industry in South India was laid by R. Nataraja Mudaliar, a businessman trained in cinematography in Poona. In 1917 he set up his cwn Indian Film Company and by 1923 had made six silent films – all based on mythological characters from the epics. The first was Keechaka Vadha (1917); the others included Draupadi (1919), Lava Kusha (1920), Markandaya (1922) and Mayil Ravana (1923). The films carried inter¬titles in English and Indian languages.

Silent Era. During the Silent Era (1896-1930) over a thousand films were made in India; however, only ten of them survive, now restored and preserved in the Pune archives. Meanwhile, American and European films continued to grow in popularity, though a major source of worry for the Imperial Government was that they would ‘corrupt’ Indian minds. In 1917, the European Association warned the Government against a film called The Serpentine Dance, which ‘was certainly calculated to bring the white men and women into low esteem in the Indian mind’.

The Coming of the ‘Talkies’, The films of the Silent Era did not ‘talk’ but they were never watched in ‘silence’. Dialogue was presented through inter-titles, which were often in English, and two or three Indian languages. Almost every film had a background score, which ran through the length of the film. The score was ‘live’, and helped to dramatise the narrative. Sometimes there was only a piano accompaniment, but there were several films where a violin, a harmonium, tables and other musical instruments could be added.

Talkies Era. The ‘Talkies Era’ was set in motion by The Melody of Love (1929), the first ‘talkie’ to be screened in India. The first Indian talkie A/am Ara (1931) directed by Ardeshir Irani, was released two years later. The premiere was a proud occasion at the Majestic theatre in Bombay, with the Governor as the chief guest. It included seven songs – so enchanted was the director with the novelty of sound! Indra Sabha, which was released the following year, had 70 songs. Though the novelty has long worn off, the enchantment remains to this day. No commercial film dare cutting out song- and-dance sequences altogether, except in rare cases such as B.R. Chopra’s Kannoon and K.A Abbas’ Munna (1954). Hindi films dominated right from the start: from 1931 to 1947, over 6,590 Hindi films were produced, while from 1947 to 1987, around 5,074 films were released.

The Studio System. With many new hands now needed for the production of films, which was gradually developing into a small industry, the “studio system” made its appearance in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. In Bombay, V. Shantaram and three others set up the Prabhat Film Co, and went on to roll out films at regular intervals. Shantaram himself directed most of the films. Among his outstanding films were: Ayodhyacha Raja (1932), Sant Tukaram (1936), Amur Jyoti (1936), Duniya Na Mane (the Marathi version was entitled Kunku), and Admi. The Prabhat Film Co. later moved to Pune on the site where the Film and Television Institute of India now stands.

Led by Himansu Rai, the Bombay Talkies (established in 1935) flourished as much as Prabhat, turning out three mythological films a year. The Imperial Film Co., another minor Bombay film venture, produced over seven features annually. Wadia Movietone, established by J .B.H. Wadia and his brother Homi, produced 130 films, with J.B.H. himself writing several of the screenplays. The credit for making the first railroad thriller shot on location (Toofan Mail, 1932) and the first film on Hindu-Muslim unity (Jai Bharat, 1936) must go to the Wadias.

Calcutta Studios. In Calcutta, the foremost Studio Company was the New Theatre Co., which under the baton of B.N. Sircar and Dhiren. Ganguli’ produced Chandidas (1932), Devdas (1936), and Mukti{1939). K.C. Barua’s Devdas, was made in Hindi and Bengali, and introduced audiences to Bimal Roy, the cameraman who was to go on to make his own films, notably die classic Do Bigha Zameen (1953), and also to the immortal voice of Kundalal Saiga!.

In South. Studios were opened in Madras, Salem and Coimbatore, but it was the Madras United Artists’ Corporation under the leadership of K. Subrahmanyam, that turned to film-making in Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam. The southern studios, just as the Madras Studios do today, produced films also in Hindi.

Decline of the Studio System: Enter the ‘Movie Stars. During the forties, however, the big companies lost their hold on the studio system. Shantaram left Prabhat in 1941 to make films under his own’ banner! So did Mehboob Khan and others. This gave rise to the ‘star system, the ‘formula’ film and the injection of ‘black’ money into the film world – three interrelated evils which have beset the Commercial cinema ever since. Shantaram with the help of the writer K.A. Abbas, made Journey of Dr. Kotnis, a war-effort film, Marti Ke Lai, and others.

Sohrab Modi’s films (notably Pukar) and Mehboob khan’s Mother India, Aurath, Sister, Rod were box-office draws. Gemini Studios’ Chandralekha was the greatest Tamil draw in the south, and later in the entire country when the Hindi version was released. Still later, an English version was distributed overseas. It was a spectacular song and dance extravaganza. Its music appeared to anticipate the ‘fusion’ of the post-MTV Hindi film such as Hum Aapke Main Kaun. ‘The songs are based on Carnatic, Hindusthani, Bharatnatyam, Latin American and Portuguese folk music, as well as the Stroass Waltz, each distinct and standing on its own, with barely any background score attempting to interlink anything, just periods of silence’. A significant event at the close of the forties was the starting of the Calcutta Film Society by Satyajit Ray.

Satyajit Ray. It was not until 1954, however, that Ray could ring up the curtain on his career as a film-director. He followed up his Apu Trilogy – Pother Panchati (1954), Aparajito (1957) and Apur Sansar (1959) – with such masterpieces as Jalsaghar (1958), Devi (1969), Teen Kanya (1961), Charulata (1964), Nayak (1966), Gupy Gyne Bagha Byne (1968), a fantasy musical, Aranyer Din Ratri (1970), Seemabadha (1971), Sonar Kella (1974), Ashani Sanket( 1973), Ghare Bhaire (1985), Ganasatru (1989), and Aguntak (1991). Shatranj Ke Khilari (1977) was Ray’s only Hindi feature. Ray’s documentaries include the moving Rabindranath Tagore, a one hour documentary narrated by Ray himself, and Sikkim (1980). “Ray’s work traces fire essential outline of the middle class in modem India. More importantly, it is an affirmation of faith in the human being,’’ says Chidananda Das Gupta, a film maker in his own right and author of several books on Indian cinema.

The Golden Age: Sohrab Modi, Raj Kapoor and Guru Dutt. During file fifties and sixties, Sohrab Modi and Mehboob Khan continued their film making ventures. But-with a difference – the films were all in colour. Modi’s Jhansi Ki Rani (1953) was India’s first colour feature; it flopped at the box- office. But they had now to compete with two other stalwarts in Indian cinema. The first was Raj Kapoor who began his career as a clapper-boy in Bombay Talkies; the second, Guru Dutt. Raj Kapoor acted in and directed his own ‘ films – Awara, Barsaat, Shri 420, Sangam, and Mera Naatn Joker. In the seventies he directed the phenomenal success Bobby, and later the controversial Satyam Shivam Sundaram, and Ram Teri Ganga Maili.

Guru Dutt excelled in delineating the tragic mood in films like Kagaz Ke Phool, Baazi, Pyaasa, and Sahib Bibi Aur Gulam. Kamal Amrohi’s studies of Uttar Pradesh’s elite, Mahal, Dawa and Pakeezah belonged to the same period.

Money Spinners. The two great money-spinners of the decade after independence were V. Shantaram’s Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje (1955) and Mehboob Khan’s Mother India (1957). Shantaram’s film had a record run of 104 weeks at a single cinema theatre in Bombay, It was basically a song-and- dance extravaganza in technicolor, featuring Sandhya and Gopikrishna. The colourful decor, costumes, locations and dances accompanied by lilting music gave the cue to Indian film-makers that a story could be dispensed with if such light entertainment were provided in full measure. Mother India, on the other hand, showed that a mother’ suffering and sacrifice could touch the hearts of millions in India.

Foreign Locations. The sixties saw Mughal-e-Azam “(I960) – a costume epic dependent on luxurious sets, dance and music sequences, and easy flowing Urdu dialogue for its success; It set the pace for films with a Moghul background. In 1961 Ganga Jamna introduced the figure of the wronged man turning into a dacoit as also the stock-characters of contemporary Hindi cinema two brothers, one a law-keeper, the other a law-breaker. Raj Kapoor’s Sangam (1964) started the trend of shooting on foreign locations, the necessity of a smooth camera technique and in terms of plot, made the friendship between two males (Yaarana) and their falling out over a woman as a result of circumstances, everlasting on the screen.

The Angry Young Men. The seventies began with Bobby (J 973) proving how big a draw the portrayal of young love on the Indian screen could be. But perhaps the greatest spectacular of post-independence cinema has been Shotay v (1975).14 Shot in 70 mm and moving at a rapid-fire pace, it glorified the stocky and lovable dacoit chief, Amjad Khan. For the next decade or so excessive violence became the norm of the mainstream Hindi cinema. Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) was in the same mode, and so was Muqaddar-ka- Sikanc’ar (1978). In the eighties the box office draw was disco – and music and dance sequences tied together with dollops of vendetta and romance. Feroz Khan’s Qurbani remained the price-setter for this genre.

Family Drama. But during the nineties, the family drama genre, with the usual ingredients of romance, song, dance and endless arguments about what it means to be ‘Indian’, promised to be the main attraction, despite the phenomenal growth of television channels. Sooraj Baijatya’s Hum Apke Hain Koun (‘Forever Yours’ in English, ‘Anbaalayam’ in Tamil) and Aditya Chopra’s Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge were runaway successes at the box office, helped along by savvy marketing strategies, and the strict monitoring of cable operators’ attempts to screen pirated versions; so were Yash Choora’s Dil To Paagal Hai, Pardes, Border and Rangeela.

Besides, David Dhawan’s wafer-thin comedies-cum-romances (Hero No.], Judwaa, Coolie No.l and Gharwali Baharwali) breathed new life into the ailing Bombay film industry. The decade was marked by a revival of the mainstream Hindi and Tamil cinema and the return of audiences to the big screen.

The Films of the ‘New Wave’. What is termed the ‘New Wave’ in the history of Indian cinema is not the’ nouvelle vogue’ of French cinema with which Bresson, Godard and other experimental filmmakers were associated in the fifties and sixties. In the Indian context, the terms are rather loosely used to describe the deliberately realist and non-commercial style of film making that sometimes experiments with form and content.

Its roots are in IPTA theatre, the realist novel, and European cinema (especially Russian, French and Italian). It eschews the escapist Hollywood and the Bombay film traditions, and is concerned more with real-life issues of Indian society than with just entertainment. Other terms used to talk about this cinema are ‘alternative’, ‘parallel’, and even ‘another’ cinema.

Film Finance Corporation. The establishment of the Film Finance Corporation (FFC) in I960-raised the expectations of serious film-makers though they were wary of the terms of the loans provided by it. The FFC began in a business-like manner giving loans only to established filmmakers. But from 1968 onwards, low-budget ventures by young filmmakers too began to be granted loans.

The Middle Cinema. Hindi cinema, dominated in the 1970s by the Sippys, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, B.R. Ishara and Vijay Anand, was jolted out of its wits when Shyam Benegal assisted by Blaze Enterprises, shot into prominence with Ankur (1974), and later with Nishant (1975), Manthan, Bhumika (1977), Kondura (1977) and Junoon (1979). Benegal turned his back on the stand; rd Kalyug and Aaradhana (1981) genre, injecting a dose of Caste-politics into his first three films. He was closely associated with the making of Govind Nihalani’s Aakrosh (1980), a political film about the exploitation of illiterate Adivasis. Ardh Satya (1984), Party (an expose of the upper middle class), and his TV serial on the partition of India, Tamas, have been significant successes.

Socio-political Films. While the films of Mrinal Sen, Mani Kaul and Kumar Shahani did not fare very well at the box office, those of the ‘middle cinema’ reaped a good harvest. Saeed Mirza’s Albert Pinto Ko Gussa Kyon Aata Hai, Mohan Joshi Hazir Ho, and Salim Langde Pe Mat Ro, Rabindra Dhannaraj’s Chakra, arid Ketan Mehta’s Bhavni Bhavai (in Gujarati and Hindi), Mirch Masala, and later Maya Memsahib, and Sardar, started a trend in the making of socially conscious and political films which were entertaining as well.

Both the New Wave and the Middle Cinema wilted under the impact of multi-channel television, ‘commercial cinema’, the commercialization of the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC), and above all the – abysmal lack of exhibition outlets. The gradual decline of the Film Society movement too had a role in the fading away of‘parallel cinema’.

The Second New Wave. As the century drew to a close, there was a revival of the New Wave spirit, with some assistance from the NFDC, Doordarshan, overseas TV companies such as Channel Four of Britain, and private financiers. Some termed this revival the ‘Second New Wave’, even though most of the film makers involved in the revival were also part of the first New Wave i.e. Mani Kaul (Nazar, The Idiot, Siddeshwari), Shyam Benegal v (The Making of the Mahatma, Mammo, Suraj ka Saatvan Ghoda etc.

Question 14.
Describe the various computer based techniques of mass media.
Computer Based Techniques
Information Technologies. Prior to liberalisation of the Computer industries, the Indian government’s policy was on ‘self-reliance through import substitution’. The setting up of the Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL) and the Computer Maintenance Corporation (CMC) under the public sector signalled this policy, as much as the side-lining of the multinational IBM.

Liberalisation by the Rajiv Gandhi government in the mid-1980s and by the Narsimha Rao government in the early 1990s gave a fillip to joint ventures: with multinational companies.

Import duties for hardware and software were slashed and incentives offered for private investment in the industry. Over forty multinational 1 companies such as Texas Instruments, Motorola, Honeywell, IBM, Digital,

Hewlett-Packard and Microsoft have set up operations in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Gandhinagar, Pune, and other cities, primarily for exporting software. Indian software exports are tied to the Unites States market which accounts for up to 58% pf export destinations, with Europe at 20%.2 India’s total computer software exports in 1997-98 was US$1,743 million, an increase of 50% over the previous year, and is expected to cross US$2,500 million in 1998-99. Computer software is thus one of the largest foreign exchange earners for India. India’s share of the global software business is 16.7% for customised software, but only .05% of the product and package market.

Education and Training. A second area of impressive growth has been in the education and training sector. Indian software education is also an export i item: the National Institute of Information Technology (NUT), its leading institution, is an exporter of educational software and provides courses through offices in Southeast Asian capitals’. National institutes offering advanced training in computers number 1,675, training of 55,000 professionals every year. Around a hundred doctorates in’” computer science and over 2000 M.Techs. and 14,060 B.Techs. besides 2,250 M.Scs and 2600 B.Scs, and 16,200 diploma graduates are trained every year.

The Information Revolution. How did the Information Revolution differ from the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century? The Industrial Revolution ushered in the factory system at the hub of which was the division of labour.

Mass production of goods and their mass distribution in the markets of the world were the driving forces. Both depended on massive labour recruitment. This was the origin of the need for the mass media, which would promote the mass-produced goods to potential customers in cities and villages. The manufacturing industries were labour-intensive, while the new service industries were capital intensive, new modes of energy like steam, gas and electricity, the railways, the automobile and the aircraft.

Information Society. The concept of ‘information society’ gained widespread currency in the 1970s and 1980s to explain the social, economic and technological changes that were taking place during those decades in advanced industrialised societies. The social changes included the entry of entertainment media and computers in the home, and the growth of telecommuting, that is working from home. The divisions between home and the factory or office were breaking down. The main work telecommuters did was gathering, processing and storing information with the help of personal computers.

Economy. Where the economy was concerned, more workers were involved with information-related industries (travel, tourism, hospitality, banking, insurance) than the production of commodities for a mass consumer market. This was because such production had been moved to developing countries where low-paid labour was easily available. Later, this was known by the euphemism, ‘outsourcing’. Industrialised economies were therefore gradually turning into ‘information economies’; they were non- polluting; were capital-intensive, and were oriented to ‘service’ rather than ‘production’.

Technological Changes. But it was the technological changes that made the new kind of social changes and economic changes possible. The innovations in information and communication technologies brought about by the integration’ of telecommunications, mass media and computing, promised greater flexibility, greater efficiency and lower costs.

In sum, these societies were on the way to becoming information centred societies. Their primary resource was information of all kinds rather than production of consumer goods. Some sociologists believed that an ‘ information revolution’ was taking place, a complete break from the ‘industrial revolution’ of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Post-Industrial Society. The Japanese writer, Yoneji Masuda, pioneered the use of the term ‘information society’ to describe a society which would eventually ‘move to the point at which the production of information values became the formative force for the development of society’. Daniel Bell, the American sociologist, and author of ‘The Coming of Post-Industrial Society ’, preferred the term ‘post-industrial society’ to describe the same socio-economic process, and Alvin Toffler and John Naisbett, authors of ‘Future Shock’ and ‘Megatrends’ respectively, popularized the concept of ‘information society’.

However, the information that has been transformed into a resource and a commodity is technology-mediated, most of it in digital form. Since different countries are at different stages of the adoption of information technologies, we have several ‘information societies’ rather than only one type. Indeed, every society is in a sense an information society, for information and communication is what holds it together, despite its many diversities and rivalries.

An alternative view suggests that the information society is a continuation of the industrial society rather than a revolutionary break from it, as consumer-oriented free-tr arket capitalism is still at its heart. Others like Martin (1995) would rathe label it a ‘broadband society’ since it is telecommunications (rather than computers and the media) which has become the true catalyst for change. Vincent Mosco of Canada has opted for the more vivid term, the ‘pay-per society’?

The Information Superhighway. This image or metaphor for a wired, universe interlinked by networks of computers was popularised by A1 Gore, the Vice President of the United States, in the early 1990s. The information highway is an electronic network that connects libraries, corporations, 1 government departments and individuals.

Network. The information superhighway can be defined as ‘an information and communication technology network, which delivers all kinds of electronic services – audio, video, text, and data – to households and j business’. It is usually assumed that the network will allow for two-way communication, which can deliver ‘narrow-band’ services like telephone calls as well as ‘broadband’ capabilities such as video-on-demand, teleshopping, and other ‘interactive TV’ multi-media applications. Services on the superhighway can be one-to-one (telephones, electronic mail, fax, etc ); one- to-many (broadcasting, interactive TV, videoconferencing, etc.); or many-to- many (bullet in boards and forums on the Internet)?

Internet. The example of the ‘Information Superhighway’ is the Internet, which had its roots in the need daring the mid-1960s for linking military computer researchers in the United States. The United States Defense Department established a computer network that permitted military contractors and universities involved in military research to exchange information. This was the origin of Arpanet, the network of the Pentagon’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA). In 1975, Arpanet which had grown from four to about one hundred nodes was handed over to the Defense Communication Agency.

Meanwhile, in the 1980s, the National Science Foundation developed its own academic networks (NSFNET), providing researchers access to supercomputers at Cornell. Illinois, Pittsburg and San Diego. It comprised high capacity telephone lines, microwave relay systems, lasers, fiber optics and satellites. The NSF network became a backbone connecting several other networks of educational agencies, government agencies and research organisations. The cost of the backbone was borne by NSF, with members funding cost of their local networks including cost of outsiders who enter the system.

Network of Networks. By 1990, NSFNET had replaced Arpanet This later developed ;nto the INTERNET, a network of networks. Up to this time, access to the networks was ‘universal’ and free in academic and research institutions. In 1992, NERN or the National Education and Research Network, or ‘enhanced Internet’ permitted the exchange of mote and lengthier material, even full-motion video. Doctors could send x-rays and cat-scans to faraway colleagues in other countries, students could access the Library of Congress, and have whole books transmitted to them, and farmers and weather pundits , could receive maps from satellite phones.

ERNET. The Department of Science and technology (India) established the ERNET in India, serving to link the Institutes of science and technology across the nation. Later, the universities and other teaching and research institutes too were linked together. Other networks the government of India ‘ established included NICNET (for administration and planning), Indonet (for access to specialized information through satellite communication), and Railnet (for the Indian Railways’ ticketing, scheduling and planning activities).

Commercialisation through Web. Commercialisation of the networks began when the Internet was opened up to private service providers like Prodigy, Delphi, Genie, America Online (AOL), and CompuServe.

The World Wide Web was devel ped at the European Centre for Particle Research in 1989, but took off only in 1993 when software developed at the University of Illinois, and subsequently elsewhere, created ‘browsers’ and graphical interfaces making the search and interrogation of ‘pages’ on the WWW possible. Hundreds of ‘sites’ were placed on the Web, but the number of commercial (.com) sites soon outnumbered the education (.edu), government (.gov) and organisation (.org) domain names.

Newspapers, magazines, radio, television and cable channels from around the world set up their own websites, offering news services, headline news, accompanied with colourful graphics. The services were offered tree to begin with, but gradually most of the services were restricted to ‘subscribers’. By mid-1998, most major Indian newspapers, magazines, publishing houses, political parties, commercial firms, banks, etc. had their own sites; so did most State governments. All India Radio, Doordarshan, police departments, municipalities and non-government organisations. However, one could not wade through the cornucopia of information on offer without encountering ‘banner’ advertisements on almost every home page.

The information offered was replete with propaganda and hype. Surfing the net often turned into an irritating experience, especially with the frequent breaks in power supply and the monopolistic service provider VSNL’s tendency to let the sites ‘hang’ intermittently. The accessing of e¬mail too has turned into a nightmare: one cannot read one’s mail without having to leap over ‘junk mail” (also termed “spam’ or unsolicited mail). Entertainment rather than information is the primary motivation for accessing the Net; games, pornography and sex chat lines and cross-nationai prostitution have proved extremely popular in the United States and elsewhere. The lack of control over the Net has led to the development of ‘blocking” software (such as Net Nanny and Surf Watch) to protect children and young people from obscenity and pornography on the Net.

E-Commerce. Advertising and commercial interests have taken over the Internet, and e-commerce is on the upswing. Perhaps one Of the greatest success-stories has been the ‘virtual’ bookstore, Amazon.com. It has no physical bookstore any where in the world, but has more titles for sale than any other, with offers of up to 40% discount on its titles. Orders are placed online and payment too can be made online using one’s credit card. The marketing of other products too, especially computer software programmes, browsers, computer games and CD-ROMs has caught on.

Once security of payment is assured through introduction of encryption technology, the Web is bound to be transformed into the largest cross-national shopping mall in the world. The Internet has already been turned into the latest medium for advertising, marketing and public relations. Free e-mail facilities offered by Hotmail, Yahoo, Altavista, India Site and other search engines are not free at all: ads clutter their home pages, and unsolicited direct mail (termed ‘spam’) has to be tolerated.

Positive Benefits. However, the numerous positive benefits of the Internet must not be overlooked. It has helped to network non-Government organisations in India and across the world, social action groups fighting for humau rights, the environment, and AIDS awareness in different continents. Communities like the overseas Chinese, nonresident Indians, and groups with similar interests have come together to form ‘electronic communities’. The Internet has thus become a force for lobbying with authorities on various issues at local, national and international levels.

Question 15.
Write a note on external communication or outdoor publicity.
External Mass-Communication
Kind of outdoor publicity or external mass communication are as under. They are applied in both fields i.e., business or social cause.

Radio And T.V : Advertising –

1. Radio Advertising. Advertisements are broadcast from radio transmitting stations on radios. These advertisements or commercials are broadcast along with popular programmes or sponsored programme.

Merits, (i) It carries an effective appeal and cover millions of listeners of different tastes, (ii) Radio advertisement may be understood even by illiterate people, (iii)It has toe quality of selectivity. The advertisement may be repeated or abandoned at any time, (iv) It is the best media for man scale consumer articles.

Demerits, (i) Detailed message cannot be broadcast, (ii) It is non visual hence, message cannot be illustrated in action.

Television Advertising. It is the latest and fast, growing media of advertisement because of huge expansion of electronic media. It is an audio-visual media, therefore, message can be demonstrated as well as explained Advertisement may take short commercial form or sponsored programme. The message conveyed through T.V. has wide impact on the viewers. It is more effective advertisement. It is a very costly but mot effective medium of advertising.

2. Miscellaneous Advertising-(a) Audiovisual, (i) Film advertising, (ii) Documentary film, (iii) Straight advertising films, and (iv) Sponsored advertising films. AH these have their own merits. Their coverage is very wide. Appeal is made to all sections of the people. They are able to explain and demonstrate the use of product which make the product more appealing and, acceptable.

These audio-visual methods have their own limitations. The production cost of a film is very high. Sometimes there are restrictions against screening of films, e.g., there is censoring. A film can be shown only to the people who came to the theatre. Thus large section of people are outside he scope of such ad vertising. Besides, for screening films cooperation of theatres is inevitable. Crowding of such advertisement films, which is .very common now, makes the audience feel board.

Screen slides. Slides covering advertisements are usual today. They are shown in almost all the picture houses during the show. Radio advertising, television, exhibitions also offer good media of advertising.

(b) Point of Purchase Advertising. This is a direct method because the advertising process is either undertaken by the manufacturer direct or through the dealer. There are various forms commonly known as ‘store display’. It is also a powerful medium. It is observed that the point of purchase is the exact point where the prospects are reminded finally about the product. The various means adopted are:

(i) Window Display. The articles are displayed inside.a glass window which is decorated attractively at the shopfronts or at important busy centres like railway stations and bus stops. The price of the product is also attached to the product. This is done through price tags. ‘Come and have if is maxim behind this method of advertising. Retailers organise these displays in the windows of their shops. The main object of window display is to attract the attention of the customers, and arouse their, interest. Almost all the manufacturers insist the retailers to display their product in their shops.

(ii) Counter Display. Products are displayed inside the shop. The attention
of the real buyers who step into’ the shop is directed towards the articles displayed ‘

(iii) Special Displays and Shows. Putting special displays of several products in selected stores is a good promotional device.

(iv) Show Rooms. In case of certain products, personal inspection is an important prereqhisite.. Mixers, washing machines, etc. are always purchased only after a close look at the product. This is the reason why manufacturers keep showrooms at a huge expenditure. The location of the show room is very important. It should be easily accessible.

(v) Exhibitions and fairs.

(c) Speciality Advertising. It is usual practice of the manufacturers provide various articles of low value such as diaries, calendars, ball pens, cigarette cases, paper weights, etc. bearing brief advertisement. Free of cost to the .‘existing and prospective customers. The name and address of the advertisers is given or inscribed in the speciality item

Question 16.
What is crowd? How crowds are formed?
Crowd Behaviour And Crowd Mentality
What is crowd. Our valued readers must have used this word quite often. They are almost right in visualis’ng that a large number of people moving at a cross-roads can be called Crowd. It is a conglomeration of more than: 20 persons who may or may not have come together to achieve a purpose.

There are four types of crowds, as follows:

1. Casual Crowd. It is the street crowd. It has a loose organisation structure or perhaps no structure at all. It has no sense of unity. Its members may come and go. The crowd gives temporary attention to the object. It is a feeble association of individuals. Example: People in a garden, walkers on a footpath, and TV viewers outside a TV showroom.

2. Conventionalised Crowd. Its behaviour is the same as that of the casual crowd. However, its behaviour is expressed in established and regularised ways. Examples: Spectators of a cricket match in a stadium.

3. Acting Crowd. It is the aggressive crowd, which has revolutionary features. It is also called Mob. It has an objective to achieve. It is directed towards that objective. It can turn = violent too. It can hurt its members through its implacable, violent, and anti-establishment actions. Example: Students burning the public transport buses on the roads of a metropolis. Expressive Crowd: It is chiefly religious in nature, though we do not rule out its other forms. Its excitement is expressed in its physical movements. Its movement is only a form of release of emotions of its members. However, it does not have an objective to strive for. Example: A religious procession.

How Crows are formed ? Herbert Blumer opines that a crowd is a slightly large group but is restricted within some observable boundaries in a particular space. It is temporary. It rarely forms again with the same, composition. It may have a high degree of identity. It my share the same mood. However, it does not have a structure or an order to its moral or social composition. It does act at times but its actions are emotional in most of the cases. These actions could also be irrational many times. Example: On December 13,20C3, Saddam Hussein was captured by the IJS-led forces near Tikrit (Iraq). On December 17, 2003, the residents of Mosul (Iraq) started a peaceful march to protest against die capture of Saddam Hussein. The crowd turned into a mob American marines as well as the Iraqi police had to fire at the mob. Three persons were killed as a consequence of reprisal by the armed forces. You cannot communicate with mob; you can either move away from it or control it through coercive measures.

It is a four-step process as follows-

1. Stage I. There is occurrence of an exciting event. This event catches the attention of people and generates interest in their minds.

2. Stage II. This is the milling stage. The individuals, who arc aroused by the event, get tense. They talk to one another. This leads to generation of more excitement. A common mood is communicated due to the milling, effect; excitement is conveyed to a large number of people and in turn, it is increased.

The intensity of the common mood increases because after the milling effect, a common consensus point emerges, albeit slowly. Individuals become responsive to one another. They are disposed to act together as a one collective whole.

3. Stage HI. This stage is crucial one. There is the emergence of a common object of attention on which, impulses, feelings, and imagery of people are focused. This common object is the exciting event. However, more -frequently, it is the image which has been built up and formed through talking and acting of people as they mill (Stage II). Having defined the objective, the crowd is ready to act with- unity and for a purpose.

4. Stage IV. In the final stage, stimulation, and fostering of impulses is seen. These impulses correspond to the objective of the crowd up top the point when the crowd is ready to act on them. Crystalisation of impulses is an outcome of inter-estimation that takes place in Stage II (milling) and in response to leadership. It occurs primarily because of images that are aroused through the process of suggestion and imitation. It is reinforced through mutual acceptance. When the members of a crowd have a common impulse oriented toward a field image and supported by an intense collective feeling, they are ready to act in an aggressive manner. This is the behaviour of a mob or an acting crowd.

Question 17.
What is Mass? How is Mass Audience formed? What is public opinion?
Mass And Public
The ‘Mass’ Audience. The large number of members who are supposed to make up ‘the mass’ come from all walks of life. They are, therefore, a heterogeneous group or groups with little interaction among themselves. If they are organised at all, the organisations are loose and flexible. Further, the members comprising ‘the mass’ are anonymous not only to each other, but to the communicator himself. They are united only by the medium and the message. It is in other words, a ‘mass media audience’-yet another indefinite concept in the infant discipline of mass communication.

A ‘mass audience’ is larger than an audience for a lecture, or for a musical or theatrical performance. But what about a ‘mass meeting’ or a ‘mass rally’ addressed by apolitical leader in Bombay or Delhi? The term ‘mass’, therefore, lacks precision in meaning and becomes intelligible only when used in a specific context and related to certain kinds of behaviour, institution or structure. It is in fact an elastic epithet devoid of any precise scientific content and more likely to reveal the point of view of the person using it, than to clarify the phenomenon in question.

A ‘mass’ audienceis, consequently, a very large (another imprecise word!) audience that is the creation of the modem electronic mass media. It is the result of a new technology that is directed at mass production and wide dissemination of communication. Tne exact size of audience or readership which gives rise to mass communication cannot be specified, but it must be large relative to audiences for other means of communication such as a lecture
or play, and large in relation to the number of communicators.

Nature of a ‘Mass’ Audience. Indeed, this audience is a collectivity unknown prior to the age of electronics. It is as McQuail writes, ‘an aggregate of individuals united by a common focus of interest, engaging in an identical form of behaviour and open to activation towards common ends; yet the individuals involved are unknown to each other, have only a restricted amount ‘ of interaction, do not orient their actions to each other and are only loosely organised or lacking in organisation. The composition of the audience is continually shifting; it has no leadership or feelings of identity’.

Such ‘very large national mass media audiences’ exist in the countries of * the developed world, but have yet to take shape in developing countries like
India. What we do have, however, are ‘local audiences’ which are largely urban in character, and which function as social groups, the small groups within the amorphous larger groups directly influencing the interactions with the mass media.

The ‘local audiences’ in India have a dynamic of their own. The pulls and pressures of the family, the caste, religion, community, language, and – profession are much stronger than any power of the mass media to institute a new way of thinking or a new way of life, except perhaps at a superficial level.

The expectation of great persuasive power, says McQuail, from the new media has been largely misplaced. The fault lies partly in a failure to appreciate that the selection of communication content by whatever means disseminated, and its significance to the audience, will both be governed by ilisting mechanisms of social control, and partly in a tendency to regard the audience member as isolated and abstracted from his social environment. From the first of these stems a false assumption of discontinuity and novelty of and from the second a misleading conception of the vulnerability of the idividual to mass persuasion.

People pursue them relentlessly. In general, however, ‘public . pinion’ is a belief or View prevalent among a large number of interest groups (or at least their leaders) that comprise a public. It is not necessarily representative of all the people, nor is it a unanimous opinion. It is not as the ancient Romans would say vox populi, the voice of the people.

The extent to which it is – representative differs from issue to issue. It will depend on a number of factors,
such as the cultural levels of the various groups and the methods habitually adopted by their members for resolving intra-group and inter-group disputes, the facilities available to them for forming and articulating a balanced judgement on the question at issue, the degree to which the interests affected are mutually compatible and the depths of emotion at which they are felt as vital by the groups concerned; and above all, the measure of confidence that the people have in the administration’s responsiveness to public opinion expressed in a variety of ways.

Nature of Public Opinion. Since public opinion is always shifting, inconsistent and often contradictory, Shah concludes that’ generally, public opinion is likely to be a bundle of disparate, often conflicting, opinions rather than a unanimous or near unanimous judgement offered by the body of citizens for the guidance of the government.

Only on rare occasions will it appear as the voice of the people, either because the issue is of transparent simplicity and cuts across sectional interests, or because it touches certain deep-seated emotions of a large majority of the people affected by it.’ For instance, public opinion in India favoured the government’s support of the liberation struggle of Bangladesh, but opposed the clamping of the’ emergency’. But it is divided over whether India should go in for nuclear power plants and for defence ballistic missiles like ‘Agni’ and ‘Prithvi’, and even whether the Pokhran-II tests were necessary.

The ‘Two-step flow’ of Information. The mass media play an important role in the formation of public opinion on various issues. However, the messages conveyed.

The Public and Public Opinion. A public is a dispersed group of people interested in and divided about an issue, engaged in discussion of the issue, with a view-to registering a collective opinion which is expected to affect the course of action of some group or individual. Or, as Kuppuswamy defines, a spontaneous collection of people in response to a certain kind of situation.

What unites the members of a public is an issue or controversy, not their togetherness, either physical or intellectual. Indeed, the members may hold different views on an issue, belong to as many publics as they like, and be involved only slightly in an issue. Further, a ‘public’ has no fixed size, and no fixed place where its members gather. The ‘spontaneous collection’ is largely intellectual and takes place now through the mass media. Divided though its members be, the movement of the public is in the direction of a collective decision but always through discussion in various forums. It is goal oriented, wanting to take society along with its collective view, or what is properly called‘ public opinion’.

A public, however, is not one composite group, but a number of interest groups, often working at odds with one another. The large majority of the groups are indifferent, disinterested and detached unless the issue at stake radically affects their way of life. Shopkeepers, for example, will generally remain uninvolved in the affairs of state, but when a legislation. On hoarding of essential commodities or on Octroi is passed, they will assert their strength through a ‘bandh’ call. Students are up in arms when college or examination fees are raised. The small interest groups, therefore, aim at promoting then- own causes by mobilizing the public in their favour. The better organised they are, the greater is the pressure they bring to bear on the public, and on ‘public opinion’

Public Opinion. ‘There are few political fantasies as enduring as that labelled public opinion’, but journalists pollsters, politicians and marketing by the media are invariably mediated by the opinion leaders of groups. As Katz and Lazarsf eld put it, ‘ ideas seem to flow from radio and print to opinion leaders and from them to the less active sections of the population’. Village level workers or the Panchayat leaders are, for instance, opinion leaders in rural areas, and heads of committees and associations, the opinion leaders in the urban areas. It is they who interpret the messages of the media for their groups.

But opinion leaders are usually leaders in one content area, and not in another. For example, in the matter of adopting new agricultural techniques the village level worker (VLW) may be the leader, while in political affairs, the Panchayat head may be the opinion leader. It needs to be noted, however, that the ‘two-step flow’ of information does not ensure that the required information reaches the people most in need. Opinion leaders are very selective in the kind of information they pass down to peasants and workers. Indeed, mass media use is a group activity involving family, friends and the local community – not an isolated, individual activity.

Mass Media and Public Opinion Our selection and ‘reading’ of components/items of the various media is influenced by the social and cultural groups we belong to.

The way we see and hear and interpret programmes too depends upon the same sections. In other words, the culture, language, religion, caste and other groups we are members of provide us the frame of reference for interacting with the mass media. Thus public opinion is formed only indirectly by the mass media, and by information from other sources like rumours, street propaganda and of course, our own interests. By themselves alone the mass media have little power in forming public opinion. Besides, it needs to be noted that the mass media are not always engaged in attempts to mould public opinion, but more often than not, in trying to meet public need and/or to sell consumer goods and services. For commercial broadcasters, for instance, the primary aim is to ‘deliver’ audiences to advertisers.

Responsibility of Public. In the sphere of mass communication, the public can, and often does, call the tune. Indeed, it is the responsibility of the listening, viewing, and reading public to make its opinions known to the media on reports , or programmes offensive to its culture and values. Campaigns by women’s » organizations have, for instance, forced companies to withdraw obscene advertisements. Letters to editors and media directors too do have an impact.

A strong public opinion does shape the character of the mass media for better or for worse. It is the responsibility of the public to see that the pressures v brought to bear on the media are for the better. An indifferent, discriminating public will get what it deserves – reporting and programming of indifferent quality. Peggy Charren’s movement Action for Children’s Television (ACT) paid off after years of public mobilisation: every American television channel is now required to allocate at least ten per cent of the total broadcast time to children’s programmes.

Agenda Setting. The hypothesis of this socialisation and learning theory is that ‘the mass media by paying attention to some issues and overlooking others will affect public opinion: people will tend to know about those things dealt with by die mass media and adopt the order of priority set by media’. The term ‘agenda setting’ itself was coined by Malcolm McCombs and Donald Shaw in 1976. They went on to argue that ‘audiences not only leam about public issues and other matters through the media; they also learn how much importance to attach to an issue or topic from the emphasis the mass media place upon it.’

For example, in reflecting what candidates are saying during an election campaign, the mass media set the agenda of the campaign. This ability to affect cognitive change among individuals is one of the most important aspects of mass communication.’ These are claims for the media which are difficult to verify. It is true that the media prioritise the news in terms of headlines and placement of stories. But it is equally true that people pay greater attention to stories of personal interest to them and their groups. Indeed, it would be nearer the truth to say that the media more often than not ‘reflect’ rather than ‘set’ the agenda.

Individuals, groups, institutions, political parties and governments – all have their own agenda, and they lobby hard to set the media’s agenda through press conferences, press releases, press visits, sponsorships, advertisements, gifts and other means. The major sources of news for the media are influential elites of society, and they (together with the media proprietors’ interests) usually set the agenda for what the media highlight and underplay. It must be conceded, however, that there are sections of the media which play a marvellous ‘watchdog’ role; truth to sell, there are other sections that play the ‘lapdog’ role with no concer’. at all for their audience’s information needs.

Question 18.
What do you understand by advertising? Discuss its objectives and functions.
Advertising-Meaning, Objects And Function
Advertisement is nothing but a paid form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor with a view to disseminate information concerning an idea, product or service.

The message which is presented or disseminated is called advertisement. In the present day marketing, advertisement has become an inseparable part of the business marketing activities. Hardly is there any business in the modem world which does not advertise. However, the form of advertisement differs – from business to business. This is also applicable to social field;

“Advertising is causing to know, to remember, to do. ” -Wood

“Advertising is any form ofpaid nonpersonal presentation of ideas, goods or services for the purpose of inducing people to buy.” -Weeler

“Advertising is a paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.” -Richard Buskirk

“Advertising consists of all the activities involved in presenting to a group, a non-personal, oral or visual, openly-sponsored message regarding a product, services o* idea, this message is called an advertisement, is disseminated rough one or more media and is paid for by an identified sponsor.”
-William J. Stanton

The above definitions clearly reveal the nature of advertisement. This is a powerful element of the promotion mix. Essentially advertising means spreading of, information about the characteristics of the product to the prospective customers with a view to sell the product or increase the sale volume.

The main features of advertise are as under-

(i) It is directed towards increasing the sales of business; (ii) Advertising is a paid form of publicity; (iii) It is non-personal. They are directed at a mass audience and nor a the individual as is in the case of personal selling, (iv) advertisement are identifiable with their sponsor of originator which is not .always the case with publicity or propaganda.

Objectives and Functions of Advertising. The purpose of advertising is nothing but to sell something-a product, a service or an idea. The real objective of advertising is effective communication between producers and consumers. The following are the main objectives of advertising.

1. Preparing Ground for New Product. New product needs introduction because potential customers have never used such product earlier and the advertisement prepare a ground for that new product.

2. Creation of Demand. The main objective of the advertisement is to create a favourable climate for maintaining of improving sales. Customers are to be reminded about the product and the brand. It may induce new customers to buy the product by informing them its qualities since it is possible that some of the customers may change their brands. ‘

3. Facing the competition. Another important objective of the advertisement is to face the competition. Under competitive conditions, advertisement helps to build up brand image and brand loyalty and when customers have developed brand loyalty, becomes difficult for the middlemen to change it.

4. Creating or Enhancing Goodwill. Large scale advertising is often undertaken with the objective of creating or enhancing the good will of the advertising company. This, in turn, in increases the market receptiveness of the company’s product and helps the salesmen to win customers easily.

5. Informing the Changes to the Customers. Whenever changes are made in the prices, channels of distribution or in the product by way of any improvement in quality, size, weight, brand, packing etc. they must be informed to the public by the producer through advertisement.

6. Neutralising Competitor’s Advertising. Advertising is unavoidable to compete with or neutralise competitor’s advertising. When competitors are adopting intensive advertising as their promotional strategy, it is a reasonable to follow similar practices to neutralise their effects. In such cases, it is essential ^ for the manufacturer to create a different image of his product.

7. Bar ring New Entrants. From the advertiser’s point of view, a strongly built image through long advertising helps to keep new entrants away. The advertisement builds up a certain monopoly are for the product in which new entrants find it difficult to enter.

In short, advertising aims at benefiting the producer, educating the consumer and supplementing the salesmen. Above all it is a link between the producer and the consumer.

Question 19.
“The money spent on advertising is an investment and is not wasteful.” Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
It plays to advertise.’ Do you agree? Give reasons.
Significance Of Advertising
Benefits or Importance of Advertisement. Advertising broadens the knowledge of the consumers. With the aid of advertising, consumers find and buy necessary products without much waste of time. This speeds up the sales of commodities, increases the efficiency of labour in distribution, and diminishes the costs of selling. It is an accepted fact that without market stimulus of heavy advertising, consumers might have waited another sixty years for the product evaluation that took place in less than ten years-it took after all over sixty years from the invention of the safety razor before the first acceptable stainless steel blades appeared in the market. These words are more – than enough to testify the potentialities of advertising in the field of modem marketing system. The main benefits of advertising may be narrated as follows :

(i) Benefits to Manufacturers-

  1. It increases sales volume by creating attraction towards the product.
  2. It helps easy introduction of new products into the markets by the same manufacturer.
  3. It helps to create an image and reputation not only of the products but also the producer or advertiser. In this way, it creates goodwill for the manufacturer.
  4. Retail price maintenance is also possible by advertising where price appeal is the promotional strategy.
  5. It helps to establish a direct contact between manufacturers and consumers.
  6. It leads to smoothen the demand of the product. It saves the product from seasonal fluctuations by discovering new and new usage of the product.
  7. It creates a high responsive market and thereby quickens the turnover that results in lower inventory.
  8. Selling cost for unit is reduced because of increased sale volume. Consequently, product overheads are also reduced due to mass production and sale.
  9. Advertising gives the employees a felling of pride in their jobs and to be in the service of such a concern of repute. It, thus inspires the executiv es and worker to improve their efficiency.
  10. Advertising is necessary to meet the competition in the market and to survive.

(ii) Benefits to Wholesalers and Retailers-

  1. Easy: sale of the products is possible since consumers are aware of the product and its quality.
  2. It increases the late of the turnover of the stock because demand is already created nu advertisement.
  3. It supplements the selling activities.
  4. The reputation created is shared by the wholesalers and retailers alike because they need not spent anything for the advertising of already a well advertised product.
  5. It ensures more economical selling because selling overheads area reduced.
  6. It enables them to have product information.

(iii) Benefits to Consumers-

  1. Advertising stress quality and very often prices. This forms an indirect guarantee to the consumers of die quality and price. Furthermore, large scale production assumed by advertising enables the sellers to sell the product at a lower cost.
  2. Advertising helps in eliminating the middlemen by establishing direct contacts between producers and consumers. It results in cheaper goods.
  3. It helps them to know where and when the products are available. This reduces their shopping time.
  4. It provides an opportunity to the customers to compare the merits and demerits of various substitute products.
  5. This is perhaps the only medium through which consumers could know the varied a new uses of the product.
  6. Modem adverf§ements are highly

(iv) Benefits to Salesmen-

Salesmanship is incomplete without advertising. Advertising serves as
the forerunner of a salesman in the distribution of goods. Sales is benefited by the advertisement in following ways :

  1. Introducing the product becomes quite easy and convenient because manufacturer has a already advertised the goods informing the consumers about the product and its quality.
  2. Advertising prepares necessary ground for a salesman to begin his work effectively. Hence sales efforts are reduced.
  3. The contact established with the customers by a salesman is made permanent through effective advertising because a customer is assured the quality and price of the product.
  4. The salesman can weigh the effectiveness of advertising when he makes direct contact with the consumers.

(v) Benefits to Community or Society-

  1. Advertising in general is educative in nature. In the words of the late President Roosevelt of the U.S.A., “Advertising brings to the greatest number of people actual knowledge concerning useful things; it is essentially a form of education and the progress of civilisation depends on t ducation.”
  2. Advertising leads to a large-scale production creating more employment opportunities to the public in various jobs directly or indirectly.
  3. It initiates a process of creating more wants and their satisfaction and higher standard of living. For example, advertising has made more popular and universal the uses of such inventions as the automobiles, radios, and various household appliances.
  4. Newspapers would not have become so popular and so cheap if there had been no advertisements. The cheap production of newspapers is possible only through the publication of advertisements in them. It sustains the press.
  5. It assures employment opportunities for the professional men rad artists.
  6. Advertising does provide a glimpse of a country’s way of life. It is, in fact, a running commentary on the way of living and the behaviour of the people and is also an indicator of some of the future trends in this regard.

Question 20.
“Money spent on advertising is wasteful.” Do you agree ? Give reasons for your answer.
“All advertisement is a social waste.” Discuss.
Criticism Of Advertising
Advertising Media – Advertising offers a number of benefits to the manufactures, customers and the society. But some people feel that money spent on advertising is a social waste. The advertising has been criticised by the people on the following grounds-

1. Multiplication of Needs. Advertisement multiplies the needs of the people by inducing them to buy the things which are actually not required by them. As the advertisement is repeated, it creates a desire in their mind to buy the advertised product. Sometimes, the advertised product is lightly improved over the existing product. But when die people purchase it, the old one becomes useless or is discarded. It is a wastage of national or social resources. Sometimes people cannot afford to buy the new product, still they purchase it by borrowing the money. .

2. Burden on Customers. The amount spent by an advertiser becomes a part the distribution cost of the product which the customers have to pay because it price includes that cost. But, it should not be forgotten here that advertisement results in mass production which reduces the production cost more than what it adds to the cost. The net effect of advertising may be lower cost rather than higher cost.

3. Shifting of Demand. In case of inelastic demand, the advertisement does not increase the demand. It simply shifts the demand from one producer to another producer. It means a. large amount spent on advertisement by all manufacturers goes waste.

4. Creation of Monopoly. Advertising creates monopoly through brand preference. Large firms which can afford huge sum on advertisement succeed in eliminating small firms. Advertisement, thus, encourages survival of the fittest and not survival of the best.

5. Wasteful Expenditure. Money spent on expenditure is wasteful because a large number of advertisements escape attention of the people or they are ignored. Moreover, advertisement only shifts the demand in case of an inelastic product, from one producer to another. It is, therefore, said that advertisement encourages extravagance among people.

6. Unethical. Sometimes, advertisement undermines the ethical and aesthetic values. Advertising appeals, sometimes, make people to use such articles as might affect their health. Such articles, for example, are liquor or cigarette. Some advertisers also use indecent language and photographs to advertise their products which is highly objectionable from the society’s point of view. Advertising therefore, is socially undesirable if it is directed towards anti-socialism.

7. Misleading and Deceptive. Many a times the advertisements contain tall claims by misrepresenting the facts. Thus, customers are defrauded or duped. These claims, later on, are provided false. ,

8. Wastage of National Resources. A more serious objection against advertising is that it destroys the utility of the product before is natural life because of change in fashion, improved technology etc. The amount spent on advertisement goes waste. It results wastage of national resources.

Despite its limitations, the advertising is a necessary marketing activity in the present day business environment. If advertisement is not done, the 5 customers might remain unaware about the product’s characteristics. It affects the choice of the people. They can make distinction in products and buy it after comparing the products i f similar type.

Some of the objections given above are true to some extent but not absolutely correct. Most of the objections are only for the sake of objections % and have no truth. Moreover, advertisement serves the manufacturers and customers both (see previous question) to a great extent. Therefore, it can be said that amount spent on advertisement is not a wasteful expenditure.

Question 21.
Describe various media for advertising. Discuss their merits and demerits.
Advertising Media –
Advertising media are the means to transmit the message of the advertiser to the desired class of people. Channels or vehicle by which an advertising message is brought to the notice of the prospective buyer.

Types Of Media –

There is not dearth of media today. It may direct or indirect. Direct . method of advertising refers to such methods used by the advertiser with which he could establish a direct contact with the prospective consumers. Direct mail is an example of this. Indirect method on the other hand involves the user of a hired agency for spreading the information. Most of the media are indirect in nature, e.g., press publicity, cinema, etc. The various media that are commonly used are being explained hereunder–

1. Press Publicity. This remains the most popular method of publicity today. Newspapers and magazines have become a part of the cultural and political life of the people today. Press publicity takes two forms: Newspapers and magazines.

(a) Newspapers. Newspapers (Hindi or English) or (morning or evening editions) are bought largely for their news value as such they are most appropriate for announcing new products and new development of existing products. The choice of a particular newspaper for advertising depends upon many factors i.e., circulation of newspapers, the type of readers it serves, the geographical region in which it is popular, the cost of space and general reputation of the paper etc.


The various advantages may be summed up as follows :

  1. They reach each and every nook and comer, so their coverage is high.
  2. High frequency enables speedy preparation and publication of advertisement. The advertisement can be repeated daily.
  3. Newspapers offer a lot of flexibility. According to the convenience and necessity of the advertiser, the shape of and size, of advertisements can be change.
  4. Advertising in newspapers is the cheapest method of advertising from cost point of vie y. Cost per reader is lowest.
  5. There is a benefit of selectivity. Desired market or paper can be approached through local or regional newspaper,
  6. The reputation and the choice of the newspapers is available to the advertiser and their products.


  1. Visual effects may not be created in practice as the papers . are usually printed on cheap news print.
  2. The life of newspaper is extremely short so frequent advertising is
  3. There is a waste of circulation. The advertisement is carried to places where there is not market existing nor the possibility of creating a new market. This effect can be avoided in local paper advertising, since they have a concentrated coverage of a limited area.
  4. Lack of uniformity in advertising requirements, e.g., rate prescribed for popular dailies is high, so advertisements have to be small in size.
  5. Uneducated people cannot be contracted through newspaper advertising.
  6. People have only casual glance over advertisements because they buy newspapers for new reading.

(b) Magazines. Another medium under press publicity is magazines and journals. They also offer good facility because magazines are read leisurely when the reader is mentally prepared to received advertisements.

Magazines from the point of view of the advertisers may be classified as follows:

  1. General Magazines. The content is meant for general appeal, e.g., Illustrated Weekly, Blitz, Sarita, Carvan etc.
  2. Specialised Magazines. They cater to a readership with clearly defined
    specific interest. For example commerce for business people, famina for women.
  3. Special issues such as annuals. Directories are special types of publications which may or may not have wide coverage of varied interests, e.g., telephone directories.


  1. Better reproduction of advertisements than newspapers.
  2. Magazines are highly selective in nature and waste of circulation is avoided.
  3. Trade magazines reach specialised groups.
  4. Magazine advertising creates prestige, reputation and an image of quality.
  5. A magazine is ready very carefully and leisurely so that there is lesser chance of the advertisement escaping customer’s attention. These are read and preserved for a longer time.


  1. Low flexibility is the chief demerit as message can be changed or repeated daily.
  2. Preparation cost of magazines is high and hence advertising cost also
    would be high.
  3. The advertisement cannot be brought out in times as needed by the advertiser. Usually the preparation of a magazines takes time and urgent advertising cannot be undertaken.

DU SOL BA Programme 3rd Year Mass Communication and Journalism Notes

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