DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of India Notes Chapter 7 Independent India: Culture and Society
Describe in brief the growth and development of literature and art under the British rule in India.
Modern Indian Literature:
Development of Literature:
With the decline of the Mughals, the developments of literature received a great set back. The decline of literature continued till the early part of the 19th century. The unsettled conditions in the country were not favourable for the growth of art and literature. It was after the great revolt of 1857 that the British consolidated their empire in India and it was only then that the revival of literature in the country also started. The later part of the 19th century is regarded as the renaissance of Indian literature.
Causes of the Revival of Indian literature:
1. After the great Rising of 1857 peace was established in India for a sufficiently long time.The British now also took interest ion providing a better and efficient administration in India. The Indians then got time to devote to the development of their literature.
2. The development of the press helped the production of the literary books in large numbers so that it could easily reach the common man in India. Many news paper, weeklies and monthly magazines were also published. Books of almost all Indian languages were published.
3. The expansion and the English education also helped the intellectual awakening ofthe Indians.
4. The nation Movement also contributed to the development of literature.
5. The Christian Missionaries also wrote books in Hindi and Urdu to propagate their religion to the people.
Thus a great progress was achieved ion the field of literature in India after the mutiny of 1857. The progress of literature in India may be discussed under the following heads: –
Sanskrit Literature, Hindi literature, Urdu literature and Bengali, Marathi, Gujrati literature
The Christian missionaries established their centre sat Sirampur near Calcutta and published books with the aim of propagating their religion. Raja Ram Mohan Roy also supported the cause of Hindi. Swami. Dayanand the founder of Arya Samaj for the first time admitted Hindi as the national language. The development of the press gave a great impetus to the development of Hindi literature. Sir Charles Wood also recommended the development of Hindi prose.
So far Hindi literature was in its infant stage. Raja Shiva Prasad Share Hind and Raja Lakshman Singh contributed greatly to the development of Hindi literature at this stage. It is an undoubted fact that Bhartendu Harish Chandra started Hindi Prose. He founded and edited two monthly papers -’Kavi Bachan Sudha’; and Harsh Chandra Chandrika.” He was a dramatist, poet, essayist, journalist and a great critic.
He has written over 238 books on all subjects. Among his contemporaries, the prominent literary men were Pratap Narain Mishra, Balkrishna Bhatta, Balmukund Gupta and Ambika Dutta Viyas. The publication of Kashi Nagri Pracharni Magazine in 1873 and the establishment of Arya Basha Pustakalaya, Kashi ion 1878 further contributed to its development.
The Hindi Magazine Saraswati published from Prayag with Acharya Mahabir Prasad Dwivedi as its editor further contributed to the development of Hindi. Dwivedi ji took Hindi Prose to great heights and guided and encouraged new comers in the field of Hindi literature.
The other Stalwaits of Hindi literature are Dr. Shyam Sunder Das, Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla, Munshi Prem Chand, Chandradhar Sharma Guleri, Jaya Shankar Prasad, Chatursen Shastri, Ayodhya Singh Upadhya, Maithlisharan Gupta etc. They were responsible for the rapid development of Hindi literature, Hindi language acquired a definite shape and status on account of the efforts of these great writers and poets.
In the course of time, the number of Hindi news papers, weekly and monthly magazines also increased. Other prominent name who brought respectability to the Hindi literature are: Shri Vrindavan Lai Varna, Dr. Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Surya Kanta Tripathi Nirala, Sumitra Nandan Pant, Mahadcvi Verma, Jainendra, Rahul Sankritayan, Denttam etc.
They have contributed a lot for the development and progress of Hindi literature. Alta the Independence of the country Hindi was declared as the National language of the Country.
Urdu Literature – The development ofUrdu Literature had begun during the period of the Muslim rule. However Dr. John Gilchrist is regarded as the father of the modem Urdu prose.Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan contributed much for the development ofUrdu Language. Among the modem Urdu poets the names of Mirza Ghalib, Zauk Atish, Mir Taqi Mir are most prominent. After the decline ofthe Mughals Urdu literature continued to proper ion Qudli Nizam Hydaabad and other Muslim states.
Aligarh Muslim Univarsity and Usmania Universities also contributed a lot for the development of Urdu literature. Among the literary men of the modem Urdu literature the most prominent are Iqbal, Josh Malihabadi, Hafiz Jalandhari, RatanNalh Sarsa, Firaq Gorakhpuri, Maulvi Abdul Haleem, Prem Chand and Krishna Chandra.
Many prominent European Scholars studied Sanskrit litaature an Sanskrit texts were translated into different European languages. The significance of the Sanskrit language was known to the world and Indians also became eager to know the ancient culture and heritage of India. The researches of the European and Indian scholars proved beyond doubts the glory of ancient Indian culture and civilization.
In the beginning of 19th century Christian missionaries of Srirampur published some books in Bengali for the education of children and thus the foundation ofthe Bengali prose was laid. In the course of time Raja Ram Mohan Roy made a great contribution in the development of Bengali literature by using a powerful prose style. He is rightly regarded as the father of the modem Bengali prose. Ishwar Chandra Vidya-Sagar tried to bring Bengali language nearer to Sanskrit.
Other prominent persons whose contribution to the development of Bengali literature is considerable are Akshaya Kumar Dutta, Mahrishi Devendra Nath Tagore, Rajnarain Vasu, Keshva Chandra Sen, Shiva Nath Shastri etc. These were great scholars who “ enriched the prose and poetry of the Bengali literature. Michael Madhusudan Dutta wrote dramas on the basis of Sanskrit dramas and also wrote an epic Meghnath Vadha. In the later part of the 19th Century Dujendra Lai Roy’s dramas were published.
The appearance of Bankum Chandra Chaterjee on the literary horizon of Bengla gave a great impetus to the development of Bengali literature. He was a great novelist. He excelled in the art of mingling the old and the new. He was the most prominent writer of the contemporary Bengali prose literature. Like wise the world renowned poet RavindraNath Tagore and the great novelist Sharat Chandra Chaterjee made a great contribution in die development of the Bengali literature RavindraNath Tagore occupies die most prominent place in Bengali literature. He was a man of versatile genius and wrote poems, dramas, novels, essays and works on criticism.
His contribution to painting and music is also great indeed. His Gitanjali brought him the highest honour by winning Novel Prize in literature. He saved Bengali literature for over 50 year. Among other writing who also contributed to the development of Bengali literature, the names of Ramendra Sunder Trivedi, Vanephool, Vibhutibhushan, Vandhopadhayava, Tara Shankar Banerji, Sajanikant Das, Satyendra Nath Majumdar, Gopal Holdhar, Buddhadeva Basu Achintya Kumar, Anandas Shankar and Persuram are prominent.
With the decline of Mughal Empire, the decline of Indian art had also started. The invasions of Nadir shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali had made the financial condition of the native rulers very bad. It was responsible for decline of Indian art. Some European lovers of art such as Fergusen, Havell, Percy, Brown etc., were attracted towards Indian Art and worked for its survival. They propagated the glory and beauty of Indian art.
Sculpture and Agriculture:
Indian artist started imitating Western styles. Kaisar Bagh and Chhatter Manzil built by Nawab Wajid Ali Shall and Nasir Uddin Haider were built in imitating of the Weston styles. Victoria Memorial and Parliament of Delhi are the best examples of the British style. Mr. Havell the Principle of Calcutta Art School and Dr. Anand Kumar Swamy are responsible far the evolution of mingling of old Indian and Western styles.
Painting was also son the decline till the first part of the 19th Century. The Government established Centres at Bombay and Calcutta. Mingling of Eastern and Western styles started in painting also.
Music and dancings:
In 1813 Mohammad Raza of Patna composed ‘Nagmata Asafi’ and Raja Pratap Singh of Jaipur got written ‘Sangeet Sar Seri Vishnu Degambar and Bhut Khonde were responsible for the revival of modern music.
Write a note on Indian films
Indian Cinema :
Tradition and Change.
The cinema is the only art invented by science. It was born and led in the west ion a technological environment, and so its manifestations in predominantly agricultural countries are a somewhat curious phenomenon of more sociological than aesthetic interest. What is remarkable is that with political independence and the rise of a national awareness of technology, a new minority cinema appears in many of these societies and quickly acquires compelling aesthetic and humanist values.
Their content is increasingly charged with aspirations for a better life, and their form with delight in a new medium. In many of these countries, television is limited in its spread and its creative abilities, either by the lack of resources or by the constructions of governmental ownership of both. The cinema, on the other hand, reflects a more vital and spontaneous expression of the secret hopes and fears, ideals and enthusiasms, of a country’s people.
A small seriously creative cinema grows alongside the larger, more conventional product and begins to engage the attention of a select national and international audience. Examples of this can be seen in Sri Lanka, the Philippines Hong kong, Thailand, Korea, and this is by no means an exhaustive list.
Conservatism in Indian Films:
On the whole India’s big popular cinema is conservative. It reflects, even through its song-dance-fight-chase formula, the fears of a traditional society, a honey-comb of regional linguistic religious identities of being swept away by the words of change, by scientific progress and large scale homogenization, shattering the values, that have held its complex structures together for many centuries The ‘modern’ elements in this cinema are the superficial, they consist of no more than the surface manifestations of industrialization and urbanization.
One sees them in the proliferation of mass produced products and services of recent introduction- the means of mobility such as the motor-car and the aeroplane, of mass communication like radio and television, of self assertion in the western clothes worn by the men (and by the stridently modem woman), high rise buildings, and the frequent interpolations of English phrases.
But the change in basic institutions such as marriage, is avoided, often through adroit manoeuvre. Thus in Dil Ek Mandir (The heart is a temple) a sick husband discovers that his wife and his doctor were, and still are, in love.
Sure that he is going to die, the husband makes his shocked, faithful wife promise that she should marry the good doctor after his death. But the husband recovers and it is the doctor who has to die so that the widow remarriage, still anathema to the vast majority of caste Hindus, should not take place.
In Silsila, the husband falls in love with another woman but decides that religion and tradition require him to remain wedded to his wife even though he will never love hear. Generally speaking, in these films Indian ways are good; evil is the work of foreign devil.
Account briefly of the Scientific and technological development independent India.
Scientific And Technological Developments:
The Aims of Scientific Policy in Independent India:
Though India has had a long and distinguished tradition in science from ancient times, it is essentially since independence (August 15,1947) that an organised effort has been made to develop a capability and infrastructure, covering a wide spectrum of science and technology with a view to making India a strong and self- reliant nation.
The person whose contribution is larger than anybody else’s to put India on the map of modem science and technology was Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Free India. Mr. John Freeman of U.K. observes that Nehru aligned himself with the culture of science against the older culture of superstition.
In fact, he realised with exceptional clarity that science and technology must be the basis for economic development and for the full liberation of the people ion an underdeveloped country. Nehru saw science as contributing to the social and cultural emancipation of the masses of the people and as being, above all else, quite distinct from superstition obscurantism and dogma.
The fact is that science was fundamental to Nehru’s outlook on life and its relation to the people of India. Dr. Clovis Maksoud of the league of Arab States said in one of his statements that Nehru was committed to science not only as a discipline but also as a style which meant precision, which meant systematic inquiry.
He was committed to science as a temper, because science made man acquire and aptitude to accommodate change and also contribute to change. Dr. S. Huzayyin of the U.A.R. remarked in an international round table on Nehru; “He brought together the scientific attitude in man and scientific values in man with the cultural attitude and cultural values in man.
He looked for technological development only as a means for social development of his c Duntry and of the world. He looked upon culture as a means to make science more cultured, more serviceable to his country and to humanity in general. For, science becomes a very dangerous instrument in the hands of a cultured man.”
Nehru believed in scientific humanism. Eleven years after independence, the Government of India framed a national science policy which was comprehensive in its perspective and aimed at educational planning with regard to the training of scientists, engineers, technical experts and specialised workers.
At the same time decided to find ways and means for creating resources for science; to allocate rationally the-e resources to various branches and sub-branches of science,and to generate the necessary science potential in the country. The main objectives of the scientific policy were – to direct manner to the living conditions of an average man in the country.
It is notable here that even in pre-independence days, as back as in 1939, the leaders of the Congress Party wanted to formulate a plan of economic development and social development through the utilisation of science and technology. A group of scientists was engaged to deal with the problems of general education, technical education and scientific research.
One of the recommendations of this group was that the programmes of industrial and educational development should be closely linked with the programmes of scientific research. Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru was himself the Chairman of this group. He emphasized the importance of scientific outlook and need for utilization of science in the solution of economic, social and industrial problems.
As soon as India became independent, a separate ministry of Scientific Research and Natural Resources was created and Mr. Nehru himself was the incharge of this ministry. It is said that India thus became the. first country, not only in the developing countries but in the world, to create a ministry to organise and direct scientific research for national development.
In a very short time after independence, agencies were created for research in specialised areas, laboratories were set up in a large number all over the country involving the participation of scientists and technologists and committees were formed to discuss the problems relating to science, technology and industry.
The first major step towards the fixing of national science policy was a resolution adopted by the Government of india on the 4th March, 1958. The text of this resolution was: The key to national prosperity, apart from the spirit of people, lies in the modem ape, in the elective combination of three factors – technology, raw materials and capital – of which the first is perhaps the most important, since the creation and adoption of new scientific techniques can, in fact, make up for a deficiency in natural resources and reduce the demands on capital. But technology can only grow out of the study of science and its applications.
The Government also knows that manpower of appropriate quality and in adequate number forms the base for any scientific development. India fortunately already has a large community of trained scientists and technologists.
To ensure the continued generation of such manpower, education, both at higher and school levels, in the areas of science and technology, will need considerable strengthening. All basic research in selected areas needs be supported to enable India to fulfil itself at the frontiers of scientific development, and to create self-confidence in the community as a whole through such achievements.
The Government has full realization that organisational and institutional matters, fiscal policy, import policy, industrial policy, etc., should be in consonance with the objectives and directions given to the science and technology effort.
Careful attention to these and implementation of the necessary measure in relation to these alone can ensure much higher returns from the science and technology effort than has been possible in the past.
The following table indicates the area of thrust vis-a-vis the Ministries, Departments, Agencies concerned with their implementation.
A. Life Sciences
1. Basic Life Sciences:
- Molecular biophysics.
- Molecular and Cellular Biology.
- Developmental biology of multi-cellular systems.
- Neurobiology and mechanisms of Behaviour.
- Animal behaviour, Ecology and Evolution.
- Biology and Reproduction.
Ministry of Health/iCMR/Ministry ofAgriculturefiCAR, Depth of Science and Technology/CSIR. Ministry of Education/UGC, National Institutions like TIFR, Department of Environment.
2. Medical Sciences:
- Immunological control of tropical and communicable diseases modernisation of vaccine production technology.
- Virology as related to Hepatitis, Japanese Encephalitis, etc.
- Human Neurobiology in relation to mental health.
- Fertility control.
Ministry of Health/ICMR, DST/CSIR, DAE/TIFR, DAE/TIFR, Ministry of Education/UG
3. Applied Biological Sciences:
- Genetic Engineering
- Microbial Productivity.
- Biomass as a source of energy.
- Physiology and biochemistry of plants.
- Protection of endangered species and preservation of genetic diversity of living organisms.
- Ecological balance for sustainable utilisation of biological resources, forests, grazing lands and fisheries.
Ministry of Health ICMR, ICMR, DST/CSIR, DST/CSIR, Ministry of Education/UGC, Department of Environment.
B. Chemical Sciences
1. Molecular Structure and Dynamics:
- Recent development in spectroscopy such as two dimensional FINMR Multi-nuclear solid state HRNMR, FTIR spectroscopy and photoacoustic spectroscopy.
- Laser chemistry and laser spectroscopy.
- Fast (nano – and pico-second) kinetics involving relaxation and other methods.
- Gas Phase Kinetics including molecular beams and plasma chemistry.
DAE/TIFR, Ministry of Education/UGC, DST/CSIR, IISC/IITs.
2. Solids, Surfaces and Catalysis:
- Ultra-micro structure of solids.
- Solid state organic chemistry.
- Solid state electro-chemistry, Energy conversion and Storage.
- Synthesis and properties of novel materials.
- Newer techniques of surface characterisation such as electron energy loss spectroscopy, photo-electron spectroscopy, SIMs, Auger Spectroscopy, LEEDS, etc.
- Heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis including catalyst development and characterisation phase transfer catalysis.
- Micelles, Membrances, Reverse Osmosis.
DST/CSIR, Ministry of Education, UGC, Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Chemical and Fertilizers, DAE.
3. Frontiers of Organic Chemistry:
- Synthesis of organic molecules utilising new and innovative synthetic schemes and techniques.
- Newer reaction and reagents.
- Mechanisms of organic reactions.
- Polymer synthesis of mechanism of polymerisation.
- Total synthesis of complex natural products and other exotic molecules. 3.6 Structure of scarce and complex natural products.
DST/CSIR, Ministry of Education/UGC, Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizer, Department of Space, DAE.
4. Co-ordination Chemistry an Organo-metallic Chemistry:
- Electron transfer reaction and mechanistic co-ordination chemistry.
- Structure spectroscopy and Photo-chemistry.
- Activation of molecules and catalytic synthesis including reactions of carbon monoxide.
- Novel organo metallics and their application in organic synthesis.
DST/CSIR, Ministry of Education/UGC, Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.
5. New Interfaces of Chemical Sciences with Biology:
- Biomemtic Chemistry.
- Chemistry of Biopolymers and their constituents.
- Membrane and Model Systems.
- Metalion interactions with biomolecules.
DST/CSIR, Ministry of Education/UGC, Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Ministry of Health/CMR.
C. Physical Sciences
1.1 New Energy Sources:
- Solar energy through thermal and photovoltaic routes,
- Biological route (e.g. energy plantations, petro-crops), biomass production and bioconversion, biogas,
- Wind energy development (materials, devices and system),
- Energy conservation and efficiency in industry, buildings, transportation, etc.
- Electrical vehicles development,
- Energy from waste,
- Magnetohydrodynamics, (MHD),
DST/CSIOR/Deptt. of Environment, Ministry of Education/UGC/IlTs, DAE, KVIC, ICAR,
Deptt. of power Ministry of Industry/BHEL.
- Gasification and Liquefaction,
and other transportation of systems. –
DST/CSIR, Department of Coal, Ministry of Industries/BHEL.
- Exploration and production capabilities, particularly offshore,
- Improving efficiencies in consumer sectors.
Ministry of Petroleum/ONGC, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Industries, DST/CSIR.
(i) Efficiency Improvement in power system materials and devices.
Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Industries/BHEL, IITs.
1.5 Nuclear Energy:
- Improving thermal power reactors,
- Development of fast breeder power reactors, leading to ultimate thorium utilisation,
- Development of capability to move into fusion technology. Department of Atomic Energy.
2. Earth Sciences:
- Survey and mapping of the country.
- Mineral resources for copper, chromium, iron, manganese, tungsten, zinc, lead, nickel, phosphorite and magnesite.
- Energy resources including fossil fuels, geothermal and gas.
- Improvement in mining extraction technologies.
- Remote sensing technologies.
- Hydrological Resources survey techniques and studies on hydrological cycle.
- improving the efficiency of water utilising and studies on recycling of the same.
- Studies on prediction of natural disaster.
DST/CSIR, Department of Mines, Department of Environment, Ministry of Education/UGC, Ministry of Agricult, e and Irrigation/TI CAR, Departments
of Space, IMD.
3. Ocean Sciences:
3.1 Development of Ocean Sciences Technology for the survey of living
and non-living resources – Enhancement of facilities such as Research Vessels, etc.
DST/CSIR/Ministry of Agriculture, I.C.A.R./DOS/PRL, Ministry of Education/UGC/IITs, Ministry of Defence.
4. Atmospheric Sciences:
4.1 Meteorology and National Disaster Warning Techniques,
- Computer modelling techniques, forecasting, etc.
- Space meteorology.
4.2 Cloud Seeding.
4.3 Monsoon System.
IMD, Ministry of Communication, Department of Food and Agriculture, DST/CSIR, Department of Space, Ministry of Education/UGC/IITs.
5. Space Sciences
- Basic studies in Astrophysics, Plasma Physics, etc.
- Satellite Telecommunication.
- Satellite Mass Communication Education to Rural Communities (TV etc.).
- Remote Sensing -optical infrared and microwave technique.
- Satellite launching and training capabilities.
Department of Space, Department of Electronics, Ministry of Communication, DST/NRSA/CSIR, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Defence.
6. Nuclear Sciences:
- High Energy Accelerators.
- Nuclear Radiation Research in Life Sciences and Agriculture.
Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Agriculture/ICAR, Department of Health/I CMR.
- Equipment, Instruments and Systems – Quality Control, Medical Electronics, Mining Electronics, Industrial Electronics, etc.
- Components and Devices – LSI, VLSI, etc.
- Communication – Fibre options. Digital techniques, etc.
- Telecommunication – Communication network, Switching Systems, 4 GHz, 6 GHz Microwave systems, etc.
- Microprocessors, Computers an Softwares.
- Information Systems: Computer networks, and other systems.
- Laser Research, Department of Electronics, Department of Industry, Department of Defence, Department of Communication, DST/CSIR, DAE/ECIL.
8. Materials Sciences:
Nature of thrust areas being identified.
D. Engineering Sciences:
- Propulsion studies.
- Systems devel oment, control and systems engineering.
DST/CSIR Department of Defence, Department of Space, Department of Electronics.
2. Heavy Engineering:
2.1 Building up of indigenous capabilities in plants and equipment for the following:
- Petroleum refining and petrochemicals,
- Steel and metallurgy,
- Mining and ore beneficiation,
- Port and harbour,
- Heavy machine tools,
- Electric equipment,
- Manufacture of fabrics,
- Heavy Pressure Vessels,
- Heat exchanges.
Department of Industry, Fertilizers/Petroleum/Steel/Defence/CSIR/DST.
2.2 Aluminium: Department of Industry/CSIR
3. Steel and Metallurgy:
- Direct reduction of iron ores with solid reductants.
- Small Steel plants.
- Removal of ash from coking coal, development of formed coke.
- Development of high grade steel alloys an super alloys.
- Process improvement in the metallurgical industry to effect saving in energy (for example IN RED process).
- Development of basic oxygen process for making high alloy steels.
- Development of alloy powders and their products, 3.8 Development of anticorrosion products of suit Indian climate.
Ministry of Steel/Industry, DST/CSIR Department of Coal, Ministry of Defence.
4. Machine Tools:
4.1 Achievement of self-reliance in tools, equipment and machinery particularly in the following areas:
- Laser technology,
- Plant and equipment for Processing industry,
- Chemical processing,
- Agricultural equipment and machinery,
- Mechanical engineering industry,
- Electrical and electronics industry,
- Printing machinery and accessories.
Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Agriculture/ICAR DST/CSIR, Department of Electronics.
4.2 Development of tools, equipment and machinery for the small-scale and unorganised sectors, DST/CSIR
5. Light Engineering:
- Improvement of the equality of products, by developing quality control through the use of sophisticated instruments.
- Production techniques and equipment. Ministry of Industry.
6. Housing and Construction Technology:
- Low cost materials.
- Building materials from agro-wastes and community wastes.
- Building materials for energy conservation.
- Offshore structures to exploit marine resources.
- Urbanisation studies.
Ministry of Works and Housing, DST/CSIOR Ministry of Petroleum, Ministry of Education, IITs.
7.1 Modernisation of various modes of transport,
- Electronics for signalling communication etc.
- Electrification of Railways,
(b) Inland Transport:
(i) Mechanisation of Boats,
(c) Road Transport:
- Development of weather proof light transport,
- Battery operated, light¬weight vehicles. 7.2 Improvement in the quality of engines to save energy and to increase speeds. Ministry of Shipping & Transport, Ministry of Railways, DST/CSIR,
Department of Electronics, Department of Defence, Research and Development
(Thrust areas being identified) DST/CSIR.
E. Other Sciences
1. Agriculture and Food:
Creation of higher potentials for yield in pulses and oilseeds,
- Operational research for closing the yield gaps in cereals,
- Cropping systems,
- Water management an water use efficiency,
- Agro-energy research including biomass and bio-conversion,
- Transition from nonrenewable industrial inputs to renewable biological inputs through nitrogen fixation and microbiological applications,
- Soil management and fertility,
- Post-harvest technology,
- Modernisation of horticulture for protective foods,
- Energy crops for fuel, fodder and feed,
- Agricultural management and marketing,
- Molecular biology and agriculture,
- Upgrading and conservation of animal resources,
- Scientifically and socially relevant mechanisation.
Ministry of Agriculture/ICAR/CSIR/DST/Department of Environment,
Who are Dalits?
Discuss the causes and progress of Dalit movement of India.
Dalit Movement in India:
Dalit movement is meant to rejuvenate the lower caste people within the Hinduism who were formerly called as untouchables. Gandhi called them Harijans, other words used and Scheduled Castes as used in the Indian Constitution, depressed classes and’ Bahujans. The terms dalit, it has been pointed out, came from Maharashtra where the dalit movement has been very strong.
In Marathi, the term means ground, broken or reduced to pieces generally. Thus dalit means a person who has ‘ been grounded or broken to pieces by others deliberately. The dalit movement which has become a force to be reckon with in the present decade, can be traced to various lower caste movements during the colonial period led by Mahatma Phule, Dr. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and Ramaswamy Naicker in . Tamil Nadu and others.
The Dalit movement originates from the fact that from centuries, the dalits have been subjected to varied kinds of social, economic and political exploitation and oppressions. They have been treated less than human and were untouchables. During the freedom movement, there cause was championed by Gandhi himself who desired to be bom as untouchable in his next birth.
After independence, the Indian Constitution, drafted by a committee undo- the headship of Dr. Ambedkar who has been called as the father of Indian Constitution, provided for social justice and equality. Article 14 provided for equality before the law and the equal protection of the laws within the Indian territory.
Article 15 prohibited discrimination based on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth Article 16 gave equality of opportunity in employment under the state and also gave the state the freedom to reserve posts and appointment for anybackward class. Article 17 abolished the practice of untouchability and made its practice, a constitutional offence.
Insufficient step :
But this does not mean that the backward classes were rejuvenated, in fact only a fundamental step towards it was launched by the constitution. The Dalits remained poor though a considerable number of their people became prosperous as a result of reservation in public employment.
But the bulk of them, who primarily live in villages, are still denied civil rights and subjected to oppression and exploitation in 1989, the Indian Parliament enacted the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of atrocities) /ct which defines 15 types of atrocities that would attract punishment under this law. But there have been reports of this law being misuse, particularly in UP.
Dalits are not something unique that exist in Hindu society only. They exist in other religions as well, though they are not scheduled caste m the legal sense. For example, the Helas of Ujjain who are Sunni Muslim and work as sweeper and untouchability is practiced against them by the Muslims.
They are prohibited from entering to Idgah for Namaz. The Muslim Dalits include, Jolaha, Nutt, Bakkro, Bhatiyara, Kunjra, Dhunia, Kala, Dafali Halakhor, Dhobi, Lalbegi, Gorkan, Meeisshikar, Check, Rangrej and Dairzi. These castes have been abused by the high castes Muslims’. Dalits are in Indian Christians also. In 1961, just before the announcement of Lok Sabha elections, the P. V. Narasimha Rao Government tried in vain to extract political mileage by getting an ordinance promulgated by the President giving reservations to the Dalit Christians.
However, at the very outset, the Dalit movement is highly fragmented despite the fact that all political parties prefer uplift of Dalits. In Maharashtra, there is the Republican Party of India which was able to unite ten warning Dalit leaders, Prakash, Ambedkar, Ramdas Athavale, Raju Dhale, T.M. Kamble, B.C. Kamble. Shiv Ram Mogha, Jogendra Kawade, Namdeo Dhasal, R.S. Gavai, Ghanshyam Talwatkar in 1995. But the unity was short-lived and difference among the dalit leaders became apparent.
Even the second wife of Dr. Ambedkar now in her eighties and her son Prakash Ambedkar do not see eye to eye with each other. To Savita “Mai’ Ambedkar (Ambedkar’s second wife) Prakash Ambedkar is a headache and because of him, the movement will suffer. She thinks that she has the requisite ‘ charisma lead the dalits. In North India, Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) led by Kanshi Ram is leading the dalits.
As a result, the dalit votes, which had been a traditional vote bank of the Congress, the increasing switching over to BSP, especially in Uttar Pradesh. The BSP is also widening its support base in Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. But in 1997, there was a split in BSP. In bihar, Ram Vilas Paswan formed his Dalit Sena which, however has not been able to achieve much successes.
In Tamil Nadu, the dalits are highly divided in as many as 16 factions. The Devendra Kula Vellalar Federation, Republican Party of India – Shaktidasan faction, Republican Party of India – Dr. Seppan faction, Indian Natives Association, Ambedkar People’s Liberation Front, Dalit Action Committee, Ambedkar Indian Democratic Movement, Ambedkar Freedom Panthers, Ambedkar Freedom Tigers, Dalit Youth Brigade, BSP, Tamil Nadu Unit, The Movement of Uprising of the Oppressed, the Confederation of Ambedkar Organisation, SC and ST Federation of Tamil Nadu, The Tamil Nadu Wing of the All India Ambedkar Movement and the Coordination Committee of die Arunthathiyars.
The situation is further complicated by the fact that even with in dalits there is a hierarchical order, some, are supposed to be more lower in caste rank. Then, there is some confusion as to who is a Dalit? Some identify dalits with the list of Scheduled Castes enshrined in the Indian Constitution.
This was also the view of Dr. Ambedkar. Kanshi Ram has preferred to use the tram Bahujan instead of dalits and this category includes non-Brahmin, non-Kshatriya, non-Vaisya and the religious minorities. The Dalit Panthers of Maharashtra would define a dalit “as member of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Neo Buddhists, the working people, the landless and poor peasants, women and all those who are being exploited politically, economically and in the name of religion,” However, Dalit Panthers are dominated by one Jati among the Scheduled Castes i.e. Mahars in Maharashtra.
This is also true of Republican Party in Maharashtra which again is dominated by Mahars to which Dr. Ambedkar belonged. The Andhra Dalit Mahasabha is dominated by the Malas. There is an increasing tendency among the Scheduled Castes to launch their own movement. The Dalits welcomed the implementation of Mandal Commission report which extaided reservation to other Backward Classes (OBCs) to the tune or 27 percent.
But then there have been violent conflicts between the dalits and OBCs, atleast in Tamil Nadu. It is also a fact that the dalit leaders, like all political leaders, are also fast losing credibility among the people. They have also been accused of corruption and political opportunism and being power hungry.
The Dalit movement in India is also increasingly becoming violent to counter violence against the dalits in villages. In 1972, in Maharashtra, Dalit Panthers, a militant group was formed. A similar group was also formed in Gujarat. However, these groups have not remained united and plagued with internal conflicts. Similarly in North India, the BSP supporters have frequently taken recourse to violence to express their anger against the upper castes.
This have led to caste rivalries and conflicts in Indian political system. In 1987, the Maharashtra Government brought out a volume on Dr. Ambedkar which contained Ambedkar’s unpublished book Riddles of Hinduism which was taken as insult to Hinduism by the Shiv Sena who held a huge demonstration against the publication and demanded a ban on the book.
Various dalits groups joined together and organised a counter-demonstration. Later on Shive Sena performed a purification ceremony of Hutamtme Chowk were the dalit’s demonstration had taken place which the Shive Sena claimed had bed defiled by the dalits. Ambedkar’s abuse of Hindu God and countered by a maratlii journal ‘Sobat’ who attacked Mahatma Phule, guru of Dr. Ambedkar and leader of Maharashtra social reform movement during the freedom struggle.
In 1978, the Maharashtra Assembly decided to rename the Marathwad University at Aurangabad after Dr. Ambedkar which resulted in large scale caste riots in Maharashtra as a result the renaming was suspended.
In 1993, a youth belonging to Dalit Panthers immolated himself in support of renaming the University which resulted in demonstration by the various dalit groups to press their demands.
Ultimately, the Sharad Pawar Government in 1994 renamed the university. The Shive Sena called a statewide bandh against the renaming. Bal Thackeray, the Shiv Sena Supremo charged that the Ambedkar was an agent of the former Nizam of Hyderabad. In Up, the BSP and BJP entered into an understanding to share power for six months ion turn.
Accordingly, Mayawati of BSP became the Chief Minister, who started many ambitious Dalit schemes, mainly to honour Dr. Ambedkar. She further developed the scheme of Ambedkar villages launched by Mulayam “Singh, Yadavofsamajvadi Party in 1990-91, according to which over 11,000 Ambedkar villages were identified for development, which had more than 50 percent Harijan population.
Mayawati made an amendment according to which village with 30 percent Harijan population could be included in the scheme. She also started a unique version of her land reforms in which hand deeds were distributed to landless Dalits.
Under the scheme, the gram sabha land distributed to landless and later disputed would go back to dalits and it was reported by May 31,1997, 5503 dalits had been returned the land and another 7,249 such disputes had been identified. Few other schemes intended to uplift the dalits socio-economic conditions were as follows –
Socio-Economic Conditions :
- Over 100 status of various sizes of Ambedkar were build in Lucknow, Kanpur, Allahabad and other towns.
- A Rs. 100 crore Ambedkar Park in Lacknow was built for which many financial irregularities have come into surface.
- In memory of social reformers like Ambedkar, a gigantic squire was being constructed ion Lucknow.
- Mayawati declared that twentyfive percent Station House Officers (SHOs) at UP would be reserved for dalit officers.
- Another controversial decision was creation of three commissionaries; eight districts and 12 Tehsils which were named after Gautam Buddha and his family, Jyotiba Phule and Shahuji Maharaj.
- under another scheme, named after Ambedkar, Marriage allowances
for dalit girls were doubled.
However, Mayawati s actions were not beyond JL controversies. Besides the criticism that funds were diverted for parks and . statutes in a state which is highly backward with Lucknow, the capital of UP lacking even basic amenities such as drinking water and drainage, little efforts were done to really rejuvenate the dalits.
All the schemes and projects were mere political in nature. It also resulted in anger, among the upper caste population, especially against, the schemes that named districts after Dalit leader’s names, and the Ambedkar Statues : In some places desecration of Ambedkar statutes took places. This also happened in certain areas of Maharashtra, most horrifying was that in Ghatkopar in Bombay in which the police had to resort to firing and killing 10 persons on the spot and forty three were injured.
On July 12, Mumbai Bandh was called by the Republican Party of India which was supported by most ofthe opposition political parties. Bandlis and demonstration were also held in 35 other towns of Maharashtra. In retaliation to desecration of Ambedkar statue, the Shivaji statue in Mumbai was disfigured.
The trouble also spread to the neighbouring Gujarat where bandh was sponsored by as many as 26 Dalit organisations on July 16 and where police firing took five lives and left 10 people injured by July 20. Later on more people were killed in various towns of Gujarat.
The need of the hour is to wage a united struggle of Dalits under a united andreal (even apolitical) leadership of aradical change for social and economic upliftment of the Dalits. Violence and counter-violence is no answer to a problem which has been in existent from time immemorial.
Discuss the rise and growth of Backward class movements in India with special reference to the OBC’s and the politics of reservation?
In India, in general the three ‘twice born’ Sawarna Castes have dominated the religious, political economic and social life of this country. A few years ago, it was very common to say that the politics of this or that state was being controlled by the Brahmins or the Thakuis – the two dominant upper castes. Occasionally, Kayasthas, another upper caste, have also thrown up influential chief ministers and they have dominated the civil services and bureaucracy.
But it may come as a bit of a surprise to most people to know that the Brahmins constitute only about 5.5% of the country’s population, the Kshtriyas hardly 4 percent and the overall forward Hindu Castes do not exceed 17.6 per cent of the total population of India. On the contrary, the proportion of Scheduled Castes (SCs) alone is 15 per cent and if we lump SCs with Schedule Tribes (STs) they outnumber the forward castes.
These SCs and STs population generally belong to the so-called ‘Dalit’ class which means ‘downtrodden’ or the exploited. In between these two aggregates lies the vast cluster of the so-called “Other Backward Casts”, which constitute nearly 43.7 percent of our population. After all when the forward castes comprising 17.6 per cent of the country’s population corner 70-80 percent of its positions of power and patronage, the backward castes are bound to protest and agitate, and demand a more equitable sharing of the national cake.
Rise of OBC’s and the Attempt of their Mobilization :
One of the most important developments of recent years has been the rise of the ‘Other Backward Castes” (OBCs). As the label itself indicates, it is a sort of residual category. OBC’s embrance a very large spectrum of nearly 3,000-4000 intermediate castes. These cultivating and herding castes were generally very hardworking and after becoming peasant proprietors, they acquired to some extent prosperity and social status.
In fact, after abolition of Zamindari system after independence the ownership rights were conferred on the various categories of tenants, who now turned into peasant proprietors. Most of these peasant proprietors belonged to OBCs categories. The new prosperity and social status encouraged them to political power and patronage which was commensurate with their numbers. Moreover, with political participation and awareness of their political rights, they became more and more politically conscious and started asserting for their share in political power.
In the beginning, the Socialist leader like Ram Manohar Lohia realised, the political potential of OBCs and advocated the Mew that the surest way to dislodge the Congress from-power was mobilize these backward caste against it. After him Devraj Urs and Karpoori Thakur, two eminent backward castes leaders, rode to power on the back of OBCs. Now most of the leaders of Janata Dal, like Laloo Prasad Yadav and V. P. Singh, and many in the United From Government including the Prime Minister claim to be the leaders of the Backward Castes.
Now even the Congress (I) has become jittery about its traditional constituencies, and its present President, Mr. Sita Ram Keshri is trying to make OBCs the object of courtship. Kanslii Ram has his dreams of leading “an alliance of6,000 other Backward Castes”, but ion actual practice his influence is confined to the Scheduled Castes ofNorth India, especially of UP. MR. Laloo Prasad Yadav in Bihar and Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav in XJ.P. claim to be the leaders of the OBCs in their respective states and this is true to a large extent.
Caste Groupings of OBCs and Different Caste Contours in North and South:
We also find rice of powerful caste groupings of OBCs in various states., ?Thus we find rise of powerful caste conglomerates as Izhavas and Naens ion Kerala; Nadars and Vanniyars in Tamil Nadu; Vokkaligas and Lingayats in Karnataka; Jats, Gujars and Minas in Rajasthan; and Yadavs, Ahirs, Kurmis and Koeries in Bihar an U.P.
It may also be noted here that the South has very different caste conforms as compared to the North. In the north, we have the classical Varma mode of four castes. But in the South there are only three caste groups : Brahmins, non-Brahmins (or OBCs) and SCs and STs, and whereas the Brahmin domination in the services and the cultural life of the South, especially the Tamil region, was far more pronounced than in the North, they numbered only 3 percent of the population.
Moreover caste antagonism have tended to be much more fierce and violent in the North than in the South. This is also because the forward in the North are not ready to give up their dominance and privileges to the OBCs. Another point to be noted here is that in West Bengal and the north-eastern state, the hold of caste is much weaker. Regional and ethnic loyalties are much more important in the north-east.
OBCs and Agitation for Reservation :
Reservations as originally conceived were for an extremely limited period and were meant only for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes -the two most underprivileged groups in our society. Later, the OBCs began to demand their own quotas as well. Since they formed majority of the population (about 52% according to Mandal Commission report), the political leadership, in states as well as at centre eventually conceded their demand.
Now they are demanding for more and more reservation, in some cases even upto 80 percent. One thing it may be noted here that the benefits of these reservations are being appropriated by only a microscopic minority among the backward castes and the benefits have not reached down to the intended beneficiary groups.
In 1978-79, agitations started on the issues of reservation for the “backward castes” during the Janata Party rule. This was supported by the then chief ministers of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar belonging to Janata Party. This opened the eyes of the middle and lower middle castes to the realisation that until they took political power in their own hands, nothing would be done genuinely for their upliftment. This also brought sometimes conflicts between the “backward castes” and the “Schedule Castes”.
In response to the agitations of tlie so called “backward castes”, the traditional upper castes, who were dominating governmental, economic, political an social fields, tried to meet the challenge of the rising middle castes which brought sometimes even violent clash at some places. In this struggle, the affluent sections with the OBC, like Yadavs, Kurmis, Koeris, Ahirs, Jatas, etc. came in the forefront of the agitation for reservations for OBCs.
The Janata Dal and its Politics :
The Janata Dal, launched in October 1988 with the merger of the Janata Party, Lok Dal and the Jan Morcha, represented essentially a bid by the OBCs for power at the Centre. Thus, Mr. V.P. Singh talked about giving 60% of the Janata Dal tickets to SCs, STs, and OBCs. Thus the Janata Dal in order to convert its large social base into a political base produced a more pronounced sectarian image.
It defined its position on the Mandal Report and hoped to secure the votes of OBCs. The analysis of 1919 and 1996 elections point out that the social base of the Janata Dal among the backward castes especially in Bihar and UP, has proved quite stable.
But, it is equally true that at national level, it has not been possible to consolidate the OBC vote banks because of various factors. First, there is no single backward caste which has an all-India presence. Sharply different demographic patterns along with varying levels of caste consciousness block the growth of a Pan-India OBC movement.
Second, there is division between OBCs and Jats and Rajputs and also within OBCs between Yadavas, Ahirs and Kurmis on the one hand and poorer and downtrodden castes among OBCs on the other. It is well known that yadav-Ahirs and Kurmis are economically the most powerful among the OBCs. But despite all this, the Janata Dal is the first centrist party to commit itself to the entry of backward castes and classes , into the power arena and to make equity and social justice its main political planks.
Not surprisingly, in the post-election meetings of the national executive of the party it decided not to depart from its basic political ideology but to – make additional efforts to win the confidence of the middle and lower middle, or the “backward castes.”
Discuss origins of environments I with reference to environmental movements ion India
Environmental Movements in India :
Chipko Movement. This movement was started by environmental activist Sunder Lai Bahuguan, ion 19073 at a place named Gopeshwar ion Chamoli district of Uttranchal (then
U.P.) state. The initial objective of this movement, was to save trees. In Reni Village of Uttranchal, women participated actively for conservation cf forest, soil, drinking water, scarcity of fodder etc. This movement was a good example of peoples participation of conservation of forest. With passing me the scope of this movement was extended to other environmental issues. Tehri dam movement was also started by the same group of activists.
Anti Tehri Dam movement:
“Experts continues to watch that the Tehri Dam, a new ‘mega dam’ in the Himalayas, threatens on of mankinds’s most scared river systems near the source of the Ganges of India. Sunder Lai Bhaguna, protested against the construction of the dam with a 73 days ‘penance’ fast, eating only medicinal bael fruit, water and honey.
The then Prime Minister of India, Mr. Deve Gowda, fearing the popular watch dog’s death promised a review of the project by a committee of Bahuguna’s choice. Bahuguna broke liis fast and the dam construction was halted. The International River Network claims that the dam Would displaced 10,000 people and submerge 27,000 hectares of Himalayan land that has been home to sacred Hindu culture and ascetics of millennia.
Built in an earthquake prone region, if the Tehri dam failed or aught a landslide from the unstable mountains above, its floods would destroy the down stream body towns of Rishikesh and Hardwar, killing tens of thousands…
“Appiko’ is the sKannada translation of Chipko., Thus Appiko was started in August 1983, by Panduranga Hegde. Its main objectives are forestation, development conservative of environment.
The project has to be stopped due to opposition of the environmentalist, to save forest and biodiversity of the region.
Narmada Bachao Movement:
This movement was started by Medha Pathkar ion 1985 to oppose the projects in the region, to save the biodiversity and cultural heritage of the tribals. Later Baba Amte and others jointed the movement. Best selling Indian authors Arundhati Roy (who is the recipient the Booker’s prize recently) was also leading new protest against darning the Narmada River.
In a six day ‘Rally for the Valley’, Roy along with celebrities and activities, made a last-ditch attempt to stop the controversial Sardar Sarovar Dam From filling up. The project was started ion 1940s but was delayed till 1979. The World Bank was against it since it found that “resettlement and rehabilitation of all those displaced is not possible. Environmental impacts have not been properly considered or adequately addressed.”
Not only the World Bank but even courts stopped construction of the dam. People all lover agitated against the dam; they were correct in doing so since this Narmada Project which includes 30 more large dams, 135 medium and 3,000 small dam along the river Narmada will submerge 1,00,000 acres of land and displaced a quarter million people besides intense ecological disturbances in the environment.
Villages homes, temples and croplands will drown when the dam gates are closed finally! The movement is subdued due to the Supreme Court decision to permit raising of height of the dam. Recently Medha Patkar held of long fast for proper rehabilitation of the displaced.
Though in the modem world, nothing works without electricity – which clearly means construction of more and more dams. Such constructions no doubt face lot of controversy: take for instance in China is reported that: “China’s Yangtze Dam is the torrent of controversy. Above the gorges, one thread of skys; cascades in the gorges twine a thousand cords.
So the eight century poet Meng Chaio exalts one of China’s most famous scenic winders, the THREE GORGES in Bubei and Sichuan provinces, through which the Yangtze river hurtles it might! But China’s need to generate power the reduce flooding which had killed 300,000 people in this century alone.”
Apprehensions about the big dams.
The crities of big dams are convinced that the price is too high. Where proponents of the world’s largest hydropower project see increased electricity generation and improved flood control, opponents see damage to the environment, rum to China’s heritage and misery to local residents.
“In my view, building the three Gorges dam is a ridiculous sand evil farce.,” high-profile dam opponent.
“Many people have known something is wrong with the project, but few have dared to speak up,” They said.
Friends of the Earth has been another prominent critic. “The dams are having a titanic social and environmental impact,” the group said in a statement.
Millions of tones of silt are carried along the rivers every year, but critics argue the dams will intercept much of it, with potentially disastrous consequences.
The lack of sediment further downstream could lead to erosion of the soil, while the accumulation of sediment in the reservoir could raise its level and submerge more land than previously thought.
The impact of the dam of the region’s wildlife has also been raised, with some arguing it could contribute to the extinction of the rare species. The area around the river has been prominent in the development of that are civilization during most of its long history, and it is brimming with physical traces if this history.
Teams of conservationists have been working frantically to save as much as possible before the reserve is full
Origin of Environmentalism:
By environment we mean the whole complex of climatic, soil, water and biotic factors on which we all subsist. It is on the environment on which our entire agricultural and industrial development depends. After independence, India launched a series of economic plans for rapid expansion in agriculture, industry, transport and other infrastructure.
This was in order to reduce poverty and inequality of incomes and to establish socialist society based on equality and justice. But because of poor planning and mindless exploitation of natural resources, we have degraded our physical environment. Rapid economic development is turning India into a vast wasteland. And there is every possibility that poverty, unemployment and inequality would continue to persist due to destruction of environment.
The environmental degradation has become a major source of underdevelopment in India. It is eroding our resource base and so its consequences will be serious in the future. It is pointed out that 176 million