DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of India Notes Chapter 3 Modern Colonial State after Revolt

DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of India Notes Chapter 3 Modern Colonial State after Revolt

Question 1.
Give a brief account of the reign of Lord Elgin I.
Lord Elgin Of Lord Northbrook (1862-76)
Lord Elgin (1862-63)
Revolt of Wahabis. Lord Canning was succeeded by Lord Elgin in 1862 as the Viceroy of India. He was the son in law of Lord Durham, the famous author of Durham Report. He had also served as governor of Canada and Jamaica. During his reign he followed the foot steps of his predecessor. He held Durbars at Banaras, Agra and Ambala in order to bring the Indian states closer to the British Government.

The most important even of his reign was the revolt of Wahabis. The Wababis were a set of fanatical Muslims living on the north west Frontier of India. In the beginning it was a religious reform movement. It soon transformed itself into a religio-political creed. Its object was to restore Muslim power in India by bringing about the overthrow of Sikhs in Punjab and the British in Bengal.

The Wahabi movement spread very rapidly through the activities of the Khalifas. While Vilayat Ali and Inayat Ali preached in Kabul and Frontier Provines, Shall Mohammad did excellent work in Bengal and Bihar. The death of Ranjit Singh in 1839 enabled the Wahabis to establish their control over a large extent of territory along the left bank of the Sindhu. The preachers of the wahabi Sect were active in Meerut, Bareilly, Delhi and many districts of Bengal and Bihar. Violence was openly preached in Patna. Sedition was propogated secretly among he native troops also. At Rawal pindi intrigues were soon among the Frontier Infantry.

The British had to deal hard with the Wahabis in North Western India who created havoc from he Sittana Camp. No less than 16 expeditions aggregating 33,000 troops were sent by the British Government during 1850-1857 to destroy the rebels. Abdullah son ofVillaya Ali became the leader of Wahabis at Sittana. A British expedition in October 1863 under the command of Sir Neville Chamberlain achieved little success. It was with great difficulty that Lord Elgin was able to suppress the wahabis.

A large number of prominent wahabis were prosecuted. There were state trials a Ambala (1864), Patna (1865), Malda (1876) and Rajmahal (1870) many leaders were transported for life and their property confiscated. The Hindus became suspicious of them movement when it was directed against the Sikhs.

Lord Elgin could rule only for a brief period and died at a place called Dharamshala after 18 months. Following the foot steps of his predecessor, he tried of cut down military expenditure and avoided levying new taxes.

According to Lord Curzon : “Lord Elgin was a sagacious, industrious, cheerful man who did all that he had to do consciously and without giving offence but withal he possessed courage and no small common sense. ”

Question 2.
Describe the main events of the reign of Lord Lawrence.
Lord Lawrence (1864-69) –
Events of the reign of Lord Lawrence. Sir John (afterwards Lord) Lawrence came into prominence. When he was appointed the Chief Commissioner of the Punjab after its annexation. It was through his tact that the Punjab remained calm during the mutiny. He is rightly called “the Saviour of India and organiser of Victory.” He no only checked the spread of mutiny in Punjab but also sought the help of the Sikhs in the suppression of the mutiny. On account of his ability and hard work he rose from the position of a clerk to hat of the Govemer-General of India. Despite the general rule that no civil servant should be appointed the Governor. General of India, Sir John Lawrence w’as appointed to the said office in 1864 to succeed Lord Elgin I.

War with Bhutan. The British has established relations with Bhutan in 1826. The British wanted to occupy hilly routes because the Bhutanis were raiding Bengal and Assam through these routes. Lord Elgin sent Ashley to carry no negotiations with Bhutan. The Bhutanese forced him to sign a humliating treaty whereby he English were to surrender the Duars to the Bhutan. When the British Government came of know of this treaty, it repudiated the treaty and sent an army against Bhutan. The army received some setbacks in the beginning but later on defeated Bhutan. The Bhutanese were forced to enter into a treaty by which they surrendered the territory of Duars to the English. The English promised to pay a subsidy of $ 5000 a year on condition of future friendly conduct.

Afghan Policy. Sir John followed the so called policy of “Masterly inactivity with regard to Afghanistan. He would not like to interfere into the internal affairs of that country unless some other power tried to interfere in the same country. In that case, the Indian armies were to go to Afghanistan to help the Afghans. He refused to side with any party in the struggle for succession to the throne after the death of Dost Mohammad. He was always prepared to accept defacto ruler of the country. His policy was followed by Lord Mayo and Lord North brook. It \yas reversed by Lord Lytton was disastrous consequences.

Famine in Orissa. In 1866 there was a famine. There was a terrible loss of life. The government utterly failed to come to the rescue of the people. There was another famine 1868-69. It affected Rajputana and Bundelkhand. , A famine commission was appointed to consider to best means of fighting famines. Every effort was to be made by the Government of prevent deaths by starvation.

Economic Progress. Lawrence did a lot for the economic progress of the country. Alarge number ofrailways, canals and public works were started. He also started the principle of raising money for reproductive works.

Tenancy Act. John Lawrence was an advocate of the cause of the peasantry. By the Punjab Tenancy Act, the occupancy rights of the tenants ware recognised in certain cases. This law is known as the “bulwork and a charter of a contented peasantry.” By the Oudh Tenancy Act, about one fifth of the total number of ryots were granted occupancy rights at fair rents. Rent was to be increased only through a court of law. Both these laws were passed in 1868.

Policy towards Mysore. Lord William Bentinck had brought Mysore under British protection on the plea of misgovemment of the state by its ruler. Requests had been made for the return of the state during the Governor- Generalship of Lord Hardinge, Lord Dalhausie and Lord Canning but the English did not accept the request. However, in 1867 Lord Lawrence accepted the request of the Raja of Mysore and allowed him to adopt a son.

Estimate of Lord Lawrence. V. A. Smith gives his estimate of John Lawrence in these words “ the validity of the arguments against the appointment of am ember of the civil service of India to the office of Governor-General was confirmed rather than discredited by the history of viceroyalty of Sir John Lawrence. He was never able to shake off the habits of the Punjab official of old days and admittedly was too indifferent to the ordinary daily maintenance of the dignity of great office. His reputation rests upon his administration’ of the Punjab after the annexation and on the invaluable services rendered by him at the time of mutiny, not on his work as viceroy, which could have been done as well or better by a worse man.”

According to Temple : “The prevailing sentiment in his public life was a love for duty. Though his temper was strong and on occasions warm, yet in his nature judgement and reason reigned supreme. As a subsidiary element caution was present with him in the highest degree and there never was in India a more cautions stateman than he. It being an object of the first importance with him to foresee the course of all affairs, he remembered that prescience could be required only by careful reflection…. To weigh both sides of very question evenly and strike the balance to estimate passion, favour, prejudice or misleading sentiment, and fixed the gaze on exact justice alone, were maxims uppermost in his mind.

He acted according to his principle in judging of the conduct and character of officers whose fates he held in the hollow of his hands. To those who, not withstanding their gifts and accomplishments, lacked the fundamental condition of zeal for public duty he would show no consideration. In equitable discrimination of the diverse moral and intellectual qualities of the numerous subordinates under his command he has not been surpassed by any man ofhis generation in India. He did not at that time arouse so much enthusiasm as his brother Henry among large numbers of mea, nor win so extensive a popularity. But he was respected by all, admired by most and beloved by many. ”

Question 3.
Give an account of the viceroyality of Lord Mayo.
Lord Maya (1869-72)
Afghan Polity. Lord Mayo succeeded Sir John Lawrence. Although he was selected by Disraiii, he was not disturbed by Gladston when he became Prime Minister. He was popular with the Indian princes and the European Community. He had a charming personality.

The problem of Afghanistan was the most serious problem which he had to face. Lord Mayo followed the policy of Masterly. Inactivity initiated by his predecessor. He welcomed Sher Ali the Amin of Kabul at Ambala and held a Durbar in his honour. Sher Ali asked a fixed annual subsidy, assistance in arms and men whenever he should think needful, support of the British for his throne and dynasty and to recognise his favourite younger son Abdulla as heir to the throne instead of Yaqub Khan. Lord Mayo did not commit himself. He was able to win Sher Ali by his tact and personal charm.

Mayo College. Lord Mayo was responsible for the foundation of the Mayo College at Ajmer for the education of the children of the Indian princes. Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen victoria visited India in 1869.

Red Sea Cable. The Red Sea cable was laid in 1870. This brought about a lot of change in the position of the Governor-General vis-a-vis the Home Government. According to Lord Curzon, “The introduction of the electric telegraph marked the beginning of the change. The Governor-General both lost gained in the process. On the one hand, no longer wage war or make treaties or commit his employers in England behind their backs, conscious that even if a year after the event they censured the agent, they could not reverse the act.

The governor General ceased hence forward to be a Quasi independent potentate. A Wellesley or a Hastings perhaps even a Dalhausie became impossible. On the other hand, though the viceroy was still exposed to he Curb of white hall, sometimes pulled in his mouth with quite unn ecessary, violence, he has freed from the tempestuous caprice of the Court of Directors and the internecine conflict between the rival authorities in London. The loss of concrete power was compensated by the greater security of the position. Viceroy may still be obliged or may elect to resign. But we no longer read of the acrimonious exchange of affronts almost of insults of abrupt dismissals and petulant recalls.”

Policy towards Indian States. The policy of Lord Mayo towards the Indian states was that of non-interference in their internal affairs but he reserved the right of interference in case ofinisgovernment of the state. In accordance with this policy he interfered in the affairs of Kathia war and Alwar on account of misgovernment in these states and tried to establish good government.

Internal Reforms. Lord Mayo made following internal reforms :

1. He tried to remove corruption and incompetency of the Public works Depatments.

2. He improved the means of transportation and irrigation to avoid famines. The Ganges Canal was further extended. Irrigation facilities were improved in Pubjab, Sindh, Bombay and Madras.

3. Many primary schools were opened for the education of the Indians. The works of censurs also started during his reign.

4. Lord Mayo established Agriculture and Commerce Departments. He also deserves the credit for improving local self-government. He made some noteworthy improvements in the judicial system and improved the conditions of prisons.

5. At the time of the departure of Lord Lawrence the financial condition was very bad and there was deficit of 35 lakhs of rupees in the budget. Lord Mayo improved the financial condition by cutting down the expenses of Public works Department and some other departments. He increased Salt tax in Bombay and Madras. Income tax was increased from 1% to 3%.

He followed the policy of Financial Decentralisation. A definite sum was set apart for each provincial governments. The provincial Governments were asked to spend the said sum utmost economy.

6. Mayo also introduced many military reforms. Big regiments were established by amalgamating several small regiments. Some regiments were disbanded. This reduced a good deal of expenditure. India unit o artillery at Bombay, Madras and Bengal were ended and army was recogaised in Bombay and Madras.

Assasination of Lord Mayo. While impeding the convict settlement o Andaman Islands Lord Mayo was assassinated by a Pathan fanatic near Port Blair in 1870.

According to P. E. Robers: “His winning manners and universal popularity were more than engaging personal attributes -they became imperial assets of great value, hey won for him the real regard and willing co-operation of he protected chiefs and enabled the complicated mechanism of Indian bureaucracy during his viceroyalty to work with a minimum of friction and maximum of efficiency.”

Question 4.
Give a brief account of the reign of Lord North brook.
Lord North Brook (1872-1876)
Appointment. After the assassination of Lord Mayo in 1872 Sir Strachy and then Lord Napier officiated as Governor-General for a few months. There after Lord Northbrook was sent as the viceroy of India. He was a man of high character and possessed sufficient administrative experience. Being of cautious nature, he did not introduce anything new and merely followed the policy of his predecessors. In his own words, “ The main object of my policy was to let things go quietly on-to give the land rest.” He was not a fluent writer or speaker but possessed considerable independence of judgement.

Kuka Movement. The Kuka movement of Punjab was an important event of the reign of Lord Northbrook. The Kukas murdered Muslims in large number. A band of Kuka attacked the Fort of Malodh near Ludhiana. They incited people to revolt. They even attempted to capture the treasury. Their movement was ruthlessly suppressed. After a summary trial about fifty culprits were blown up with gun powder. People agitated against the action of the Deputy Commissioner. Consequently, he was removed from service.

Trial of Caekwad of Baroda. During the period of reign of Lord Northbrook, the Gaekward of Baroda was tried by a commission on the charge of torture of women, attempt to poison the British resident, spoilation of merchants and banks and maltreatment of the relatives ofhis late brother. The result of the trial was very unfortunate. The official members held the Gaekwad of Baroda guilty while the non-official members held him to be non-guilty. In spite of this he was removed from his Gaddi on ground of mis-govemment and misconduct. The Rajah was sent away to Madras. A Child of royal family was installed on the throne with the Maratha statesman Madhav royal family was installed on the throne with the Maratha statesman Madhav Rao as Chief Minister. Princess Juma Pai was appointed the regent.

Bihar Famine. There was a severe famine in Bihar and Bengal in 1873¬74 during the reign of Lord Northbrook. A lot of money was spent to give relief to the people of the famine stricken areas.

Other Measures –

  1. He reduced import duties from I’A to 5 percent.
  2. He abolished income tax.
  3. Export duties were completely abolished.

Afghan Policy and Resignation. As Russia was trying to advance towards the eastern frontier of Afghanistan, the problem of central Asia was becoming serious during the reign of North Brook. However, like Lord Lawrence and Lord Mayo, he also followed the policy of masterly inactiviy. The Afghan envoymet Lord North Brook in June 1873 and expressed alarm of the Afghans at the rapaid expansion of Russia, Yet Lord Northbrook neither made any commitment nor gave any assurance. Disraili, the Prime Minister of Britain was in favour of a forward policy with regard to Afghanistan. He instructed him to ask Sher Ali the Amir of Kabul to keep a British Resident at Kabul. North brook did not agree with him for he thought that it would involve Great Britain in war with Afghanistan. He resigned in 1876.

According to Lord Curzon : “He never lost his regard for India and of all the Viceroy’s was the one who showed the most continuous interest in Indian Affair. Of all the British rulers of India he was also the one with the keenest taste for art, Himself the owner in England of a fine collection of paintings and possessing artistic susceptibilities no mean order, he took seriously in hand the competition of the Government House Collection pictures.”

Question 5.
Discuss the Afghan Policy of Lord Lytton and account of is failure.
Trace the Course of events leading to the Second Afghan war. How far was Lord Lytton responsible first ?
Give a brief account of the Viceroyalty of Lord Lytton.
Attempt a critical survey of Lord Lytton’s administration with special reference to his Afghanistan policy.
Give a critical account of the administration of Lord Lytton.
Give a critical estimate of the foreign and domestic policy of Lord Lytton.
Lord Lytton (1876-80)
Royal Titles Act. Lord North brook retire in 1876 and was succeeded by Lord Lytton. The British Parliament having passed the Royal Titles Act conferring upon the Sovereign o fEngland the title ol’Kaiseri-Hind. Lord Lytton in 1877 held a magnificent Durbar at Delhi in which Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. The effect of this Act was to lower the position of the Native princes who sank from the position of allies to that of subordinate chiefs. It was however, a formal declaration of a patent fact.

Terrible Famine in Madras. While the gorgeous Durbar was being held in the North a terrible famine was casting the shadow of poverty and death over Southern India. It lasted over two years and affected Madras, Bombay, the Deccan and Mysore and in the second year parts of Central India and the Punjab. Owing to the mismanagements and the defective relief measures of the Madras Government there ensued an appalling lose of life. Lord Lytton decided that the Indian Government should not as in the past deal, with each famine as it occurred but should lay down a regular policy of preventive measures.

He appointed a Famine Commission whose report foundation of the existing provincial famine code. The main principles adopted were that employment should be found for the able bodied on relief works and that gratuitous help should be given to the impotent poor. More important still budget arrangements were sanctioned for an annual surplus over the ordinary revenue partly for the establishment of a Famine Insurance Fund and partly for the construction of railways and canals through districts liable to drought through failure of the monsoon.

Lord ‘Lytton had sound ideas about the tin e principles of famine relief, vie. freedom of inland trade in grain, the construction of railways, ‘ roads, canals etc. for the prevention of famine and the planning of systematic relief works.
Financial Reforms : The financial administration of Lord Lytton was sound. The salt tax, higher to lived at different rates in different provinces was in a large measure equalised. The barbarous customs line or hedge erected to prevent importation of untaxed salt from native states into British territory was abolished. An advance was made in the direction of financial decentralisation. He transferred some more subjects and sources of income to the provinces.

Educational Progress. A significant progress was achieved towards the expansion of education during the reign of Lord Lytton. A Mohammad an Anglo oriental college was established at Aligarh which later on developed into Aligarh Muslim university.

Vernacular Press Act. The Second Afghan war was highly unpopular in India. Delhi Darbar was held at the time when a large number of people were dying in famine in different parts of the country. The newspapers got an opportunity to criticize the Government because it was being felt by the people that a lot of Indian money was being wasted for the expansion of the British Empire. A Calcutta journalist wrote: “Nero was fiddling when Rome was burning.”

The criticism of the newspapers alarmed the Government and consequently, vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878. This Act imposed a restriction upon the press not to publish anything likely to excite the feelings of dissatisfaction against the Government. This Act did not impose any restrictions on English newspapers. This Act has been bitterly criticised and was opposed even in Viceroy’s Council. Lord Lytton remained firm and enforced it during his reign. At was later on repealed by Lord Ripon.

Indian Arms Act. In 1878 Indian Arms Act was passed according to which Indians must get licences to keep arms. This Act did not apply in the case of Europeans.

Suggestions for Indian Privy Council. Lord Lytton suggested the formation of an Indian Privy Council of ruling princes to advice the viceroy on matters concerning Indian states. The Secretary of State for India did not accept his suggestion. However, a similar body called the Chamber of Princes was later on set up under the act of 1919.

Civil Services. It was laid down in the Charter Act 1833 that there was to be no discrimination against the Indians in matter of holding jobs but nothing had been done so far to give effect to this promise. Lord Lytton started a statutory civil service and it was decided that in future one sixth of the covenanted civil services were to be held by Indians who were to be nominated by the provincial Government and approved by Governor- General in council and the secretary of state for India such candidates were to be kept on two years probation and had to pass certain tests before final appointment. But this scheme did not succeed and had to be abolished later on.

Afghan Policy. Some politicians were of the view that the British should have interfered in the affairs of Afghanistan during, the war of succession that followed the death of Dost Mohammad. But the predecessors of Lord Lytton Lord Lawrence, Lord Mayo and Lord North brook all followed the policy of ‘ Masterly Inactivity’. They believed that any, interference in the internal affairs of Afghanistan, would not be in the interest of the British Government. They decided to establish friendly relations with one who emerged as the ruler of Afghanistan.

This policy is popularly known as the Policy of Masterly Inactivity. The Phrase ‘Masterly Inactivity’ was for the first time used by a scholar named J.W. Willie in ‘Edinburgh Review.’ Thereafter this was used by the Governor-Generals of India while determining the policy towards Afghanistan. Lord Lytton reversed the Policy of Masterly Inactivity and followed instead the Forward Policy towards Afghanistan.

This Policy precipitated the Second Afghan War. He forced the Amir of Kabul to have a Birth Resident at Kabul and to receive a British delegation. Without having any regard to the opinion of the members of his Council he tried to threaten the Amir. His Forward Policy towards Afghanistan led to the out break of the Second Afghan War. Lord Lytton’s Afghan Policy has been universally condemned.

Forward Policy of Lord Lytton and its Consequences. At the time of his appointment as Viceroy of India Lord Lytton was instructed to enter into a treaty with Sher Ali the Amir of Kabul and to force him to keep a British Resident at Kabul. ‘ His policy precipitated the Second Afghan War.

Causes of Second Afghan War –

1. In 1876 Lord Lytton informed Sher Ali, the Amir of Kabul that since Queen Victoria had assumed the title of the Empress of India, he should also welcome a delegation in this connection. Sher Ali very politely declined to meet this delegation. He also told that he would not be able to protect the delegation on account of the religious fanaticism of the Afghans. Moreover, if he accepted to meet the delegation, he would have to extend the same facilities to Russia. Lord Lytton took this reply as an insult and warned Sher Ali that by refusing to accept the delegation he was forsaking the help and friendship of the British.

2. In 1876 Lord Lytton entered into a treaty with Khan of Kalat according to which the English got Quetta, a place of strategical importance. Quetta opened the Way of Bolan Pass to Afghanistan and in the First Afghan war also, the English had attacked Afghanistan through Bolan Pass. The occupation of Quetta by the English made Afghans.suspicious.

3. Lord Lytton entered into a secret compromise with the ruler of Kashmir where by a British Agency was established at Gilgit. Sher Ali thought that this agency had been established in order to keep an eye over Afghanistan and to establish contacts with his subjects.

4. The Russian Turkish war made Britain and Russia enemies of each other. In order to harass the Russian Government, the British Government started devoting its attention towards Afghanistan. Sher Ali informed the. Russian Government of Turkistan that he was going to send his Minister to the Russian Government to Kabul. How’ever, while sending General stolet off, Russia warned that the Amir will be held responsible for any harm caused to the Russian envoy and that his powerful opponent Abdul Rehman will be installed on the throne.

5. When the Russian envoy reached Kabul, Lord Lytton asked Sher Ali to keep a British Resident at Kabul Sher Ali was also asked not to talk to any country without the permission of the British and to keep a permanent British’ Resident at Herat. Since all these demands were improper, Sher Ali was not prepared to accept them.

6. Thoughthe Russian envoy returned to his country after the Treaty of Berlin, yet Lord Lytton declared to bend a mission to Afghanistan and even bribed the Afridis living in Kheyber Pass to allow the Mission to pass without any obstruction. On account of the unfortunate death of his favourite son and successor Abudulla, Sher Ali could not say anything to Lytton in this connection.

The British Mission proceeded from Peshawar to Kabul but in the way the Afghan officer told it that he could not allow it to advance further without seeking permission from Kabul. Consequently the mission returned. Lytton who was already on the lookout of some pretext for war declared that tliemission had been forcely turned back.

He determined that the Amir should apologise for this and asked him to keep a permanent British envoy in Afghanistan. Sher Ali was quite innocent and inspite of the repeated insults from Lytton, he agreed to welcome the mission but did not apologise as demanded by Lord Lytton. However, as this letter reached late on November 21, 1878 Lytton had already declared war against Afghanistan.

Events of the War –

  1. The British forces attacked Afghanistan from three sides i.e., through Kheyber Pass, Kurram Valley and Bolan Pass.
  2. The British forces did not encounter any serious opposition.
  3. Sher Ali did not get any help from Russia. After leaving the responsibility of the State upon his son Yaqub Khan, Sher Ali fled away to Russia where he died on February 22, 1879.
  4. The British forces had occupied Southern Afghanistan and it was the desire of Lytton to make Afghanistan a part of British Empire. But he could not get the support of the Home Government for his proposal.
  5. The British accepted Yaqub Khan as the Amir of Afghanistan and Treaty of Gandmak in May 1879 was concluded with Yaqub Khan.

The Treaty of Gandmak (1879). Following were the terms of the Treaty of Gandmak of May, 1879 :

  • The Amir was to conduct his foreign Policy according to the advice of the British.
  • A permanent British Resident was to remain at Kabul with agents at Herat and other places on the frontier.
  • The British got Khurram Pass alongwith Pishin and Sibi districts.
  • The British promised to support the Amir with money and men against foreign aggression at their discretion.
  • The British agreed to give a subsidy of six lakhs of rupees a year to the Amir.
  • The British agreed to withdraw their troops from Afghanistan except of Kandhar which was not to be evacuated till autumn.

Reaction and the Revolt of the Afghans. Lytton was highly praised in England for the Treaty of Gandmak. Disraeli the Primeminister declared that the British in India has secured the scientific frontier. But the British triumph proved to be only short lived. The British failed to learn the lesson of the First Afghan war. They entirely forgot that the freedom loving Afghans would never tolerate the presence of foreigners in their country for long. Only a month later Afghan troops revolted and murdered the British envoy and his bodyguards.

Lytton held Yaqub Khan responsible for this unfortunate incident. He sent the British forces which defeated the rebels and occupied Kabul. Yaqub Khan abdicated and was sent to India. Roberts the General of the British forces now shouldered the responsibility of administration. Now there was the problem before the British as to whom should be placed on the throne of Afghanistan. The winter season started and in the meantime Roberts along with his army was forced to take shelter in Sherpur where he was surrounded by the Kahailis.

However, he succeeded in defeating the rebels with the help of General Stewart. The episode convinced Lytton that it was impossible to have permanent, control over Afghanistan. He divided Afghanistan into two independent statesKabul and Kandhar. Kandhar was handed over to an Afghan Chief Sher Ali Khan and was to be kept under British protection. Abdur Rehman was made the Amir of the rest of Afghanistan. Lytton gave up the idea of keeping a British Resident in Afghanistan and let Afghanistan remained an independent state.

Criticism of the Afghan Policy of Lord Lytton :

(i) The Afghan Policy of Lord Lytton has been severely criticised. He wanted to have a permanent Resident in Afghanistan but he failed to achieve this aim. The British occupation of Quetta was incidental. It cannot be regarded as the success of Lytton because he did not aim to occupy it.

(ii) Sher Ali was an independent ruler, and as such was free to enter into relations with any state, Lyttons interference in his internal matters was not justified.

(iii) Sher Ali had not allowed the Russian envoy to come to Kabul by his free will but was forced to do so by the threatenings of the Russian Government. Hence it was not proper to accuse him in this connection. Besides this the Russian envoy returned after sometime. It was therefore not proper on the part of Lytton to insist to keep a British Resident in Afghanistan. Even when Sher Ali accepted to keep a Resident, Lytton did not stop the British forces. The whole expense of this war had to be borne by the Indian treasury and no special advantage accrued out of it. It was on account of this policy of Lytton that for several years the Afghans did not believe the British.

(iv) The Afghan Policy had some bright side also. It had certain good consequences also. As a result of their policy, the British occupied Quetta and Kurram Valley. Kalat came permanently under the British control. It was on account of this policy of Lytton that it now became easy for the British to occupy Kabul, Kandar, Ghazni or any other important place of Afghanistan’ in future. The policy of Lytton cannot be held improper because there was the fear that Russia might attack India. His policy completely ended the influence of Russia in Afghanistan.

Resignation and Estimate of Lord Lytton. In 1880the Conservative Party of England was defeated in the elections and Labour Party came into power. On account of this change in the Home Government, Lord Lytton resigned. No Viceroy of India has been subjected to so much criticism as Lord Lytton. Particularly his Afghan policy has been bitterly criticised and universally condemned.

He has been also held responsible for the heavy loss of life on account of the famine of 1877-78. When the people were dying like moths and ants, he was holding the glamourous Delhi Durbar The Vernacular Press Act and the Indian Arms Acts not only restricted but also took away the liberties of the Indians. These Act made him very unpopular and increased the discontent of the people. Sir William Weddenpurn remarked “The state of things at the end of Lord Lytton’s regime was bordering on revolution.

” Criticism of the Vernacular Press Act further discredited him in popular opinion. But the best parts of his internal policy were of a permanent value and served as the basis of developments effected by his successors ; while the most essential measures of his Afghan policy i.e., the occupation of Quetta and the securing of the Kurram Valley had to be reaffirmed a few years later.

According to Lord Curzon : “A study of the papers, however, both as published at the time and later on the official records in India led me to admire the extraordinary ability and resourcefulness with which Lord Lytton conducted his case on paper and the perfection of English prose in which the Minutes and the Despatches were clothed. Of all the Governor- General and Viceroys he seemed to me to have the greatest literary gift not indeed exceeding Warren Hastings or Dalhausie in Lucidity of exposition or vigour of phrase, but superior to both in the artistic quality of writing.

In another connection he writes It has been said that his pictures que and poetic figure-for Lytton was picturesque and poetic figure as well as in fact was in reality out of date and that he ought to have been born to have lived in Elizabethan times. There is a pertinence in this observation for certainly in the picture gallery of Indian Viceroy’s there is no more singular or indeed starting portrait than his. In the Embassy at Paris he found a very congenial stage in his social and diplomatic accomplishment. ”

Question 6.
Give a critical review of the administration of Lord Ripon.
State important events in the reign of the Lord Ripon and say, if in your view, he deserves the title of “Rippon the Good”
Give a short account of the viceroyalty of Lord Rippon with particular reference to the internal reforms carried out by him in his internal administration or his liberal or sympathetic policy.
“Ripon gained the goodwill of Indians by many useful reforms and measures”. Comment on the statement.
Estimate the services rendered to the Indian people by Lord Ripon. Why is Lord Ripon idolised by the Indians ?
Lord Ripon
LORD RIPON (1880-84)
“Liberal Policy of Lord Ripon. Lord Lytton was succeeded by Lord Ripon as Governor-General and Viceroy of India in 1880. He was a staunch follower of the liberal policy of Gladston the Prime Minister of England. His political views were just the reverse of that of Lord Lytton. He resembled Lord William Bentinck in many ways. He had a strong faith in the virtue of place, Self-Government and principle of Laissez faire.

He therefore, followed a very liberal policy in India. Hitherto, the British Government gave all attention and preference to her own interest and ruled with out any regard to the wishes and ideas of the Indian people. India was treated just a colony which should exist only for the welfare and prosperity of the mother country. The Indians were not allowed to have any say in the matters of administration. According to Burke “The English nation in India is nothing for a seminary lot the succession of officers. They are a nation of policemen.

They are a republic, a commonwealth without people. They are a state made up wholly of magistratesMontegomeay has also remarked, “In India we set aside the people altogether we device and say that such thing is a good thing to be done and we carry it out without asking them very much about it. ” It was Lord Ripon who for the first time attempted to give education of Local Self Government to Indians so that they might acquire knowledge of democratic and local self government institutions and take active part is the management of their local affairs and in the course of time befitted for self-Govemment.

Feelings of agitation and dissatisfaction were developing in the minds of the Indians, inspite of their high education and qualifications even the ‘ghost talented Radians were not appointed on higher posts. Lord Ripon sympathised which the aspiration of the Indians and took all possible steps to satisfy them. He declared that his object was to give popular and political education to enable them to look after their own affairs and lake interest in the development programmes for the betterment of their lot. His liberal policy was disliked by most Britishers.

However, he remained firm on his policy and took many steps and measures for the good of the people of India. He made sincere attempts to remove all disqualifications based upon asocial considerations. It was on account of this that he was able to secure an extraordinary hold on the affection of the India population and earned a popularity unequalled by any Viceroy who come to India. Ripon gained the goodwill of Indians by many useful reforms and measures. It is why “His journey from Simla to Bombay was a triumphant march such as India had never witnessed along procession when seventy millions of people Sang Bosanno to their friend.”

Reforms of Lord Ripon. The reign of Lord Ripon is generally called as the period of reforms and his fame rests mainly upon his reforms. We can discuss his reforms under the following heads :

(a) Administrative Reforms and Development of Local Self Government. The development of local self government in India, owes their progress to the sincere efforts of Lord Ripon in this direction. His most significant contribution was in the field of Local Self Government. He passed a resolution in 1881 which clearly stated that the time had come when further step could be taken to develop the system of Local Self Government.

The said resolution directed the provincial Governments to transfer considerable revenue to local bodies who were to deal with matters of local importance. The next step in this direction was taken by him when he passed the famous Resolution of 1882. It was made quite clear in this resolution that the expansion of the system of Local Self Government was not to improve the efficiency of the administration. To quote Lord Ripons own words, ‘It is not primarilywith a view to improvement in administration that this measure is put forward and supported. It is chiefly desirable as an instrument of political and popular education.

” Most of his colleagues were of the opinion that the Indians were indifferent towards Self Government and incapable of holding posts of responsibility. He disagreed with this general view of the British Government. He believed that, in fact, the system of Local Self Government had not been properly tried in India. According to him the official interference had crushed the initiative of the people in the past.

The Provincial Governments were directed to establish Local Boards in each district. The area of each Board was to be kept small so that it would know the wishes of the people and serve their interests accordingly. The members of the Board as far as possible were to be not non-officials and the number of officials could not exceed one third of ‘the total strength of the members of the Board.

The resolution stressed the principle of election. To quote Lord Ripon, ‘It should be the general function of the executive officers of the Government to watch specially at the outset, the proceedings of the local boards to point out to them matters calling for their consideration, to draw their attention to any neglect on their part and to check by official remonstrance any attempt to exceed their proper functions or to act illegally or in any arbitrary or un-reasonable manner. ” The Resolution of 1882 further suggested that the Indians should be encouraged to become the members of the local bodies. He ensured the help of the Government to do utmost to help them in the efficient discharge of their duties.

While extending Local Self Government, Lord Ripon stressed its educative value also. It has been earlier pointed out that the aim of Ripon was to give popular education to the people of India. While explaining the Resolution of 1882, Ripon said, “If the’ Boards are to be of any use for the purpose of training the natives to manage their own affairs they must not be overshadowed by the constant presence of the Barre Sahib of the district.” Thus a great progress was achieved in the field if Local Self Government during the reign of Lord Ripon. He is therefore rightly called, “is Father of the Local Self Government.”

Financial Reforms of Lord Ripon. The work of decentralisation that was started at the time of Lord Mayo was carried a step further by Lord Ripon. The whole income was divided into three heads :

(a) Imperial (b) Divided and (c) Provincial heads of revenue. The income from the Ifhperial head went direct to the Central Government. The income from the divided heads was to be divided between the Centre and the Provinces. The income from the Provincial Heads was to go exclusively to provinces.-Tt was also decided to give a fixed percentage of land revenue by the Imperial Government in order to make good the deficit in the provincial budget. This settlement was made for five years but the very fact, that this was renewed in 1887 and 1897 shows its utility.

Educational Reforms of Lord Ripon and the Hunter Mission. With a view to enquire into the manner in which the principles of Woods Despatch of 1854 had worked in the country and also to recommend the farther course of action. Lord Ripon appointed a Commission consisting of 20 members with Sir W.W. Hunter as Chairman. The Hunter Commission recommended the withdrawal of State so far as possible from the management of the institutions of higher education. It was in favour of giving them a good deal of autonomy to manage their affairs themselves.

The work of management of such institutions was to be given to Indians if there were reasonable prospects of keeping up the efficiency. Special and ordinary grants were also, to be given for running of the colleges. Special steps were taken to encourage education among the Muslims. It was also decided that a fixed part of the provincial revenues was to be spent on education. Universities were established in the Punjab and Allahabad in 1882 and 1887 respectively.

The Government promised to grant sums of money to private bodies to encourage them to open schools. The local bodies were also given encouragement to promote the cause of primary education in the country.

Social Reforms. Lord Ripon also paid attention to improve the condition of factory workers. In order to improve to conditions of the workers in the factories the first Factory act was passed in 1881. The Act laid down that children between the ages of seven and twelve years could not be made to work for more than nine hours a day. Previously the child labour was exploited. The Act provided that the dangerous machinery was to be properly fenced to eliminate or atleast minimise the chances of accident. Inspectors were required to be appointed to enforce the provisions of the Act.

Commercial Reforms. Like Lord Northbrook and Lord Lytton Lord Ripon also followed the free trade policy and took further steps in this direction. He abolished import duties on several articles. Salt duty was lowered. He retained duties on arms and ammunition for purely political reasons.

Repeal of Vernacular Press Act. The Vernacular Press Act passed by Lord Lytton had imposed restrictions upon the newspapers published in Indian languages. Vernacular news papers were not allowed to publish anything likely to cause dissatisfaction among the people against the Government. This Act was discriminatory and derogatory to the Indians because it imposed restrictions only on vernaculars newspapers and no such restrictions were imposed on newspapers published in English.

Realising that the grievances of the Indians were quite genuine, Lord Ripon repealed the Act. In his letter dated 19th February 1881 to Lord Harington communicating his decision to repeal the Act Lord Ripon wrote thus, “The fact is that the officials in India regards the press as an evil, necessary perhaps but to be kept within as narrow limits as possible. He has, no real feeling of the benefits of ree discussion. ” The repeal of the discriminatory and derogatory Act made Ripon extremely popular in India and also he earned for himself the ever lasting gratitude of the people of India.

Civil Service Recruitment. Before the time of Lord Ripon civil service competitions were held in England and the upper age limit for candidates was 18 years. Thus the Indians faced great difficulties in appearing at the civil service competitions. Lord Ripon suggested that civil service competitions should be held simultaneously in England and India but his suggestion was not accepted by the Home Government. However, he was able to secure better facilities to Indians to compete at the examinations held at London by raising the age limit from 18 to 21.

The Ilbert Bill Controversy. No magistrate or Session Judge could try a European British subject unless he was himself of European birth. Lord Ripon being a true liberal, did not like race discrimination injudicial matters. He wanted to remove this sort of disqualification based on race distinctions. He felt that the discrimination of this kind between the members of the same service had become anomalous.

He, therefore wanted to abolish it. Consequently Sir Courtney Ilbert the then Law Member of the Government of India prepared a bill in 1883 to bring the Indian and European Magistrates on the same footing. After having been approved by Lord Ripon’s Executive Council as well as by almost all the Provincial Governments, the draft of the bill was introduced in the Imperial Legislative Council in February 1882. The British Community raised a hue and cry against this bill and denounced it very strongly. They held a great public meeting in Calcutta Town Hall and denounced the bill in the strongest possible terms.

The organisers made fiery speeches and even went to the extent of attacking the personal integrity of Lord Ripon He was insulted in the streets by the plotters. The newspaper entitled the ‘English man’ wrote, “The only people who had any right in India are the British. The so called Indians have no right whatever.” Another correspondent Meredith Townshend wrote in the “Spectator” “would you like to live in a country where at any moment your wife would be liable to be sentenced on a false charge of slapping an Aya to three days imprisonment, the magistrate being copper coloured pagari who probably worships he Linga and certainly exults any opportunity of showing that he could insult white persons with impunity ?” Keeping in view the growing opposition by the European community and in view also of the great increasing tension between the two communities a sort of compromise was made which amounted to a surrender the principles for which the bill was presented.

According to the modified bill every European subject brought before the Magistrate or Session judge whether an Indian or European could claim .a be tried by a jury half of whom were to be Europeans or Americans. In arriving at this compromise Lord Ripon was guided by like desire to avoid the risk of street row in Calcutta organised by the Europeans, in a letter to Lord Kumberley he admitted, “I do not deny, however, that the great weakness of the Government for dealing with the Europeans disturbance weighed with one as it did with my colleagues.

I had no idea till I came to Calcutta that the European police force at the disposal of the Bengal Government was so very small (between 60 and 70 men all total). In any riot the least serious we should have at once to call out the troops and I felt and feel still that to employ Indian soldiers against Europeans in this country could be a step of the gravest kind.”

Thomson and Garratt have observed, “No educated Indian has ever forgotten the lesson of the Ilbert Bill. They were accustomed to rulers who should be influenced by Cajolery and entreaty bribery or threats of revolt but it was an entirely new experience to see a Government and specially the aloof and powerful British Government, deflected from its purpose by newspaper abuse and an exhibition ofbad manners. In lata- days Indian nationalism was to acquires some of its techniques from the suffrage movement in England and more Irish Home Rulas but it was the successful agitation against the Ilbert Bill which decided the general lines upon which the Indian politician was to run his campaigns.

It is significant that the two years which followed this agitation saw the foundation of the Indian National Congress and the European Associations” Again, “Political interest received a great stimulus from the Europeans opposition to the Ilbert Bill. This unhappy dispute served to emphasis the inferior status of the Indians. The point was driven home by r. succession of cases where man slaughter of Indians was alleged against British soldiers and civilians. These cases were often treated by the courts in a manner suggesting the half conscious recognition that an Indian life was not so valuable as that of a European. The Nationalist Movement began to takeshape.” ‘

Lord Ripon’s Policy Towards the Indian States

(i) Mysore. Lord Bentinck had deposed the Maharaja of Mysore in 1831. Lord Ripon was not in favour of the Forward Policy, he restored throne of Mysore to the adopted son of the Maharaja. While restoring the throne he put certain conditions, “All laws under force at the time were to be maintained and efficiently maintained. No material change in th&system of Government was to be made without the consent of the Governor-General in Council and the Raja was to confirm to such advice as the Govemor-Genaal might give him on details of administration. ”

(ii) Kolahpiir. Returning the state of Mysore to the adopted son made Lord Ripon extremely popular in India. He followed the Similar policy in case of Kolahapur. On account of the declared insanity of the Raja of Kolahpur, it had become necessary to place the Government in the hands of a Regent under the supervision of the British authorities. After the death of the king, however, a son adopted by his widow was allowed succession to the throne.

(iii) Hyderabad. After the death of Sir Sallar Jang Nizam a Council of Regency was appointed in 1883 but as the young Nizam attained maturity in 1884, he was duly installed on the throne of Hyderabad by the Viceroy.

This policy of returning Indian states to their rightful ownas made Lord Ripon very popular.

Afghan Problem and Lord Ripon. Lord Lytton had followed the aggressive forward policy toward Afghanistan. His policy was mainly responsible for the outbreak of the Second Afghan War. His policy was Universally condemned. Lord Ripon changed this policy. He recognised Abdul Rahman as the Amir of Kabul on the condition that he would have no political relations with any other foreign power except the English. He did not insist on having a British Resident at Kabul. Thus Lord Ripon satisfactorily solved the Afghan problem and devoted himself to the internal progressive reforms.

Census and Exhibition. In order to know about the caste, religion, education, language, professions of the Indians a census was made in the whole of India excepting Nepal and Kashmir. Thereafter, it was decided to make census after every ten year. Besides this, an International exhibition was organised at Calcutta in order to encourage industries in India.

Lord Ripon’s Popularity in India. “His journey from Simla to Bombay was a triumphant march, such as India had never witnessed a long procession which seventy millions of people sang Bosanno to their friend. Lord Ripon was the most liberal of all viceroys that came to India. He was a true well wisher of the Indians. He was of the firm conviction that if the Britishers wanted to rule over India for a longer time, they should have love and sympathy for the Indians in place of hate.

The main object of the British rule in India should be to improve the conditions of the country and to remove the sufferings of the people. He introduced many progressive reforms to remove the grievances of the people. He repealed the Vernacular Press Act which has imposed restrictions on the newspaper is published to Indian languages. He is rightly called the ‘Father of Local Self Government ’ in India. He transferred considerable revenues to local bodies to deal with matters of local-importance.

The introduction of the system of Local Self-Government not only improved the administration but it also imparted practical training in political and popular education to deal effectively with their own affairs. In a way the system paved the way for national movement in India. His policy towards the Indian States, the solution of the Afghan problem and Ilbert Bill and extension of facilities to the Indians to compete at the examinations for civil services earned him a popularity unequalled by any viceroy. However, his progressive reforms and generous attitude towards the Indians made him unpopular among his countryman. He was strongly denounced by his countrymen and European community on account of the Ilbert Bill.

Estimate of Lord Ripon. Lord Ripon became extremely popular in India though he forfeited popularity among his countrymen. In the words of P.E. Roberts, “But if Lord Ripon had forfeited popularity among his countrymen he had at any rate won by his championship of their cause, the enthusiastic devotion and support of men of Indian birth. On his resignation in 1884 the route of his journey to Bombay was lined with acclaiming and admiring crowds and his name has ever since been enshrined in the hearts of the nationalist Party in India as the great champion of their cause on the viceroyal throne.

’’According to Lord Curzon: “Lord Ripon was personally liked and esteemed for he was indefatigable worker, a conciliatory colleague, and a perfectly straight forward and consistent man. His friends trembled under the voluminous correspondence, which he showered upon them, but this was a feature of his willingness to argue and his anxiety to convince.

He held rigidly to what he regarded as the orthodox and fundamental principles of Indian Government and many years later, when I was involved in the struggle to uphold the supremacy of the civil as against the military authority in Indian administration, he made, without any communication to me, a powerful speech in the House of Lords on my behalf, and must have suffered considerable pangs when his colleague, Lord Marlley, handed down the flag which a little earlier he had so defiantly planted on the walls of the fortress”.

“The viceroyalty of Lord Ripon only lasted for four years and if its termination was viewed without regret by the British Community, it excited the most fervid and overwhelming demonstrations from Indians of all classes who have ever since canonised him as the foremost saint in their political calendar and still regard him as the real author of that advance towards Self Government and nationhood which has in recent times progressed at such a dizzy rate of speed”.

Regarding the popularity of Lord Ripon among the Indians Meredith Townshend observes “After he (Lord Ripon) had’ ceased to be able to promote or punish any man, all Northern and Western India including the pick of the fighting races, prootrated itself at his feet. His procession from Simla to Bombay was a triumphant march such as India had never, witnessed a long -procession in which seventy million of Indians sang Bosanno to their friend.

Lord Ripon had done nothing, had taken off no tax, had removed no burden, had not altered the mode of Government a hair’s breadth. He was only supposed to be for Indians against Europeans and that sufficed to bring every Indian in favour of friendship to his side. When Ripon relinquished his office in December 1884, the Indians gave him a fitting farewell and there was a spontaneous outburst of demonstrations of goodwill.

In his letter dated 28th November, 1884 to Lord Northbrook, Lord Ripon wrote thus “I have been overwhelmed with addresses since I left Simla and the task of replying to them has been in many ways difficult, I do not think that I have said anything calculated to give offence to anyone. But I could not honestly speak well of the principles or proceedings of any unscrupulous opponents of last year or of the lamentable weakness which marked the conduct of the civil service as a body.”

The magnitude of reverence enjoyed by Lord Ripon at the hands of the Indians far exceeded that which was ever enjoyed by any Governor- General or Viceroy in India. He was idolized by Indians and detested by the vast majority of Englishmen. The starched society of Anglo Indians ever viewed his activities with bewilderment and pain, and found it difficult to forget him.

As late as 1915 when a statue of Lord Ripon was set up in Calcutta no subscriptions were forthcoming from English sources and the monument was paid for entirely by Indians. Raja Sir Sahib Dayal an old friend of Lord Lawrence said that if ever British power in India were in danger, the authorities should send for Lord Ripon. “He will do more for you than regiments of Soldiers and our women will sell their jewels and lay that at his feet”. Like Gladstone, Ripon was one of the great apostles of reconciliation between peoples.

His activities and experience laid the foundations of that free association and bound community of purpose and ideas which today characterise the relations between Great Britain and India the legacy of these four years could never be wholly lost. “Ripon in short was not so much the wrecker of an empire as a builder of the commonwealth. His place in history is a long side Lord Durham and Sir Henry Campbell Bannerum. But his text was ever, difficult than theirs”.

Question 7.
Give a brief account of the reign of Lord Dufferin. What were the causes of the third Burmese War ?
Lord Dufferin (1884-88)
Appointment. Lord Ripon was succeeded by Lord Dufferin as the Governor-General and Viceroy of India. He was a man of great administrative, and diplomatic experience. He has served as the British Ambassador to Turkey and Russia. He had also served as the Governor- General of Canada from 1872-78. He generally followed the .policy of his predecessors and did not introduce any new reforms. Punjdeh affair (1884) and the Third Burmese War were the two important events of his reign.

Punjdeh Affair (1884). It was on account of the constant expansion of Russia towards Afghanistan, the Afghan problem again arose during the reign of Lord Dufferin. The Russians occupies. Merv in 1884 and further claimed Punjdeh They asked the Afghan, to evacuate it and on their refusal to do they, the Russians turned out the Afghan troops from there. Thus the situation became quite serious. Both the British and the Russians started making military preparations on a large scale.

The British assembled their troops at Quetta while the Russians assembled their troops at Herat. Fortunately the disasterous issue of war was averted by the labours and tact of Lord Dufferin and shrewd handling of the problem by Abdul Rehman who did not want that Afghanistan should become the battlefield for the war between the Russians and the English.

According to him: “Afghanistan was between two millstones and it had been already ground to powder. ”, He said, “my country is like a poor goat on whom the lion and the bear have both fixed their eyes and without the protection and help of Almighty Deliverer the victim cannot escape very long.” He offered to give up his claim to Punjdeh if he was given Zulfikar Pass. The Russians agreed to this offer.

A joint commission of the British and the Russians was appointed to demarcate the Northern boundary of Afghanistan. The line demarcation was fixed in 1887. Thus the Punjdeh incident which could have developed into a major problem was solved peacefully. The Amir of Kabul Abdul Rehman got the Zulfikar Pass in return of Punjdeh. Thus the Amir did not incur any loss and was at the same time successful in saving his country from becoming the battlefield of the British and the Russian armies.

The Punjdeh incident had caused great anxiety to the British for some time. It led to a consicerable increase in the strength of the British and native troops in India, which resulted in extra financial burden on the Indian Exchequer. All along during this period the native states demonstrated their loyalty to the British Government. Lord Dufferin welcomed the Amir at Rawalpindi and held a Durbar in his honour. This established a closer friendly relations between India and Afghanistan.

The Third Burmese War. The Third Burmese war was another important event of the reign of Lord Dufferin.

Causes of the War –

(i) Lord Dalhausie had annexed Lower Burma. But the Burma upper was still independent and King Thebaw ruled over it. The British merchants complained to the Governor-General that the King of Burma treated them in a high handed way.

(ii) Lord Dufferin was an imperialist and was waiting for an opportunity to annex upper Burma.

(iii) The French entered into Commercial Treaty with Burma, King. Thebaw himself welcomed and honoured the French envoy. This made the British very angry because they began to fear that the French might not establish their influence in Burma.

(iv) The King of Burma imposed heavy fine upon the Bombay and Burma Trading, Company and ordered to arrest the officials of the said company. Lord Dufferin requested the King of Burma that before taking any action, a thorough inquiry should be made. The King rejected the request. This annoyed Lord Dufferin and he sent an ultimatum to the King demanding for a British envoy at Mondaylay and for suspension of proceedings against the Bombay Burma Trading Company till the arrival of the envoy. He also asked the King to have no relations with foreign countries except on the advice of the Government of India. He was also asked to grant the British the right to trade with the Chinese through his territory. The King refused to accept the above demands.

Events of War. On the refusal of King Thebaw to accept the conditions Lord Dufferin declared war against him. The British forces marched from Rangoon towards the territory of the King. The Burmese could not face the British armies and consequently surrendered. Upper Burma was annexed to the British Empire on January!, 1886. King Thebaw was salt to Ratangiri where he died. Upper Burma was united with Lower Burma and was placed under the charge of a Lt. Governor.

The British interference in upper Burma and its ultimate annexation to the British Empire has been severely critisised by many writers. Thehaw was an independent ruler and was free to establish diplomatic relations with any country. It was up to him to choose whether Burma would trade with the British or not. Infact the British wanted to check the advance of the French into upper Burma. The remarks of Lord Dufferin himself are worth noting. “If the French proceedings should eventuate in any serious attempt to pre¬stall us in upper Burma I should not hesitate to annex the Country.”

According to Roblers : “the ethics of the relations between powerful Western Empires and weak Eastern nations are admittedly difficult to disentangle but it is to be feared that the abstract rights of semi-civilised countries receive scant recognition which great colonizing powers converge upon them. ”

Internal Policy of Lord Dufferin. Lord Dufferin followed an imperialist policy with foreign states (annexation of Burma). However, he followed a liberal policy towards the Indian states. After the rebellion of 1857 the British had taken possession of Gwalior Fort. Lord Dufferin restored the Fort of Gwalior to Sindhia, He also gave up Morar in exchange for the town of Jliansi.

In order to safeguard the interests of the tenants, Lord Dufferin passed three Tenancy Acts. Greater security of Tenure of tenants were provided by the Bengal Tenancy Act. According to the Oudli Tenancy Act, which was passed in 1886, a tenant holding land for seven years was entitled to get compensation for improvements made in the land in case he was turned out. A limited guarantee against eviction and increase in rent was provided by the Punjab Tenancy Act which was passed in 1887. Thus the various tenancy acts tried to safeguard the interests of the tenants.

Indian National Congress (1885). An outstanding event of the reign of Lord Dufferin was the founding of Indian National Congress by Allan Octavian Hume. The first Session of the Indian National Congress was held at Bombay on December 28, 1885. The main aim of Hume was to discuss social topics of the country in this Congress. But Lord Dufferin wanted the Indian politicians to meet early and point out to the Government in what respects the administration was defective and how it could be improved.

Alan Octvian Hume is thus rightly called the father of Indian National Congress. He wanted to make the Indians capable of seif Government and en-courage them to achieve independence. The Congress was an All India Institution and had the support and co-operation of the Hindus, Muslims, Parsees, Sikhs, Christians, Anglo-Indians and Europeans. W.C. Bonnarji, the first President of the Indian National Congress was an Indian Christian. Its next President was Dada Bhai Naoroji who was a Parsi. In the beginning it was established as a media to take up the grievances of Indians to the Government. In the course of time, however, it transformed itself into a national, and political institution under whose leadership India achieved independence in 1947.

Queen’s Jubilee. On 16th February 1887 was celebrated the Silver Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Many Indian princes visited London to see the celebration.

Estimate of Lord Dufferin. According to Lecky : “He was a great diplomatist and a great, statesman, a man who possessed a degree what was hardly equalled by any of his contemporaries, the qualities of brilliance and the qualities of charm ; a man of unqualified tact and versatility and who combined with those gifts rare sagacity of judgement and a singularly firm ~ and tenacious will. His rare gift of carrying out great works with the minimum of friction was perhaps the destructive feature of his great Indian career.”

Question 8.
Discuss briefly the main events daring the reign of Lord Lansdowne.
Lord Lansdowne (1888-93)
Foreign Policy of Lord Lansdowne. Lord Dufferin resigned in 1888 and was succeeded by Lord Lansdowne as Governor-General and Viceroy of India. Before his appointment he had already served as Deputy War Secretary and Deputy Secretary of State for India. He belonged to the Conservative Party and was in favour of the imperialistic policy. Most of his time and energy was devoted in solving the problem of frontier of India.

This was the time when Russia, France and England were following the imperialistic policies and were increasing the number of their Colonies. Soon after coming to India he occupied Sikkim and Lusai areas near Chittagong. The States situated on Eastern Frontier of Burma across the river Irramati were also brought under the British protection. Thus he removed the fear of any attack from the Northern frontier.

Durand Agreement with Afghanistan. The territories between Afghanistan and India were inhabited by field tribes of Afghan origin. The British wanted to conquer and occupy this region which was known as the tribal areas. The tribals of this area often raided the British territory. They owed allegiance to the Amir of Kabul who was dissatisfied with the rough behaviour of Lord Lansdowne The British constructed the railway line upto the Bolan.

It created suspicion in the minds of the Afghans. The brave and freedom loving people of the tribal areas took it as an interference in their internal matters and were greatly annoyed with the British. Lansdowne wanted to send a mission to Afghanistan but the Amir postponed it on account of the internal disturbances. This further strained the relations between the British and the Afghans.

In the meantime the British sent troops to Gilgit and chitral in 1890. This was resented by the Amir. In 1892 he refused to welcome a British Mission led by Lord Roberts. However he agreed to receive a mission led by Sir Mortima Durand. As a result of this mission an agreement was arrived at between the British and the Afghans. Thus the conflict between the British and the, Afghans was averted.

Provisions of the Agreements.

  • A boundary line known as Durand line was fixed between, India and Afghanistan. It was decided that both the parties (the British and the Afghans) would not interfere with the tribes living beyond the Durand line.
  • The Amir was given certain districts in exchange of the promise that he would not interfere in Surat, Dir, Chitral and Baijaur.
  • The Amir agreed to give up all his claims to Chaman.
  • The-annual subsidy of the Amir was enhanced from 12 to 18 lakhs of rupees.
  • The Amir was to be free to purchase arms and ammunitions. The Indian Government promised not to interfere in this connection.

Revolts of Manipur and Kelat. There was a war of succession in Manipur which is situated near the border of Assam and Burma. There was the reign of anarchy and confusion in the whole state of Manipur. Lord Lansdowne sent the Chief Commissioner of Assam to establish peace But the Commissioner was treacherously murdered by the Commander- in-Chief of Manipur at the time of interview, The British troops occupied Manipur and established peace there. The guilty persons were put to death. The British installed a minor of the royal family on the throne of Manipur. A British Resident was appointed with whose advice the state was, to be administered. On attaining the majority by the ruler, powers were resorted to him in 1907.

The Khan of Kalat was not governing the state properly. He had murdered the Wazir, his father as well as his son. The Khan of Kalat was called to Quetta and was forced to abdicate in favour of his son who was made the Khan of Kalat in his place.

Other Events of his reign. Lord Lansdowne belonged to conservative Party and followed the Forward Policy towards frontier states. But like Lord Dufferin, he followed a liberal policy toward Indian States. On account of misgovermnent in the state of Kashmir certain charges were levelled against Maharaja Pratap Singh, the ruler of Kashmir. These charges were never substantiated. However, the ruler of Kashmir was forced to abdicate and a Council of Regency was appointed to administer the state.. Kashmir was restored to the ruler after 16 years in 1905.

Second census was held in 1891. It showed that Indian population had increased by 22 million: The Indian Councils Act was passed in 1892. This Act increased the number as well as the powers of members of the Legislature at the Centre and the Provincial Legislatures. Another important event of the reign of Lord Lansdowne was the passing of a new Factories Act according to which children below the age of 9 years could not be employed.

Moreover, women were not to workmore than eleven hours a day, Aweekly holiday was allowed for all factory workers. Thus more attention was being given to the improvement of the lot of factory labourers particularly, women and child labour.

Financial Reforms. Lord Lansdownchad to face a serious financial problem. The prices of silver had gone down on account of increased production of Silver in the world. The fall in prices of Silver did not affect countries which were on gold standard. However it adversely affected India. India was now required to pay more by way of debt charges and interest on British investment in India.

The Indian Commerce was also adversely affected on account of the depreciation in the value of Indian Silver. The value of Indian rupee was reduced from 2 sh. 3d to 1sh : Id. The exchange value of rupee to the sovereign was thus fixed at 15 rupees pa pound. To tide over this difficult financial situation mints were closed to the unrestricted coins of silver. Income tax was again imposed and salt duty was enhanced.

Question 9.
Give a brief account of the regin of Lord Elgin II.
Lord Elgin II (1894-99)
Chitral Expedition. Lord Elgin II was the son of Lord Elgin I. He was appointed Governor-General and Viceroy of India in 1894. He was a cautious administrator. His reign is marked bylot of trouble on account of famine, plague and frontier wars. The most important event of his reign was the expedition of Chitral. Chitral lies to the North West of Kashmir. After the assassination of its ruler in 1895 it was a scence of war of succession. Chitral was brought under the protection of the British in 1893.

The British Political Agent was besieged. The Government of India sent Sir Robert Low with an army of 15,000 men. The British armywas able to suppress the rising. Thereafter, the roads were constructed up to Chitral. But presence of British troops at Chitral upset the frontier tribes. They grew suspicions of the British intention. They were afraid that the British mi gilt conquer their territory. Therefore, the Afridis rose in rebellion and closed the Kheyber Pass. They were joined by other tribes who made a common cause with them against the British.

The Tirah Campaign. In order to suppress the rising of the tribals, a British army of40,000 troops along with the troops supplied by Hie Indian rulers was sent. The frontier tribes were forced to surrender and to pay fines. The British had to spent a lot of money in this campaign.

Famine and Plague. Lord Elgin Il’s reign was also marked by a severe famine and outbreak of Plague. Plague started from Bombay in 1896 and soon spread through out the country It cook away a heavy toll of lives. A number of villages were completely wiped out. The Government took strict measures to check the epidimic from spreading. The illiterate and ignorant villagers resented these measures to check the disease. They believed that their misfortune was the result of wrath of gods and goddesses. They murdered some British officers on Plague duty. Thereafter, milder measures were adopted to check the disease from spreading further.

Epidemic of Plague was followed by a severe famine which lasted from 1896 to 1898 in Uttar Pradesh, Central Provinces,. Bihar and Punjab. A large number of people died of starvation. The government tried to give relief to the people living in the famine stricken areas. Exemptions from payment of land revenue was granted. Lord Eigin II, also appointed a famine Commission in 1898 under James Lyall, ex-Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab. It fully approved of the principles adopted in 1880 suggesting certain changes in the working of the scheme.

Opium Commission. In 1893 the Government of lndia appointed an opium Commission to report on the effects of opium on the people. The Government had the monopoly of the opium which was exported to China. Some of the opium produced in India was also consumed by the people who complained of its bad effects. The Commission submitted in its report that the bad effects of opium were exaggerated. As a matter of fact the Government of lndia could not adored to lose the revenue earned from this source. Besides this, in case opium was not exported to China, the Chinese would use inferior quality of opium produced in the country. It was however decided that in the course of time the export of opium to China would be gradually reduced.

Levying of Import duties. The Plague, famine and frontier wars had put heavy strain on the finances of the country. In order to improve the financial condition import duties were levied at the rate of 3.5 percent

Military Reforms. Before Lord Elgin 11, there used to be a separate Commander in-Chief for each of the Presidencies. Lord Elgin for the first time created the post of Commander-in-Chief of India: He divided the whole country into four Military Commands and placed each division under the charge of a Lt General. The Lt. Generals were placed under the charge of Commander-in Chief of lndia.

Question 10.
Why the period of Lord Curzon is regarded in th; history of British India as the beginning of the new age ?
Give a critical account of the foreign policy of Lord Curzon with regard to the North West Frontier tribes and Persia.
Write a critical not on the foreign policy of Lord Curzon with a special reference to his policy towards the Persian Gulf.
Give a critical review of the foreign policy of Lord Curzon with a special reference to (a) Tibet, (b) Persia.
Examine the results immedate and ultimate of the Yong Husband expendition to Tibet.
Lord Curzon
Foreign Policy of Lord Curzon : Lord curzon ranks among the greatest and most influenial Governor-General oflndia. After Lord Dalhousie no Governor-General was ever able to leave behid him so much of impression ofhis personality on various achievements in India as Lord Curzon did. Before
his appointment as the Viceroy of India in 1899 he had served as under secretary of State for India for sometime. He had also visited India four times and was quite familiar with Indian conditions and problems. He had also written three important books on Asian questions.

The foreign policy of Lord Cuzon was mainly concerned with North west Frontier tribes, Afghanistan, Persia and Tibet. Lord Curzon was an imperialist by nature. There were two schools of Frontier Policy – (i) The Forward School and (ii) the Backward School or the School of policy of Non-interference. He followed neither of the two policies. He followed a policy of via media i. e. a policy of peaceful penetration.

North West Frontier Policy of Lord Cuzon. After the conclusion of Tirha campaign in 1898 there were about 10,000 British tropps in the tribal areas. They were mostly stationed in Chitral, Tochivalley, Landikotal, and Kheyber pass areas. Lord Curzon withdrew all the troops from the advanced outposts such as the Kheybar, Kurram and Waziristhan. But he was not prepared to evacuate Chitral, Quetta and other frontier parts-occupied by the British. His aim was to maintain the British prestige and to bring the tribal areas under the British influence without conquering these areas. He took the following steps in this direction :

  • A large number of British troops were withdrawn from Kheyber pass, Kurram valley, Woziristhan and other tribal areas. This place was taken by the tribal soldiers who were trained and commanded by British officers.
  • The British forces were increased and concentrated along with the British line near the tribal areas.
  • The strategic railway lines were constructed up to the borders of the tribal areas. Some new roads were also constructed which gave employment to many people in the tribal areas.
  • The independence of the tribal areas was assured provided that they made no distrubance in he British territory.
  • The import of arms and ammunition into the tribal areas was also regulated.
  • The region laying West of Indus river was separated from the Punjab and was named the North Western Frontier Province. The territory was placed under the charge of a Chief Commissioner who was directly responsible to the Government of India. The old North West Frontier Provinces of Agra and Oudh were renamed the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.

This policy of the North West, Fronter Policy of Lord Cuzon proved to be a great success and the same was followed by his successors. Lord Curzon himself defended his policy before the House of Lords in 1908 in the following words:- “If any body had been disposed to doubt the success of the scheme of frontier policy which has now been in existence for ten years, his doubts must have been dispelled, and I hope that we shall now bear no more of the wildcat schemes for advancing into the tribal territories, annexing upto the border and driving roads through the tribal country.” Axordingto Thompson and Garret, “Lord Curzon do not solve the frontier problem. Many of is difficulties will remain as a lagacy. But he introduced a system which has proved to be a sensible compromise between the conflicting views of experts. ”

Relations with Afghanistan. The relation between Afghanistan and Indian had become strained during the Governor-Generalship of Lord Elgin II. Abdur Rehman the Amir of Afghanistan had complained against the English for having created disturbances on his side of the boundary line. However, the Amir continued to have friendly relations with the British which continued during the reign of Lord Cuzon. In 1901, Abdur Rehman died and was succeeded by Habibullah without any contest for the throne. The British Government asked the Amir to enter into a fresh treaty as the treaty with Abdur Rehman was a personal one and lapsed after his death.

But Habibullah maintained that the treaty was entered into between the two Governments and that there was no need to renew the same. Thus no relations existed between the two Governments for three years. The annual subsidy which was given to Abdur Rehman was also stopped. In 1904 Lord Carzon went to England and Lod Anithill acted as Viceroy in his absence. He sent Sir Louis Dane on a mission to Kabul.

The Amir welcomed the mission which remained in Kabul for three months and a half. The mission granted certain concessions to the Amir and his interpretetation of the treaty was accepted by the British. His title “His Majesty” was recognised and the Amir was allowed to draw the arrears of his subsidy. Thus the friendly relations between the British and Afghanistan were again established.

Relations with Persia. The Persian Gulf occupied a position of strategic importance as it lay on the route from England to India. Britain has established her control over the Persian Gulf in the seventeenth century. So far no power had challenged it, But towards the end of 19th century the European powers France, Russia and Germany also wanted to enter the Persian Gulf. In 18 91, the Sultan of Oman had entered into a secret treaty with Britain where by it was agreed upon that no other European power except the English were to be allowed to enter the Persian Gulf. Bu in 1898 the Sultan of Oman violated the treaty and allowed the French to establish a coaling station at Bunder Tisseh five miles South East of Muscat with the right to fortify it.

Lord Curzon threatened the Sultan and sent a small naval squadron to warn him that if he did not revoke the said concession, stern action would be taken against him. The Sultan revoked the concession granted to the French. The exclusive influence of Britain in the Persian Gulf was challenged by other powers i.e. Russia and Turkey. Therefore, Lord Curzon had to take a strong line. He visited the Persian Gulf in 1903 and took effective measures to protect British interests and to repel the insidious attempts of other powers. Thus the British interests were safe guarded.

Curzons Tibetsn Policy. Lord Curzon’s Tibetan policy was another aspect of the anti-Russian Policy which Great Britain had followed all along in Asia. Tibet was formally under China but practically independent and was ruled by Dalailama who was the religious and polictical leader of the Tibetains. Tibet was a place of great political significance for the British. The British therefore wanted to establish relations with Tibet. Warren Hastings was the first Governor General who sent Mr. George Bolgee to Lhasa for the first time in 1774-75. Thereafter, several other attempts were made to establish trade relations with Tibet. In 1885-86. The Chinese Government permitted the visit of a British Trade Mission to Tibet. In 1893 a trade centre was established at Yatung.

When Lord Curzon became the Governor General of India. The Tibetans were developing a feeling to become independent from China, The new Dalai Lama had come under the influence of Dorjiff who was a Russian subject by birth and who had gone to Russia several times and was even received in audience by the Czar in 1900 and 1901. Lord Curzon grew suspicious and feared that Tibet might come under the influence of Russia. Although Doijiffs mission was of religious character, the Indian Government became uneasy.

Lord Curzon believed that a secret treaty had been concluded between Tibet and Russia. He extorted a reluctant consent from the Home Government to his plan of sending a mission to Tibet. The mission was led by Colonel Younghusband who brushing aside the feeble resistence of the Tibetans occupied Lhasa in 1904. Dalai Lama fled away after delegating his power to the Regent. Younghusband entered into a treaty with the Regent in 1904. The said treaty which is known as th Treaty of Lhasa (1904) had the following main provision:

(i) The Tibetans had to pay a war indemnity of 75 lakhs of rupees which was payable in 75 instalments. The Chumbi valley was to be occupied by the British troops till the whole sum was paid off.

(ii) In order to encoruage trade between India and Tibet, trade marts were to be established at Yatung, Gyantse, and Gartok. It was also decided to keep a British Commercial Agent at Gyantse. The British Commercial agent was allowed to proceed upto Lhasa if he occasion demanded.

(iii) The foreign policy of Tibet was to be controlled by the British. No portion of Tibetan territory was to be transferred to any foreign power. Moreover no agent of any foreign power was to be admitted into the country. No concession for railways, roads, telegraph minting etc. were to be granted to any foreign power or subject thereof In case any such concessions were granted, similar concessions would have to be given to the Government of India.

The Russian Government protested against the treaty. In spite of the opposition of Lord Curzon the treaty of Lhasa was revised. He war indemnity was reduced from 75 lakhs to 25 lakhs of rupees. It was also decided that the British troops were to with draw from the Chumbi valley after the payment of the three instalments. It was also provided that the British Agent at Gyantse was not to be allowed to go to Lhasa.

Criticism of the Tibet Policy. Lord Cuzon’s Tibet Policy has been severely criticised bythe historians. There was no justification for intererence into the affair of independent country. According to Lord Roseburry. “We had absolutely no right in making any of interference with the internal affairs of independent relations of these states. There was absolutely no justification, legal or moral to interfere.

” Dr. V.A. Smith has also pointed out that the expedition of Young hushand was unnecessary and useless because”, courses justifying the intervention in affairs of Tibet were the Very meagre”. On the otherhand Lovat Fraser supports Lord Curzon. In his opinion, “Lord Curzon by his policy of persistence crushed a cleverly-veiled design of Russia to establish political influence in Tibet which proved detrimental to British interests in that part of the country.

According to P.E. Roberts : “Whatever may be the political and ethical rights of the matter, the actual conception and conduct of the expedition was brilliantly successful. It has been rightly described as a triumph of organisation and daring’ and indeed this sudden penetration of a little hand of pioneers into the jealously guarded seclusion and mysterious snow clad solitudes of Tibat forms a fascinating episode in unromantic annals of modern India.”

Thus we may conclude that from the legal and moral point of view Curzon’s Tibetan’ policy was undoubtedly aggressive and was, therefore, improper. But if we look from the point of view political expedience it finds support and full justification. Curzon’s Administration

Question 11.
Outline the outstanding features of Lord Curzon’s administration and bring out their bearing on the political unrest in India.
“Internally Lord Curzon’s period of office was made special not able for a drastic overhauling of the whole machinery. Explain.
What were the chief measures of Lord Curzon’s internal administration carefully estimate this value. –
“Great as an administrator, he must be admitted a failure as a statesman.” Explain this verdict on Curzon.
What were the reasons for the partition of Bengal (1905). Would it be correct to say that it was a mere readjustment of administrative boundaries?
Comment on the following statement of Lovel Fraser : “If I were asked the four principal achievements of Lord Curzon in India, which were of the permanent and constructive character, I would select the partition of Bengal, the solution of the problem of the North West Frontier the reform of the system of Education and the formation of a land revenue policy which was clear, consistent and considerate.”
Internal Administration and Reforms. Lord Curzon was a great administrator and carried out a very large number of reforms in many fields. His aim was to increase the efficiency of each department of the Government. On the eve of his departure from India he said, “If I were allowed to narrate in a nutshell the entire work of my administration in India in one word that will be ‘efficiency’. According to P.E. Robberts “Internally Lord Curzon’s period of office was made specially notable for a drastic overhauling of the whole machinery of administration”. His reforms and noteworthy administrative works maybe studied under the following headings :

Famine and Plague. There was a severe famine in India in 1899, during the Governor-Generalship of Lord Cuzon. About 10 lakhs of people died in the famine. Famine was followed by plague which persisted throughout the regime of Lord Curzon. The sufferings of the people further increased by the simultaneous outbreak of Cholera and Malaria. Whole of Northern India including Punjab, Rajputana, Baroda, Bombay, C.P., Berar, Hyderabad and Gujrat were badly affected. Lord Curzon himself made an extensive tour of the affected areas. He asked for help from every quarter in order to give relief to the people in the famine stricken areas. The Government spent over sixty lakhs rupees on famine relief work. Inspite of this the Government was subjected to severe criticism. It was complained that the Government did not grant remession of taxes and land revenue. A commission was appointed under Mac-Donell to enquire into the famine relief measures. The commission made the following recommendations.

  • It emphasised on the advantages of non-official assistance.
  • It emphasised the need of preventing demaralisation among the people.
  • It recommended for the construction of more railways to move food stuffs quickly to the famine stricken areas in times of emergency.
  • It also recommended to establish agricultural banks and cooperative credit societies.
  • Irrigation facilities should also be increased in the country.

Agricultural Reforms. Lord Curzon gave a good deal of attention to the problem of land revalue and the condition of the peasantry He introduced greater elasticity both in the assessment and collection of the land revenue by arranging for the revision and reduction of assessment as the circumstances required. He laid down the salutary principle that the Government demand should vary according to the character of the season. In cases where assessment has to be increased it should be done by graduated steps.

Measures to benefit cultivators. He took several measures for improving he condition of the peasant. He started cooperative credit societies to provide cultivators with necessary capital at a very’ low rate of interest. This lessened the burden of their debts. He passed the Punjab Alienation Act to prevent the land of the cultivator from being transferred by sell or mortgage to the money lending class. He also appointed an inspector General of Agriculture and founded an Imperial Agricultural Department to encourage the application of scientific methods to Indian agriculture. Zamindar banks were opened to give loans to the agriculturists at low rate of interest.

An Agricultural Research Institute was established at Pusa in Bengal. The Institute was to make experiments in the method; of tropical agirculture with a veiw to improve the agriculture in the country. Irrigation facilities were exteneded. The construction of several new canals such as upper Jhelum, upper Chenab Doab and Lower Bari Doab Canals was started.

Educational Refroms. In 1904, Lord Curzon passed the Universities Act in order to bring the Universities under the more strict control of the Government. This Act reorganised the constitution of the Syndicates provided for the official inspection of the colleges and placed the final decision concerning the affiliation and disaffiliation of colleges in the hands of the Government of India. Steps were also taken to develop the Universities from examining to teaching bodies.

The Universities should not remain merely examining bodies but they should also give an impetus to research work by appointing university professors and lecturers. The size of university Senates and Syndicates was considerably reduced. New Faculties were created. The government was to nominate 80 percent of the members in the Senates. In all the provinces their respective Vernacular was to be the medium of instruction in the primary schools while English was to be the medium in the grades of higher education.

Training colleges were started in the various provinces for traning the students as teachers. Lord Curzon wanted to raise the standard of education in India.

There was a good deal of controversy regarding the University Act of 1904. On account of the nomination of 80 percent of the members of the Senates, Lord Curzon had officialised the Indian Unversities and brought them under the control of the Government. This was not considered well for the healthy growth of education in the country. A conviction grew in the minds of the common people that the Government was restricting the education to the higher sections of Indian Society and specially to aspiring young men for higher education. This Act made Lord Curzon very unpopular among the Indian masses. The Indian University Act 1904 was severely criticised by scholars like Gopal Krishna Gokhle.

Financial Reforms. Some of the financial reforms which Lord Curzon made were the following ;

  • Gold was madelogal tender in India and Rs. 15/- was fixed as the rate of exchange to the Sovereign.
  • Salt tax was reduced.
  • The Quninquennial settlement of financial decentralisation introduced by Lord Ripon was made semi-permanent.
  • The limit of taxable income was raised from Rs. 500 to Rs. 1000.
  • Some remission in taxes were also allowed due to the outbreak of severe famine of 1899-1900.

Preservation of Ancient Monuments. The measures adopted by Lord Curzon for the conservation and restoration of ancient monuments deserve unqualified praise. He passed an Act for the preservation of Ancient monuments and established the department of Archaeological Survey which has done much to preserve the relics of the past and to excavate the sites of antiquity. This has promoted the growth of historical research and archaeological study in the country.

Administrative Reforms –

(a) Reforms of Bureaucratic Machinery. Lord Curzon realised that the bureaucratic mechinery was very defective and unnecessary long delays were caused in every matter of administration. The system of working was very defective. Lord Curzon compounded the existing bureaucratic system to a “gigantic quagmire or bag” in which every question that comes sinks down. “Unless you stick a peg with a label over the shot at which disappeared and from time to time go round and dig out the relics you will never see any thing of them again.

He established a Committee of Departmental Secretaries and enforced the regulations drawn by it throughout the Central Secretariat. The copies of the regulations drawn by the Committee of Departmental Secretaries were sent to the provincial Governments with instructions to enforce them in their respective departments. Lord Curzon directed the departments to settle the matters by personal consultation rather than by long notes, drafts and differences. The printing of Government reports and statistics was also considerably reduced by Curzon. According to Fraser it was not a wise step on the part of the Governor General.

(b) Status of Presidency Governors. Lord Curzon was in favour of centralisation in every sphere. He did not like the separate status of the Presidency Governors. He suggested to the Government of England to bring the posts and status of the Presidency. Governors at par with Provincial Governors. This steps in his opinion was likely to increase the esteem and popularity of Indian Civil Service. The Home Government did not accept this suggestion of Lord Curzon.

(c) Calcutta Corporation Act. Lord Curzon was against the system of Local Self Government started by Lord Ripon. He had no faith in the ability of the Indians. After making certain changes in the Bill introduced by Ripon, the Calcutta Corporation Act was passed. The number of members was reduced to 50 from 75. This reduction of the members was made from amongst the members who were to be elected. The Act marked the extinction of Local Self Government because now the nominated members came to have a majority in the Calcutta Corporation.

(d) Reforms in Railways. Some of the Indian railways were managed by companies while others were managed by the Public Works Department of the Government of India. Lord Curzon appointed a Railway Commission under Sir Thomas Robertson to make necessary suggestions regarding the working of the Railways. This commission suggested that the railways should be managed as commercial undertakings and the Old system should be stopped.

In 1905 Lord Curzon abolished the Railway Branch of the Public Works Department and entrusted the working of the Railways to a Board of three members. Several new railway lines were constructed and the work of construction of28,150 mile was completed.

Police Reforms. Lord Curzon appointed Froser Commission to enquire into the system of police and make necessary suggestions. The commission made the following suggestions

  • Instead of promotions on higher posts direct appointments should be made.
  • The salary of the Policeman should be sufficient for his subsistence. It should not be less than Rs. 60.
  • The number of Provincial Policemen should be increased.
  • Training institutes should be opened for the proper training of policemen and officers.
  • Investigation of the crime should be made on the spot and the arrest of suspected persons without formal warrants should be considered ill-legal.
  • A criminal investigation branch should be set up in every province and it was to work under the Central Government with Director of Criminal Intelligence.

The implementation of these recommendations increased the police expenditure. It increased from £ 2, 691, 344 in 1901 to £ 4,602,977 in 1911. However there was no proportionate improvement in the working of the police system.

Military Reforms. A large number of Punjabis and Gorkhas were recruited in the army and they were placed under the command of the English officers. Imperial Cadet Corps was established to give military training to youngmen of princely of prucly and noble families. Better guns were supplied to the artillery. Military transport was reorganised.’ The services of Indian army were utilised in foreign countries. A naval defence squadron was also established for the defence of the Coast of India. Later it was amalgamated with the Royal Navy in 1903.

The Partition of Bengal. Since the grant of the Diwani of the three provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa by Shah Alam in 1765 the Bengal Presidency had presented a difficult administrative problem. In 1854 it was put under the charge of a Lt. Governor. The creation of the N. W. Provinces in 1865 and the placing of Assam under a separate Chief Commissioner in 1874 lightened the burden of the Presidency of Bengal. But still Bengal was too large for the superintendence of one individual. On 7 December 1903 proposals for partitioning of Bengal were published.

Chitagong Dn, Dacca, Mymensingh and Tripara Hills were to go to Assam, Chhota Nagpur would be added to Central Provinces while Bengal would receive Sambalpur from Central Provinces and Ganjan from Madras. There was undoubted administrative advantages for dismembering Bengal.

But the official thinking was different. Andrew Fraser, the Lt. Governor of Bengal thought that certain districts of Bengal had become a hotbed of the purely Bengali Movement, unfriendly if not seditious in character. The best way to diminish the prepondience of the Bengalis in provincial politics was to divide them. Bengal united is a power, Bengal divided will pull several different ways:

A storm of protest swept all over Bengal. ‘We object’ wrote Surendra Nath Banerjee in the ‘Bengalee’ “We are sure the whole country will rise as one man to protest against it’. The Congress at its annual session in 1903 condemned this preposterous scheme to undo the unity of India. In February 1904 Lord Curzon made his historic tour of East Bengal. He won over Nawab Salem Ullah Khan of Dacca by promising him a loan of £ 100,000 at a nominal interest. He greeted the Viceroy’s plan for a Muslim Province.

The Congress in December 1904 once again condemned the scheme. But Curzon failed to see the danger signal. Despite the vehement protest Curzon was determined to implement the plan. Large meetings were held in different parts of Bengal as a mark of protest against the partition. On 7th August 1905 it was resolved to boycott the purchase of British goods as protest against British indifference to Indian opinion. The partition of Bengal was made effective on 16 October.

Agitation gripped the entire country. A new spirit surged through out the country. Bengal inscribed ‘ Banda Matram on her national banner. Rabindra Nath Tagore inspired the anti- partition agitation. Even British papers ‘ Times’, Manchester Guardian made adverse comments and expressed sympathy with the anti partition agitation. The anti-partition agitation galvainsed the people of India for which 1905 was regarded as a land mark in the history of national progress.

The partition of Bengal created a feeling of discontent and the people stood up as a body for the first time against the Government. It had also evolved revolutionary techniques Boycatt and swedeshi – to achieve its object. Aviolent agitation spread all over that country and thepopular leaders started the swedeshi movement. There was unrest throughout the country which eventually led to sporadic out bursts of anarchical crimes. Boycatt was used as an economic pressure on Manchester which would produce reaction on the Indian Government. Boycott and Swadeshi Movements were instrumental in the establishment as textile mills, national banks, hosiery, tobacco and soap factories tanneries, chemical works, insurance companies.

At first all the hue and cry of the Indians had no effect upon Lord Curzon who declared. “Partition of Bengal is a settled fact, and what is settled cannot be unsettled.” He mercilessly tried to suppress the movement but it went on growing with the passing of time. Ultimately the partition was cancelled by king George V in 1911 at the time of Delhi Durbar.

Lord Curzons Resignation. The resignation of Lord Curzon was brought about by his disagreement with Lord Kitchener, the Commander-in-Chief on the question ofmilitary administration. There was a military member in Govemor General’s executive council through whom the Government supervised the’ administration of the Indian army. This member was an armyofficer and was the constitutional adviser of the viceroy in all military matters.

The Commander-in- Chief was also an extra ordinary member of the viceroy’s council, but he had to submit all the schemes and proposals relating to the army through the Military Member who was an officer of lower rank than himself This was an anomalous state of things. Hence Lord Kitchner proposed to abolish the office of the Military Member and to transfer the whole business of military administration to the charge of the Commander-in-Chief Lord Curzon opposed this proposal on the ground that the concentration of all military authority in the hands of the Commando” in-Chief would involve the undo- lowering of the civil authority. The secretary of state supported Lord Kitchener and so Lord Curzon resigned, Thus a great change took place in the army administration. Hence forth the Commander-in-Chief became the sole advisor to the Government of India on military affairs. It should be noted that Lord Kitchener’s system proved disastar ous during the Great War of 1914.

Estimate of Lord Curzon. Lord Curzon was a very talented industrious and hard working viceroy. But, a politician he-proved to be a failure. The main cause of his failure was that he was a wilful rulo”. He thought Indians quite incompetent and incapable for higher posts. His anti-India feelings created many enemies for him. He was severely criticised for the passing of Indian University Act, Calcutta Corporation Act and the partition of Bengal.

According to Setalvad, “Lord Curzon was a very talented, efficient and hard working viceroy and he brought the whole administrative machine to a pitch of efficiency. He was, however, a great imperialist and always had visions of enlarging the extent and influence of the British Empire. He looked upon India as a great asset for maintaining and extending the domination of British over large portions of the earth. He never thought or dreamt of independent India. Lord Curzon loved India as one loved dog, a useful and obedient slave.

His great strength of character as a stern administrator was illustrated by the action he took with regard to certain happenings in Burma. An offence of a most revolting character was perpetrated on a Burmese woman by a British soldier. Military authorities on the spot showed a culpable disposition to hush the matter up and were second in their apathy by local court officials. The prosecution of the soldiers broke down on technical grounds although it was plain to every one that acquittal involved a gross miscarriage of justice.

With the concurrence of the Commander-in -Chief, Lord Curzon dismissed the culprit from the army, high military officers were severely censured and in certain cases relieved of their command, the regiment was banished for two years to Aden and all leave and indulgence were stopped, the civil officers were severely censured and an order in council was issued in which the ‘sense a profound horror and repugnance’ with which the incident was viewed by Government was placed on record and the negligence and apathy that were displayed in responsible quarters were reprobated.”

Lord Curzon worked hard to ensure efficiency in every field and in his zeal for efficiency he committed many blunders. Although he was a great administrator he was a failure as a statesman. According to Rash Behari Ghosh, “Lord Curzon left undone, everything which he ought to have done and did everything which he ought not to have done. ” According to Dr. Pattabbi Sitaram ayya. “His curtailment of the powers of the Calcutta Corporation, his official secrets Act, his officialisation of the univerties which made education costly, his Tibetan Expedition and finally his partition of Bengal broke the back of loyal India and roused a new spirit in the nation. His speech in Calcutta regarding our untruthfulness was his sweeping change that we Indian were by our environment, our heritage and our upbringings unequal to the responsibilities of high office under British rule.

It would be proper to conclude with the following words of P.E. Roberts: “Whatever errors, whatever failures and both error and failure are inseparable from human agency critics may detect in his six years of office, it cannot be doubted that when the cloud belts of contemporary detraction have cleared away, Lord Curzon’s name will stand amongst the foremost of ‘those that make up the illustrious role of the Governor-General of India.”

Question 12.
Give a brief account of the Viceroyalties of Lord Minto, Lord Hardinge, Lord Chelmsford and Lord Reading.
Lord Minto (1905-10)
After Lord Curzon, Lord Minto II was appointed as the Governor- General and Viceroy of India He was the grandson of Lord Minto I who had served as Governor-General from 1807-1813. The following were the main events of his reign.

1. Political unrest and development of National Movement. The reactionary regime of Lord Curzon had given rise to the all round political unrest in the country. The partition of Bengal had sent a wave of resentment all over the country. The People of Bengal regarded the partition of Bengal as an attempt to outrage the solidarity of the people. Under the forceful leadership of Lokmanya Tilak the youths of the country gave up the liberal policy of the Congress and established an extreme group. The agitation of the people became stronger and stronger with the passing of time. Independence was declared as the ultimate aim of the Congress. A strong wave of violence swept in the country. The terrorist movement also gained momentum.

Attempts were made on the lives of magistrates, police officers. The Government passed many repressive laws but they failed to crush the growing nationalism. About this time several new factors were at work to stir up national feeling and to consolidate national movement. The attitude of the Union Government of South Africa to the Indian residents there provoked the deepest indignation in India. It shocked Hindus and Muslims alike. About this time a new generation of educated Muslims came to the front and secured control of the Muslim League. Their political out look was broad and nationalist.

2. Anglo-Russian Convention. The Anglo-Russian convention of 1907 was another important event of the reign of Lord Minto Russia and England had established friendly relations on account of the fear of Germany. Both had agreed to respect the integrity of Afghanistan and to follow the policy of non-interference in the affairs of Afghanistan. It was made clear that Afghanistan would never be included in the British Empire. Russia and England also agreed to respect the integrity of Tibet and to follow the policy of non¬interference. Both accepted the independence of Persia.

3. Opium trade with China. The India Government was earning enough revalue by sending opium to China. The Government of China requested the Indian Govonment to stop the export of opium to China as it was ruining the Chinese youngmen. The Indian Government decided to reduce the export of opium gradually.

4. Deportation of Extremist Leaders. The Government passed a series of penal laws gagging the press and putting restrictions on public meetings. Taking advantage of the split in the Congress at Surat, the Government imprisoned Tilak and deported him to Mandalay in Burma for six years. The same year (1907) Lala Lajpat Rai was also deported to Burma for six months on mere suspicion without trial. These repressive measures could not crush the movement but drove it underground. Bengal became honey combed with terrorist organisations and a few Govanment Officers were killed.

Both Lord Morley and Lord Minto were alive to new spirit that was up surging in India. Hence they had sanctioned special legislation to meet the campaign of violence, they were convinced of the necessity of a policy of conciation. Lord Morley thought that the best way of weakening the extremists was to rally the moderate party by granting some litrual measures of reform.

Morley Minto Reforms. To win over the moderates in the Congress Morley recommended certain constitutional changes which came to be known as Morley Minto Reforms. The British Governments commited itself to a ‘blended policy of repression and concessions’ in order to cut the ‘malignant growth’ of revolutionary crimes. Under these circumstances Indian Councils Act 1909 was passed.

It enlarged the Legislative councils both central and provincial and extended their functions and for the first time legally recognised the principle of election. The number of additional members of the Central Legislative Council was raised from sixteen to a maximum of sixty of whom not more than twenty eight were to be officials. The Govemor-Goieral was anpowered to nominate five non-official members who together with the twenty eight official members formed a solid bloc. Thus an official majority was retained at the Centre. The other twenty seven members were to be elected by a group system representing various classes and minorities such as landlords Chambers of Commerce. Universities, Sikhs and Muslims.

In the provincial Legislative Councils no official majority was maintained – The number of their members was enlarged to fifty in the major provinces and to thirty in minor provinces. They were to be elected by groups of local bodies, lands lords. Universities etc, Although there was no provision for official majority, v a combination of official members and nominated non-official members might have a small majority over the elected members. It was only in Bengal that the elected members had a clear majority. The Act conceded the Muslims demand for separate electorates. No such concession was made to other minor Communities.

Minto Morley Reforms were never intended to set up a parliamentary system in India. Lord Morley himself admitted it, “Responsibility is the : savour of popular Government and that savour the Indian Councils wholly lack. ” For the first time it introduced the system of Communal electorates t for the Muslims. Minto Morley Reforms have been subjected to bitter criticism by the historians for giving inadequate powers to the Indians, introducing of indirect system of election and of the Communal electorates for the Muslims.

Lord Minto left India in 1910 and was succeeded by Lord Harding. The Times of India wrote : “when the dust of controversy has subsided, when the political background has changed India will always keep kindness for the great gentlemen who will remain in memory the Viceroy Charmeur. India will always remember with gratitude the Governor-General who at a time of stain and Dang, presented a calm unruffled, courageous front to the storm and refused to be blown from the path he had marked out. India will always have a warm corner in her heart for the Viceroy, who inspired a personal confidence in his rectitude at a time of stress and difficulty.”

Question 13.
Give a brief account of the Viceroyalty of Lord Hardinge.
Lord Hardinge II (1910-16)
Delhi Durbar (1911). In November 1910 Lord Hardinge’s grand son Lord Hardinge II was appointed the Governor-General and Viceroy of India. He had sufficient diplomatic experience but no administrative experience. He was sympathetic towards the Indians and was able to win – their goodwill. The Delhi Durbar was an important events of his reign. King George V who ascended the throne in 1910, raid a visit to India in 1 1911. A magnificent Durbar was held in his honour in Delhi in 1911.

His Majesty the King made two important announcements on this occasion. Firstly the Capital of India was transfer ed from Calcutta to Delhi. Secondly the partition of Bengal was cancelled. Besides, Assam was placed under the charge of a Chief Commissioner and the rest of United Bengal was placed under the charge of a Governor. These changes were striking and dramatic. Delhi from its Central position am its historical background was obviously the best fitted city in India for the Capital of India. The reunion was is fact, rearrangement after-experience.

Attempt on the Life of Lord Hardinge. On December 23, 1912 a bomb was thrown at the Viceroy on the occasion of his state entry. The Viceroy was wounded and one of his attendents killed. However, Lord Hardinge continued to maintain his previous attitude of sympathy towards the Indians.

Warning to China. It was rumoured is 1912 that China would conquer Tibet. As a consequences of this rumour the British Government gave a warning to China that it must not attempt the conquest of Tibet.

The Problem of Indians in South Africa. The Government of South Africa passed laws barring Indians entering South Africa. All Indians residing there were deprived of their rights of trade and agriculture. There was a great dissatisfaction among the Indians who under the leadership of Gandhiji started a Satyagraha against the unjust laws. Mahatma Gandhi and all his followers were arrested and sent to jails. The people in India expressed their great resentment against the unjust laws and atrocities on the Indians. Lord Hardinge also sympathised with the Indians and shared their feelings. A Commission was appointed by the Government of South Africa and ultimately India Relief Act was passed in 1914. This Act also recognised the monogamous marriages of the Indians. The tax of £ 3 on every Indian was also abolished.

Beginning of the First World War. The reign of Lord Hardinge also witnessed the beginning of the First World War which started in 1914. The Indians remained loyal to the British Government during wrar and gave unconditional help to the British Government. Indian troops were sent to France, Flanders, Egypt, Africa, Palastine, Mesopotamia and Mecedonia where they fought bravely along with the allied troops.

Question 14.
Give a brief account of the Viceroyalty of Lord Chelmsford.
Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
‘Rowlatt Act. In 1916 Lord Chelmsford succeeded Lord Hardinge as the Viceroy of India. There was acute distress everywhere on account of high price and strikes and other disturbances were frequent. To combatseditions crimes the Government in 1919 passed the Rowlatt Act arming the Executive with special powers to deport individuals to control the press and to set up special tribunals for the trial of political leaders without juries. These repressive measures were highly unpopular and there was agitation all over the country for their repeal.

Serious riots broke out in several places especially in the Punjab where the Government proclaimed martial Law and adopted a policy of stern repression. It culminated in the massacre of Jallianwalla Bagh at Amritsar where General Dyer disgraced himself by fit in g upon an unarmed mob which had assembled of a public meeting. About 2000 persons wrere wounded and killed by this senseless exhibition of military strength. Their brutal tragedy . sent a thrill of horror and indignation throughout the country and is one of the immediate causes of the Non Co-operation Movement.

Afghan War. A fanatical party in Afghanistan murdered Amir _ Habibullah for maintaining neutrality in the Great War. Of his death his young son Amunullah Khan became King. Incited by the Bolshavic agents of Russia as well as to please the war party, th e new Amir invaded British territory but was beaten back. In the treaty that followed the subsidy to Afghanistan was discontinued and the Amir was given a free hand to regulate : his foreign relations.

The Government of India Act 1919. The growing discontent of the I people brought home to the British Government the necessity of making some concessions to their roused political consciousness. This was all the more necessary in view of the great services rendered by the Indians to the cause of the Allied Powers in the Great War. The Government also wanted to rally the moderate opinion as the recent repressive measures had driven many moderates to the extremist camp.

All these causes led Mr. E.S. Montague, the secretary of state to make a momentous decration of British Policy with regard to India on August 20, 1917. He enunciated two fold principles of increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with to view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire Mr. Montague visited India and in consultation with Lord Chelmsford published a report known as the Montague Chelmsford Report.

Bask Principles of the Act of 1919. The main recommendations of the Montague Chelmsford Report were

  • A beginning of responsible Government should be made in the provinces. The provincial Legislative Councils should be enlarged and they should have the largest possible independence from outside control.
  • The Central Government should remain for the present to the Secretary of State and Parliament. The Legislative Council at the Centre should be enlarged and made more representative and should have a opportunities for influencing the Government.
  • The devolution of powers from the centre should be extended and legalised.

The substance of these recommendations was embodied in the A Government of India Act 1919, The Act divided the functions of Government into Central subjects and Provincial subjects and thereby took a significant step in decentralising the authority of the Government. The central subjects were political and external affairs, income six, Public debt and all India Services. The important provincial subjects were Local Self Government, education, Sanitation, Public health, Public works and irrigation, famine relief, agriculture, maintenance of law and order and administration of justice.

The Central Legislative Assembly was replaced by a bicameral system consisting of a Council of State and a Legislative Assembly. The provincial Government was throughly remodelled. The Executive was divided into two halves the Reserved Department and the transferred Department. The Reserved Subjects were to be administered by the Governor and his Executive Council with no responsibility to the legislature, the Governor being responsible only to the Central Government and Parliament. The transferred subjects were placed incharge of the Governor acting with the ministers selected by him from amongst the selected members of the Provincial legislature. Thus dyarchy was introduced in the Provinces.

Khilafat Movement. This movement was organised by the Muslims of India whose aim was to protest against the shabby treatment meted out to Turkey by the Allies inspite of the repeated promises and assurances to the Indian Muslims. The Sultan of Turkey had been defeated by the allies in the First World War. As a consequence of his defeat along with Germany the Turkish territory was greatly reduced. Thus was done in violation of the promises made by the British Government to the Indian Muslims during the War. The aim of the Khilafat movement was to secure the integrity of the Turkish Empire. Besides this the Muslims demanded the establishment of a Muslim State in Palestine.

Question 15.
Give a brief account of the Viceroyalty of Lord Reading.
Lord Reading (1921-26)
His difficulties. Lord Chelmsford was succeeded by Lord Reading in 1921 as Governor General and Viceroy of India. Lord Reading was bom in a humble Jew family but he rose to the office of Lord Chief Justice of England on account of his talents and hard work. He had to work in India in very odd circumstances. His period of viceroyalty was a very trying time for British statesmanship. Mahatma Gandhi had launched the Non Cooperation Movement and the whole country was seedling with discontent.

The visit of the Prince of Wales was boycotted. On occasions the people were swept off their feet and several untoward incidents followed like the Chauri Cbaura massacre in the U.P. and serious riots in Madras and Bombay. Shocked at these unfortunate happenings Gandhi ji suspended the mass movement. He was sentenced to six years of imprisonment. Communal differences added to the difficulties of the situation.

Khilafat Movement and Hindu Muslim Unity. The Khilafat Movement was in its full swing during his viceroyalty In order to maintain Hindu Muslim unity. Mahatma Gandhi, had also supported the Khilafat Movement which was organised by the Muslims of India. Being incited by Khilafat Movement an Arab tribe named Mopla living in Madras revolted and murdered several Europeans. Reading was determined to suppress the revolt of Mopla tribe, Prominant Congress leaders were arrested.

Though Gandhiji had withdrawn the civil disobedience movement on account of the incident of Chaura-Chauri. There was a split in the Congress ranks, one section of the Congress was of the opinion that Congress men should enter the legislatures and should try to wreck the Constitution from within, while the other section was against it. The supporters of the first view were called the Swarajist and were led by men like Chittranjan Das and Pt. Motilal Nehru. Ultimately the Swarajits were allowed to enter the legislatures on account of the persistent demands of the Indians the Muddiman Committee Report was published with regard to the working of dyarchy under the new constitution.

Some Measures of Lord Reading. By imprisoning Gandhiji and by his other measures of repression. Lord Reading became very un-popular. He further added to his unpopularity by increasing the salt tax despite the opposition of the Legislative Assembly. He had however some salutary measures to his credit. He repealed the Rowlatt Act and abolished the duties on textiles manufactured in Indian Mills. The king’s Commissions were thrown open to the Indians and a few seats were reserved for them in the military College at Sandhurst. Steps were taken to create a Royal Indian Navy.

The viceroyalty of Lord Irwin who succeeded Lord Reading in 1926 was a time of storm and stress.

Question 16.
How was India affected by the First World war.
It is a remarkable fact that India in the course of her struggle for freedom never sought to create an opportunity out of England’s extremity. When England became involved in the meshes of the First World War there was nothing like vigorous anti-British agitation. On the contrary, the British government received remarkable cooperation from Indian leaders in the prosecution of the war. From the outset India made an impressive contribution in men money and ammunitions to the war effort of the allied powers.

India’s Contribution to the War effort. Lord Hardinge equipped a splendid expeditionary force of 290,000 troops to be sent to France and Egypt. Besides this, Indian soldiers fought in Palastine and Mesopotamia and every where they covered themselves with glory. It was the brave sons of India who stemmed the tide of the German advance at the critical moment during the early stage of the war and thereby saved Paris whose fell seemed imminent. As regards contribution in money, the Central Legislature Voted a large sum as a free gift to the British treasury while the princes and wealthy Indians made generous gifts to the Government and War Funds.

Effect of the War on Indias Political Progress –

In view of the substantial help rendered by the Indians during the War the British Government felt morally bound to do something to satisfy their political aspirations. Accordingly Mr. G.S. Montague the secretary of state made in 1917 his historical announcement of British Policy in regard to India. He declared that India was to have self government in progressive stages. This declaration was followed by important constitutional changes embodied in the government of India Act of 1919, Secondly the war exalted India’s status in the eyes of the world by giving her a place in the councils of the Empire.

International status of India was raised. Two Indian representatives Sir S. P. Sinha of Bengal and Maharaja of took part in the Imperial War Conference in London in 1917 and afterwards in the International peace Conference.

Impetus to national Movement. The war intensified the Indian national movement which soon developed into the non-cooperation movement under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi. It also created irritation among the Muslims who started the Khilafat movement as a protest against the British Governments post war policy towards the defeated Turkish Empire.

Economic Results. The war also produced an important change in the fiscal policy of the Government; The exigencies of war finance compelled the Government to increase the import duties on cotton goods with out enhancing the countervailing duty on the product of the Indian Mills. This removed a long standing grievance of the Indian. A parliamentry Committee of 1919 recommended Fiscal autonomy for India and this resulted in the establishment of an Indian Tariff Board. This Board adopted the policy of protection land imposed substantial duties on a number of British imports.

Question 17.
Give a brief account of the events during the reign of Lord Irwin.
Explain the circumstances under which Simon Commission was appointed. What were its recommendations and why did it fail ?
Lord Irwin (1926-31)
Lord Reading was succeeded by Lord Irwin in 1926 as the Governor General and Viceroy of India. He had to face many serious problems during his Viceroyalty. He was sympathetic towards the Indians and followed liberal policy. Following were the important events of his reign.

Simon Commission. The Government of India Act 1919 contained a provision for the appointment of a statutory Commission at the expiry of ten years to examine the working of the Indian constitution and to consider the desirability of establishing modifying or restricting the degree of responsible Government which then existed. The members of the commission were :

  1. Sir John Simon (Chairman).
  2. Lord Burnham.
  3. Lord Stratchona
  4. Mr. Gadogan.
  5. Colonel Lane Fox.
  6. Mr. Clement Atlee.

The British government was forced to appoint this Commission due to agitations and movements in India. The terms of reference of the Commission were:

(a) To enquire into the working of the system of the government, the growth of education and the development of the representative institutions in British India and the matters connoted with it.

(b) To report as to whether and to what extent it was desirable to establish the principle of the responsible government or to some extent modify or to restrict the degree of the responsible government then existing there in including the question whether the establishment of the second chamber of the Local Legislature was or was not desirable.

The Simon Commission came to India at the beginning of 1928. The Indian political leaders of all parties unanimously decided to boycott the commission because no Indian was considered fit to be its member. The Commission was welcomed in India wherever it went with black flags. Government strictly dealt with the opposition and many leaders were be laboured. Despite all opposition the Commission continued its work and submitted its report in two volumes on June 10 and June 24, 1930.

Recommendations Of Simon Commission

(a) Provincial Government
The Commission recommended that in the provinces dyarchy should be abolished because it was very’ defective in application. The ministers should be entrusted with full control of the provincial administration and they should be responsible to the legislature. The Governor should be given the right of selecting the ministers from the majority party in the legislature. It should be provided that the central Government should not interfere and exert undue pressure in the legislation and administration of the provinces.

(ii) The governors should be granted special powers to over side the advice of ministers in important, matters and the Central Government should have some control over the provincial governments.

(iii) The franchise should be extended and the legislature should be enlarged so that the people of the country may become more politically conscious. The commission denounced communal representation. ‘

(b) Central Government

  • In the view of the commission it was not possible to establish a federation in the country in the near future.
  • Pending the establishment of a federation in the country, the commission proposed that a consultative council of Greater India should be set up in which the representatives of British India and Indian states should be included.
  • Sind should be separated from Bombay. Burma should be separated from the British India because it was not a natural party of the sub-continent.
  • It was essential to Indianise the army. However, British forces must be retained till the time India was not fully equipped.
  • The commission recommended that the central legislature should be recommended on the federal pattern.
  • The administered areas of the N.W. Frontier Province would receive an advance in constitutional status represented by the creation of a local legislature. Both N.W.F.P. and Baluchistan would acquire the right to get represented at the centre.

Criticism. Sir Sira Swami Aiy er has remarked that the report “should be placed on a scrap of heap. ’ In words of P.E Roberts. “It will always stand out as one of the greatest Indian state papers”. Professor Keith has remarked, “It was probably foolish of Indian opinion to repudiate the report out and out ; if it had been accepted, the British Government would hardly have failed to work on it and responsible government in this provinces would have been achieved much earlier than it could be under any other scheme

2. Congress Session and Civil Disobedience Movement. The repressive policies of the Government could not suppress the national Movement. In the Congress Session of December 1928 a resolution was passed asking the British Government to grant the dominion status within a year. The Resolution declared to celebrate 26th January 1930 as the Independence day of India. From this day the Civil Disobedience Movement was started under the leadership of Mahata Gandhi. Thousands of persons were arrested and punished for taking part in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

3. First Round Table Conference. When the Simon Commission was submitted, the First Round Table Conference took place in London. But it did not yield any result because the Congress did not participate in it.

4. Gandhi Irwin Pact. Through the efforts of Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jayokar, the Gandhi Irwin Pact was made in 19 31 and Mahatma Gandhi agreed to participate in the Second Round Table Conference as the sole representative of the Congress. Gandhiji called off Civil Disobedience Movement and all political prisoners were released.

5. Reforms of Lord Irwin. Lord Irwin deserves credit for having introduced a number of reforms.

  • Lord Irwin increased the rate of Income tax to improve the economic condition of the country.
  • Pusa Agricultural Research Institute was expanded to impart agricultural knowledge to the farmers.
  • Many new roads were constructed.
  • Several new universities w ore established.
  • Labour Union were given recognition for the first time by the British Government. The Trade Union Act was passed and the labours got the legal right to go on strike.
  • The Sharda Act was passed in 1930 which fixed 18 and 14years as the minimum marriageable age for boys and girls respectively.
  • Indian Navy was organised for the first time and posts were given to Indians in it.

6. League of Nations. After the end of the First World War league of nations was found and India was also made its member. In 1929 an Indian representative was sent for the first time.

7. The Problem of the Indians in South Africa. The Government of India made efforts to ensure the security and respect of the Indians living in South Africa. An Indian representative was appointed in South Africa.

Lord Willingdon (1931-36) –

Lord Irwin was succeeded by Lord Willingdon as the Viceroy of India. He had also served as governor of Bombay and Madras from 1913-1924. He had worked as the Governor-General Canada from 1926-1930. The following were the main events of his reign.

1. The Second Round Table Conference. The Second Round Table Conference was held in London but it failed to achieve any success. Immediately after his return from London Gafidhiji was arrested and sent to jail. Lord Willingdon tried to crush the national movement with an iron hand. It was a reign of terror for some time.

2. Communal Award and Poona Pact. Matters were complicated by the British Prime Minister Mr. Macdonald who made his Communal award in 1932. It accentuated the minority problem by giving representation to the so called Depressed classes with the object of creating divisions in the Hindu Community. Gandhiji was in prison at that time. He under took a fast unto death as a protest against the provision of separate electorate for the Scheduled Caste Hindus.

But a timely compromise made by Dr. Ambedkar, the leader of the Depressed Classes saved the situation from growing worse. Its out come was the Poona Pact by which the number of seats reserved for the Depressed Classes was nearly doubled. These seats were to be filled up by a joint electorate out of the panel of names selected by the Depressed Classes. This arrangement hit hard the Caste Hindus although it maintained the integrity of the Hindu Community. Gandhiji broke his fast and nationalist India heaved a sigh of relief.

Decline of Civil Disobedience Movement. The severe measures adopted by Lord Willingdon made the continuance of Civil Disobedience difficult and by the middle of 1934 the movement subsided for a time. Meanwhile Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1935 providing for an all India federation and provincial Autonomy. But the scheme for federation was never materialised.

3. Third Round Table Conference and White Paper. The Third Round Table Conference met in London in 1932 but the Congress did not participate in it. In 1933 a white paper was published with regard to the new constitution of India.

4. Earthquakes. Earthquakes took place in Bihar and Quetta in the time of Lord Willingdon. These earthquakes caused a lot of loss of life and property in Bihar and Quetta. Congress worked hard to give relief to the people.

5. Reforms of Lord Willingdon :

  • In order to improve the conditions of the Indian labourers workman’s Compensation Act. Factory Act and Mines Act were passed in 1933, 1934 and 1935 respectively. Those Act fixed the age, the number of working hours etc. of the labourers.
  • Several irrigation schemes were planned during this period Sakhhar Dam was also completed during this time.
  • Many primary, Secondary and Intermediate Colleges and industrial institutes were opened. Lord Willingdon was hated by the Indians on account of his policy of repression. Indian Nationalism triumphed inspite of all the efforts of this great bureaucrat.

Question 18.
Critically discuss Cripps proposals of 1942.
What were the main features of the Cripps proposals of 1942 ? Why were they not accepted by the Congress and Muslim League ?
What were the Changes proposed by Cripps Mission ? Was it a mistake to describe it is a post dated Cheque ?
Lord Linlithgow (1936-44) And Cripps Proposals –
Lord Linlithgow was appointed the Governor-General and Viceroy of India in the year 1936. Before his appointment as Governor- General and Viceroy in India, he had been the Chairman of the Royal Commission on Indian Agriculture. He had also served in the Joint Select Committee of the Indian Constitutional Reforms. He had also played an important part in drafting of the Government of India Act 1935. He was therefore sent to India to implement the provisions of the Act of 1935. The main events of his reign were :

1. Government of India Act 1935. The Federal part of the Act was not introduced. Only the Provincial part of the Government of India Act was introduced. Elections were held in the beginning of 1937 and the Congress secured clear majority in six provinces. But the Congress refused to form ministries unless the Governors gave an assurance that they would of interfere in the day to day affairs of the ministries. The Governor General Lord Linlithgow directed the Governors to give such an assurance and consequently congress ministries were formed which continued up to 1939 when they resigned after the declaration of Second World War.

2. Split in the Congress. Subhash Chandra Bose, the most gallant fighter for India’s freedom was elected the Congress President. It was against the wishes of senior Congress leaders including Gandhiji. Subhash Chandra Bose was in favour of following a strong policy. But Gandhiji was not in favour of taking immediate steps against the British. It was on account of these differences that Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from Congress and formed the Forward Bloc which stood for complete independence of India.

3. August offer 1940. Lord Linlithgow made his famous August offer in order to solve the constitutional deadlock in India. But the offer was rejected by the Congress.

4. Visit of Chang Kai-Sheik (1941) In 1941. Chang Kai-Sheik the contemporary President of China paid a visit to India. He was given a very warm welcome. His visit strengthened the friendly relations of the Government of India and China.

5. Cripps Mission to India 1942. The British Government realised that it was difficult to remain indifferent to the Indian problem any longer. The War situation was worsening day by day. Invasion by Japan on India was imminent. The Indian National Congress did not want to help the British Government against anybody. On March 11, 1942, Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of England sent Sir Stafford Cripps the leader of the House of Commons to India to resolve political deadlock. The following were the causes of appointment of Cripps mission.

  • Threat of Japanese invasion to India.
  • Pressure of the President Roosevelt of U.S.A. and Chang Kai Sheik of China.
  • Growing frustration against the British Government in India.
  • The public opinion in England was in favour of reconciling India.
  • Efforts of Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru to bring about a compromise between the British Government and the Congress.

Japan had occupied the whole of South and East Asia by 7th March 1942. Mr. Cripps arrived in India on March 22, 1942. He had a series of interviews with prominent leaders of India. He worked hard to find out a way for negotiations but he failed and had to go disappointed on April 12, 1942.

Text of Cripps Proposals

1. Immediately upon the cessation of hostilities steps shall be taken to set up in India in the manner described hereafter an elected body charged with the task of framing a new constitution for India.
2. Provision shall be made for the participation of Indian States in the constitution, making body.
3. His Majesty’s Government undertake to accept and implement forth with the constitution so framed subjer i to.

(i) the right of anyprovince ofBrii o India that is not prepared to accept the new constitution, to retain its presto t constitutional position, provisions being made for its subsequent accession if it so decides. Such non-acceding provinces will have new constitution.

(ii) The signing of the treaty shall be negotiated between His Majesty’s Government and the constitution making body.

4. The constitution making body ;hall be composed as follows unless the leaders of the Indian Union in the principal communities agree upon some other form before the end ofhostilities. L- idian states shall be invited to appoint representatives in the same proportion to their total population as in the case of the representatives of the British India as a whole and with the same powers as British Indian members.

5. During the critical period which now faces India and until the new constitution can be framed. His Majesty’s Government must invitably bear the responsibility for and retain the control and direction of the defence of India as part of their World War effort bit the task of organising to the hill the military, moral and material resources of India must be the responsibility of the Government of India and with the co-operation of the people of India.

Reactions to Cripps Proposals. Indians could not be satisfied by the proposals put before them by Cripps. There was a lot of frustration in the country against these proposals. The causes of the failure of the Mission were the following:

(i) Inadequacy of the Proposals. The Congress party believed in the principle that “one bud in hand is better than two in the bush.” Cripps had assured the Congress leaders that with t ie exception of the Defence Department all other departments would be completely in the hands of the Indians later on he withdrew this statement To quote Maul an a Azad: “The only thing which Cripps offered was a promise which would be valid only after the war. In the existing circumstances such a promise had little value becauseno body was certain about the consequences ofwar.” Gandhiji called it a post dated Cheque on a Bank that was obviously failing.

(ii) Accessession of Indian States. The Congress Party was not prepared to accept the novel principle of the right of non-accession given to five hundred and sixty two Indian princely states.

(iii) Loose Federation. Hindu Mahasabha opposed the proposals put forward by Cripps on the ground that the party was against the freedom given to the Provinces. This party also opposed the principle of separate electorates on communal lines.

(iv) Opposition by Sikhs. Sikhs held the view that they would oppose the separation of Punjab from all India Union by all possible means.

(v) Opposition by Depressed Class. They opposed the proposals on the ground that there was no provision for safeguarding their interests.

(vi) Opposition by Muslims League. Muslim League opposed the creation of a Single Indian Union.
Gandhiji openly told Cripps : “Why did you come if this is what you have to offer ? If this is your entire proposal to India, I would advice you to take the next plane for your home.” Prof. Laski remarked :’ 1 one bright spot in the whole record was the Mission of Sir Stafford Cripps for the preparation of which let it be said with emphasis, Mr. Attlee deserved very great credit. But the Cripps Mission came too late. It looked more like a counter move against Japan than a recognition of Indian claims, it was carried out too hurriedly

6. Quit India Resolution (1942). The famojis Quit India Resolution was passed by the Congress in 1942. The Resolution asked the Britishers to leave India. A vigoroues movement was launched in pursuance of the Said Resolution. Many prominent leaders were arrested and sent to Jail. They were kept in Jail throughout the war. Despite the arrest of the leaders the movement still continued. The British Government took stern and ruthless measures to suppress the movement but with little success.

7. Reforms of Lord Linlithgow. On account of the Second World War and Quit India Movement there prevailed an all round, anarchy in India. In the meantime there was a very severe famine in Bengal. In the absence of sufficient relief, lakhs of people died in the famine. However, the Congress worked hard to give relief to the people of the famine stricken area. The Government started the Control or Rationing System. The prices of essential commodities were also fixed. But this led to an increase in the black marketing and corruption became rampant in the Country. There was all such dissatisfaction and people faced great difficulties.

Lord Linlithgow introduced some reforms in education. In 1938 Gandhiji initiated the Wardha Plan and emphasised the need of basic education. Montessaria Schools opened in 1939. Gurukul Kangri near Haridwar and Tagor’s Vishwa Bbarti in Shanti Niketan contributed a lot in the field of education. Linlithgow made some amendments in the Sharda Act and is 1938 this Act was made applicable in the native states also. Fines and imprisonment were to be imposed on the persons defying the Act.

Question 19.
Discuss the regime of Lord Wavell.
Lord Wavell (1944-1947)
On account of the out break of World War Second, the term of Lord Linlithgow had been extended upto 1944. In 1944 Lord Wavell was appointed the Governor- General and Viceroy of India and continued upto the year 1947. Immediately after taking over his charge in India he sent relief for the people of famine affected areas in Bengal. He released Mahatma Gandhi and other Congress leaders from the Jail. The following were the important events of his time

1. End of Second World War and Simla Conference (194S). During the Viceroyalty of Lord Wavell the Second World War came to an end. Germany was defeated and Japan was also forced to surrender in 1945. Finding this the most appropriate occasion for solving the constitutional problems Lord Wavell called a conference of the leaders of different parties at Simla. He offered some proposals which are popularly known as Wavell offer to solve the constitutional tangle. But the Conference proved to be a failure on account of the attitude of Mr. M.A. Jinnah (Muslim League).

2. Trial of the Officers of Azad Hind Sena. During the Second World War, Subash Chandra Bose secretly left India and went to Germany. From Germany, he went to Japan. He had organised an army named Azad Hind Sena for achieving the independence of India. After the end of Second World War the main officer’s of the said army were arrested and cases were started against them in the Red Fort of Delhi. The prominent leaders of India pleaded on behalf of these officers. The said -officers were held guilty but the Governor-General by using his special powers released the said officers.

3. Cabinet Mission Plan (1946). After the end of the Second World War, the Labour Party came into power in England. New elections were held for the provincial legislatures in India. In order to solve the constitutional tangle of India a Cabinet Mission consisting of Lord Pathic Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V. Alexander was sent to India. Thus Mission put forward proposals which provided for an inter Government. It also laid down the procedure for framing a constitution for India and the groups into which the provinces were to be combined.

The Cabinet Mission reached Delhi on March 24, 1946 and had prolonged discussion with Indian leaders of all parties. As the two major parties the Congress and the League could not come to any agreement on the fundamental issue of the unity or partition of India the Mission put forward their own plan for the solution of the constitutional problem. They rejected the Muslim Leagues demand for Pakistan. They gave very Cogent arguments against the partition of the country. The Mission recommended that the constitution of India should take the following basic form :

1. There should be a Union of India embracing both British India and the States which should deal with the following subjects. Foreign Affairs, Defence and Communications and should have the powers to raise the finances required for the above subjects.
2. The Union should have an Executive and a Legislative Constituted from British India and the States representatives.
3. The Provinces would enjoy full autonomy for all subjects other than the Union Subjects and all residrary powers should vest in the provinces. Provinces should be free to form groups with Executives and Legislature. The six Hindu majority Provinces viz ; Madras, Bombay – C.P., U.P., Bihar and Orissa would farm Group A.

The Muslim majority provinces in the North West (the Punjab and the N.W.F. P. Sind) would form group B ; Bengal, Assam would form group C of the Chief Commissioner’s provinces (Delhi Ajmer Mar war a and Coorg would join group A and one Baluchistan join B. The full autonomy of the Provinces and the provisions for grouping were meant to give Muslim League if not the form, the substance of Pakistan. It was obvious that group B and C would be under absolute control of the Muslims.

The constuent Assembly be elected by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies, adult sufferage having be ruled out as it would involve delay in the making of the constitution. The number of representatives allotted to each province and community was to be proportional to its population roughly in the ratio of one to a million. The table of representation is given below
DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of India Notes Chapter 3 Modern Colonial State after Revolt 1

To these 292 members were to be added four members from the four Chief Commissioner’s provinces and not more than 93 members from the Indian states whose selection would be determined by consultation.

The Constituent Assembly would conclude a treaty with Britain to provide for certain matters arising out of the transfer of power.

The Constituent Assembly. The Cabinet Mission Plan was accepted by the Congress and the Muslim League though with mental reservations.

The Establishment of Interm Government and Communal Riots. After clarifying some doubts the Congress accepted the plan but the Muslim League rejected it and the communal riots started. The Muslim League declared its ‘Jihad’ against the Hindus of Noakhali in Bengal. The people of other provinces reacted against the said incident and the communal riots were held in Bihar, Punjab and other places.

Mahatma Gandhi himself went to Noakhali to establish peace there. In this background Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru formed the Interim Government and the Constituent Assembly met in December 1946 at New Delhi. On February 20, 1946 the British Prime Minister Attlee declared that the British wanted to leave India before June 1948. The whole world was surprised to hear such a news because no body believed that the British would be prepared to leave India.

Question 20.
Discuss Lord Mounthatten rule in transfer of power.
Lord Mountbatten (March 1947 TO June 1948)
In March 1947 Lord Wavell was succeeded by Lord Mountbatten. The situation of India was very critics at the time. Communal riots were taking place in almost this which country, Lord Mountbatten thought that this problem can be effectively solved only by completing the work of transfer of power into the Indian hands with in as short a period as possible. After consulting the Indian leaders he left for London in May, 1947 for consulation with the British Government. He returned to India on June 1,1947, On June 3,1947 he published his plan of the Division of India into two Independent state through Radio, Broadcast.

Provision of Mountattan’s Plan –

1. Bengal and Punjab were to be divided into two parts-one consisting of Hindu majority and the other consisting of Muslim majority. According to the plan the members of the provincial Legislatures of the said Hindu and Muslim areas were to decide whether the division should take place or not. In case they were of the opinion that the division should not take place they were also to decide whether they would merge with India or Pakistan.

2. In case of division a commission was to be appointed for demarcating the boundary line.

3. Since the congress was in majority in the Frontier Province the people of the province were to be given one more opportunity for deciding whether they wished to live with India or Pakistan.

4. It was also decided to take the views of the people Sclbat District in Assam as to whether they would like to live in Eastern or Western Bengal.

5. It was also decided to complete the work of transfer of power into the Indian hands immediately instead of doing so in June 1948.

The plan of Mountbatten for the Division of the country was accepted by the congress as well as the Muslim League, Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru and Muhammad Ali Jinnah accepted the said plan on behalf of the Congress and Muslim League respectively.

Indian Independence Act of 1947. The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 on June 15th 1947. In accordance with the Act on 15th August 1947. India was divided into two parts one was named India and the other was named Pakistan. India became an independent country on 15th August 1947. Thus the whole property of the Government became divided into two parts and on August, 15, 1947 the two independent Governments came into existence with there capitals at Delhi and Karachi respectively.

Lord Mountbatten was again made the Governor-General of India but the post of viceroy was abolished. The words of Lord Pathic Lawrence former secretary of state for India are worth noting in connection with the transfer of power to India.

“What a wonderful chapter of human history and how differently it might have turned out but for the courage and wisdom of the principal actors, where so many have given so much it may seem invidous to single cut individual names, yet I feel I must pay special tribute to those Indians who have filled so worthily the principal roles. To Mahatma Gandhi who stood unflin Chingly for Indian Independence and who to once partition was decided upon threw his life into the seales to ‘prevent civil strife to Shri Raja Gopalachari, the eminent citizen of Madras the first Indian Governor General who strove without ceasing to effect a settlement both between the British and. India and between Muslims and Hindus; to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

Deputy Primeminister who so brilliantly acheived his ambition to bring into a united whole the provinces and the states of India Last but not least, to the Prime Minister Pandit Nehru son of an illustious father, who by his far-seeing wisdom, has won the respect both of his own country men and the people of the world. So long as India continues to produce men and women of their calibre 1 have no fear her future.”

Lord Mountbatten First Governor General Of Free India (15th August 1947 Is June 1948)

In accordance with the Indian Independence Act. of 1947 India was finally divided in to two independent dominions India and Pakistan, Lord Mountbatten was made the first Governor-General of free India. The following were the main events of his time.

1. Communal riots and the problems of the Refugees. Inspite of the division of the country, the communal feelings of the Muslim league did not subside. This, lead to the bloodshed which was caused in an unprecedented scale in, the areas which it has acquired after the partition. It had its repercussions and reaction in India also. A large number of innocent persons were killed in Punjab and Bengal. The problem of the transfer of the population was very pressing. An unprecedented crowd of the refugees started pouring in India. Likewise many Muslims also left India for Pakistan Re-habi litation of such a large number of refugees was a gragantic task.

2. Merger of the native states in to the Union of India. The British had not given any clear decision with regard to the position of the native states. They were left free to merge either with India or Pakistan. The problem of the merger of native states was most skilfully and efficiently solved by Sardar Vallabha Bhai Patel. He made three plans regarding the merger of the Indian States. In accordance with the first plan 219 small states were merged with the neighbouring provinces. According to the second plan 22 states were merged in the territories administered by the Central Government and according to the third plan 291 states were joined with in Federation. Big Princes or Rajas were made Raj Pramnkhs. In each Federation, a Legislative Assembly and an elected cabinet were established. Privy purse was fixed to be given to the native princes.

Hyderabad. After the declaration of the independence the native states were left free to merge either with India or Pakistan or they could maintain their independent status. This created a very difficult situation in case of certain big states like Hyderabad, Junagarh, Kashmir etc. Hydrabad was surrounded from all sides by the provinces of the Indian this on and 20 percent of its population consisted of Hindus. It was therefore not possible for Hyderabad to merge in Pakistan. But the Nizam did not want to merge his state with the Union of India also.

Hence the Nizam declared that Hyderabad will remain as an independent state. Communal feelings were being formented in the state. The government of India was seriously concerned with the state of affairs. Talks for compromise continue for a long time between the two Governments. It was decided that the relations existing between the two Governments before- 15th Augth 1947, will continue to exist. Both the Governments agreed to send their representatives to see whether the terms of agreement were being implemented or not.

The Nizam was entitled to send his ambassadors in foreign countries but could not purchase arms and ammunitions from any foreign country and the same will be supplied by the Government of lndia. In the event of war the Government of lndia would be entitled to keep its army in the State of Nizam. The Government of lndia appointed Sri K. L. Munshi as their first Agent General at Hyderabad.

Kashmir. Being situated on the border of lndia and Pakistan the state of Kashmir had great political significance. The state was ruled by a Hindu king but the muslims were in majority in the state. A difficult problem arose at the time of partition with regard to the merger of the state of Kashmir. Both India and Pakistan wanted to merge Kashmir in their respective union. Pakistan started prorogating that the Hindu ruler of the state was treating the Muslim population there most unjustly A section of the population of Kashmir which had sympathy for Pakistan wanted Kashmir to mage with Pakistan. This section started revolts in the state being encouraged by the leaders of Pakistan thetribal people attacked Kashmir; This attack was backed, by the Pakistan regular army.

The freedom loving Kashmiri’s could not tolerate this attack. They sought the help of lndia. The ruler of Kashmir requested for the merger of his stare into the union of lndia. Thus Kashmir was duly merged with Indian union. The Indian army was sent to Kashmir to defend it against the Pakistan intruders. The ruler of Kashmir immediately announced the formation of a Government under the Premiership of Sheikh Abdullah. It was also decided to hold elections in order to know the opinion of the people for merger alter the aggressors had been repulsed and peace established in Kashmir. The war took a serious and terrible turn. The Indian army started republishing the aggressors.

Pakistan was not prepared to accept that it had any hand in the attack of Kashmir. It said that Azad Kashmir Government which had been established was conducting the War. The Government of India took the dispute of Kashmir before the Security Council of the U.N.O. India charged Pakistan with allowing the way through its territory to the aggressors, allowing them of having their centres in Pakistan, supplying them with petrol and arms and ammunitions, the aggressors being trained by the Pakistani officers and that the citizens of Pakistan were also among the aggressors.

After a long debate which lasted for several days it was decided to send a commission which was first to stop war and then to arrange for in partial elections in order to know the opinion of the people with regard to the merger. The Kashmir dispute was taken to the Security Council on 18th. March, 1948 but so far it has not been come to any final decision in this matter. International situation have become so complicated that there is no possibility of an early solution of this problem.

3. Death of Mahatma Gandhi and the Departure of Lord Mountbatten. A section of Orthodox Hindus did not like Mahatma Gandhi for his liberal attitude towards the Muslims. On January 30th, 1948 in the evening when Gandhiji was going to attend the prayer meeting as useral, a Maratha named Nathu Ram Godse shot four bullets at Gandhiji. Gandhiji at once collapsed on the spot and died in the night. The whole India, hay the whole world was shocked to hear the news of the death of Gandhiji. Prominent leaders of the world paid their homage to the great leader who had lived and died for the good and welfare of the whole mankind. He died when the country was passing through a very critical situation and when his guidance was needed most urgently.

Question 21.
Indicate the chief features of the great religious movements in India in the 19th Century and give an estimate of their influence on society and politics.
“The second half of the Nineteenth Century in India was marked by a strong wave of reform in religion and society.” Discuss.
Describe the contributions of any of the following to the Social and cultural changes in contemporary India.
(i) The Brahmo Samaj, (ii) The Arya Samaj, (iii) The Christian Mission, (iv) The Rama Krishna Mission.
The Awakening of India. The 19th Century was a period of Renaissance in India because many political, economic, religious, social cultural and literary changes took place during this period. There was an unprecedented awakening and progress in religious-social, literary, cultural and scientific fields. Several 1 reformist movements were started during this period.

On account of ignorance of the people many evil, un ocial cruel in human customs and traditions were prevalent in the society. Sati system, child marriage’s polygamy, child infanticide, caste system, untouchability, prohibi-tion of travelling overseas, purda system etc., were some of the social and religious evils which were prevalent in the society. The impact of western civilisation roused them and forced the people to revise their orthodox ideas and to make a revolution of their old values. Indians with English education gave up their attitude of uncritical defence to authority, tradition and customs and so became the pioneers of almost all movements for social and political reforms.

Mrs. Anne Besant has remarked that in India any movement to be strong must rest on a religious basis. “It only throbs with full response when the religious note has struck which call out its sympathetic vibration.” Along with the national awakening among the people, several social and religious movements were started in order to root out the social and religious evils from the society.

(A) The Brahmo Samaj. The pioneer of religious movements and social reform in the nineteenth century was Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833). The Brahmo Samaj established by him in 1828 was the first of such reformist movement. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in 1772 in an orthodox well to do Brahman family of Bengal. At the age of 15 he was turned out of the family for writing a pamphlet denouncing idol worship. He travelled far and wide and gained much experience. He knew English, French, Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Hindi etc.

He made a deep study of the Hindu Dharam Sastras. The English civilisation impressed him very much and he went to England several times. He dedicated his life for the service of the people. He felt that there was need of reforming Hindu religion. In 1819 he published the essence of Vedant Satras in English and Bengali. He also translated the Upnishads. In 1820 be published the principles of Jesus, the Guide to Peace and Happiness in which he gave the critical analysis of the teachings of Christ. The missionaries made a strong protest against this He tried to prove in “Appeal to the Christian people” that Christ was not the son of God. In 1928 he found Brahmo Samaj the first meeting of which took place on August 1828.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy was a brilliant product of the impact of western education upon Indian culture. “He was in fact the first modern man in India.” A true humanist and a reformer, he wanted to raise the Hindu society from the slough of superstition and despondency.

Principles of Brahmo Samaj. It was a theistic organisation open to all who believed in the unity of God and discarded the worship of idols. Ram Mohan’s idealism was based upon the universalism of the Upnishads.

His aim was to establish worship of the Supreme being a worship of the heart and not of the hand, a sacrifice of the self and not of the possession of the self. He advocated the worship of one Supreme Being and the brother hood of man. Brahmo Samaj stood for respect for all religions and their scriptures. It was open to persons belonging to any caste and creed irrespective of any other distinctions. In the words of Ramsay Mac Donald, “The Brahmo Samaj was unwilling to desert Hindunism but was willing to become liberal and respond the impact of western faiths.”

Estimate of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. He was not only a religious reformer but was also a great patriot But he was not in favour of using force against the British. His aim was to educate public opinion to develop political consciousness among the people.

According to Subhash Chandra Bose : “Raja Ram Mohan Roy stood out as the apostle of religious revival. He urged a return to the original principles of Vedantism and for a total rejection of all the religious and social impurities that had crept into Hindunism in later times. He also advocated an all round regeneration of the social and national life and the acceptance of all that is useful and beneficial in the modern life of Europe. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, therefore, stands out against the dawn of the new awakening in India as the prophet of the new age.

Brahmo Samaj advocated re-marriage of widows and condemned child marriages. Raja Ram Mohan Roy launched a movement against untouchability and caste system. He persuaded Lord Bentinckto pass laws against the custom of Sati. He was in favour of the freedom of the press. He was responsible for the introduction of jury system in India. He was in favour of western type of education to be given to the Indians. He was also responsible for the founding of a Hindu College, an English School, and a Vedant College at Calcutta.

He was the most famous literary man of his time and wrote several books in Urdu, Bengali, Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian and English. He was the founder and editor of a Bengali journal called “Samvad Kaumudi.” He has been rightly called the harold of a new age and the harbinger of the idea of universal humanism. According to Miss. Colet : “Ram Mohan stands in history as the living bridge over which India marches from her unmeasured part to her incalculable future. He was the arch which spanned the gulf between ancient caste and modern humanity, between superstition and science, between despotism and democracy between unmoble custom and conservative progress, between a bewilding polytheism and a pure if vague theism.”

“The Raja was the human link between the unpading past and the dawning future, between vested conservatism and radical reform, between superstitions isotationsm and progressive synthesis, in short between reaction and progress.”

Contribution of Devendra Nath Tagore and Keshav Chandra Sen. On account of premature death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1833 the Brahmo Samaj received a great set back. But it started making rapid
progress under the guidance ofMahrishi Devendra Nath Tagore who joined the Samaj in 1843. He introduced a regular farm of church service. Brahmo Samaj spread in other provinces also. In 1862 another great man named Keshav Chandra Sen joined the Brahmo Samaj. He was made the Dharama Charya. He was a man of liberal views. Under his leadership the Samaj made further progress and many reforms were made. He edited two papers.

‘ The Hindu Patriot’ and ‘ The Indian Mirror ’ which took active part in the social and political reforms of the country. He laid more emphasis on Christian and Vaishnav teachings. This was not liked by some and led to a split in the Brahmo Samaj. Keshava Chandra died in the year 1884. The Brahmo Samaj made significant contribution in changing the out look of the Hindus towards Western ideas.

(B) The Prarthna Samaj. It was in Maharashtra that the influence of the Brahmo Samaj movement made its abiding impression. In 1867 Keshav Chandra Sen founded the Prarthna Samaj in Bombay and it counted among its members distinguished persons like justice Mahadeva Ranade, Govinda Ranade and Sir R. G. Bhandarkar.

In Maharashtra as in Bengal the movement was a rational unitarianism but the Prarthna Samaj laid greater stress upon social reform than upon theological speculation. Justice Ranade was an ercidite scholar with a keen intellect and under his able guidance the Prarthna Samaj became the active centre of a new social reformation in Western India. He was one of the founders of the Widow Marriage Association and was an ardent promoter of the famous Deccan Education Society. It object was to impart such education to the young as would fit them for the unselfish service of the country.

Ranade was also closely connected with the foundation of the Indian National Congress and it was at his initiative that a social conference began to be held along with the annual meeting of the Congress. Gopal Krishna Gokhle founded the servants of India Society and N.M. Joshi established the Social Service League whose aim was to collect and study social facts and discuss social problems with a view to forming public opinion on questions of social service and secure for the people better and reasonable conditions of life and work.

(C) Arya Samaj. The Arya Samaj occupies the most important place in the history of social and religious reforms in India. It was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswati whose real name was Moolshankar. Brahmo Samaj and Prarthna Samaj were inspired by Western rationalism whereas Arya Samaj distinctly re-established Hinduism on the pristine purity of the Vedic Age. Dayanand was the apostle of Vedic revival. Arya Samaj was founded in 1875. Back to the Vedas was the call of Mahrishi Dayanand.

Mool Shankar was born in 1824 in a well to do Brahman family of Gujarat. At the’ age of 20 his father Amba Shankar wanted to marry him with a Brahman girl. But he left home in the starch of truth. After wandering for the 15 years, he reached Mathura and became a disciple of Swami Virjanand. He wrote a book “Satyartha Prakash.” In 1875 he founded the Arya Samaj which hecame a great religious, social and educational movement. He travelled the whole India for the propogation of his religion.

He defeated many Muslims and Christian scholars in ‘Shasthrarth’. Thousand of persons becruse his followers. According to Sir Aurobindo : “Among the great gallary of remarkable figures that will appear to the eye of prosterity at the head of Indian Renaissance, one stands out by himself with the peculiar and solitary distinctness, one unique in this type as he is unique in his work.

It is he if one were to walk for a long time aimedd a range of hills rising to a greater or lesser altitutes, but all with sweeping contours, green clad, flattering the eye even in their stands apart, piled up in sheer strength a mass of bare puissant granite with verdine on its submit, a solitary pine julting out into the blue, a great cascade of pure, vigorous and fertilising water gushing out from its strength as a very fountain of life and health to the valley. Such is the impression created on my mind by Dayanand.”

Swamiji was a great reformer. He was of the firm conviction that Vedic religion civilisation and culture were the greatest in the world and the welfare of India was possible only by their revival.

Teaching of Arya Samaj –

  • Revival of Vedic religion alone can remove all evils.
  • He condemned caste system and believed in the equality of all men.
  • He emphased the worship of one Supreme Being and strongly condemned all types of superstitions, idol worship, polygany, child marriages worship of many gods and goddesses, the theory of incarnation etc.
  • He started the system of purification according to which the persons o{other religions could also be admitted to Hinduism by making them go through the process of purification.
  • Arya Samaj brought about revolutionary changes in the Hindu religion.
  • Arya Samaj. made a significant contribution to remove untouchability.
  • It encouraged the education of women.
  • It encouraged the feeling of nationalism among the Indians.
  • It gave India great leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai and Swami Shardha Nand. ‘
  • Swami ji was the first Indian to preach the gospel of Swedeshi and India for Indians.
    Thus, Arya Samaj gave a new life and vigour to Hinduism.

(D) The Rama Krishna Mission. Quite different in spirit was the movement which derived its inspiration from. Ram Krishna Paramhansa (1834-1886) the Saint of Dakshineshwar near Calcutta. He started life as a poor priest without any formal education but soon developed into a divinity inspired teacher of Supreme Spritual truths of him. Max Mullet has said, “Illiterate Rama Krishna in compatison with whom the brightest intellects of Europe are mere gropers in the dark.” The Rama Krishna Mission founded by his great disciple Vivekanand, is the living embdiment of his message and teaching.

Ram Krishna aimed at the universal synthesis of all religions. He described the diverse modes of Sadhna or spritual discipline prescribed by different religions, “In a potters shop there are vessels of different shapes and farmspots, jars, dishes plates etc., but all are made of one clay. So God is one, but is worshipped in different ages and countries under different names and aspects. Ram Krishna’s spritual cosmopolitanism inspired in a new vision of the spritual unity of mankind. It has been aptly remarked, “If Ram Mohan Roy was the mind, Dayanand the physical arm, Ram-Krishna was the soul of free India.”

Dynamic Influence of Swami Vivekanand. The great task of continuing Ram Krishna’s spritual heritage fell upon his devoted disciple Swami Vivekanand. He was a dynamic personality with irrepressible energy and boundless conviction. In 1888 hetravelled all over India and dedicated himself to the task of regenerating India through religion. In 1893 he attended the Parliament of Religions at Chicago where h s propounded the true meaning of Hinduism, He proclaimed the Vedanta as the grand universal religion of the world. While interpreting Hinduism to the outside world Vivekanand struck a happy balance between the East and West the metaphisical and physical, be spritual and the material.

He raised Hinduism to its prestine glory. One of the most remarkable contributions of Vivekanand to bring sprituality to the mind and heart of the common people. The message of spiritual hope which he gave India acted as a potent force in the course of Indian nationalism. His attitude towards religion was free from dogmatism and other narrowness. He was a true follower of his master in advocating universal religion. I accept all religions that were in the past and worship them all.

I worship God with everyone of them in whatever farm they worship him.” To Vivekanand religion was not a dogma, it was all persuasive in its scope. He laid special emphasis on the social regeneration and uplift of the masses. He organised the disciples of Ram Krishna Mission in 1897. In 1899 he established the BelurMatha at Calcutta which became the Centre of Mission activities.

In 1899 Vivekanand visited the United States. He also attended the Congress of History of Religions in Paris in 1900. He died in 1902 at the age of 39. Though the span of his life was short yet he left an enderring mask on the succeeding generations. Vivekanaand was the voice of the soul. It went into the heart of the Nation and restored it finly on its feet. His disciples are divided into two groups: first the Ascetics who do not marry and dedicate their lives to God and the service of man. The followers of the second group live in the world and earn their livelihood but they regulate their lives according to the teachings of Ram Krishna. They are not social reformers in the literal sense of the word but they are helping in the reconstruction of society in several ways.

A large number of school orphanages and dispensaries have been set up by the Ram Krishna Mission. Vivekanand established the Centres of the Mission in the foreign countries also. He also wrote several books on Raja Yoga. He participated in the religious conference of Paris. The propogation of religion made by Vivekanand proved to be very beneficial for India. Indians became conscious of their great culture and religion. This increased their self confidence and their sense of self pres tige. This paved the way for national awakening among the Indians.

According to Jawahar Lai Nehru : “Vivekanand spoke of many things but one constant refrain of his speech and writing was abhaya-be fearless, be strong. ” According to Romain Rolland, “He was energy personified and action was his message to men.” Sister Nivedita wiles in her great book, “The Master as I saw him. ” Throughout those years in which I saw him almost daily the thought of India was to him like the air he breathed. True he was a worker at foundations he never used the word nationality ………………….. the queen of his adoration was his mother land.

Radha Swami Sat Sang. This was started by Shri Shiva Dayal Khattri in 1851 in Agra where Dayal Bagh was made its Chief Centre and the construction of a temple was also started there. According to the followers of this sect, Radha Swami is the name of God who has taken incarnation on this earth in the form of Sant Sat Guru. Thus the devotion of Guru is the main feature of this sect.

Deva Samaj. This was founded by Satya Nand Agnihotri in 1887 at Lahore which was made its headquarters. It opened several schools and colleges for the people. The special feature of this organisation is that it is militantly atheistic.

Theosophical Society. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century India saw another religious movement known as the theosophical movement. It was in the United States of America that Madame H.P. Blavatsky, a Russian lady and Colonel H.S. Olcalt a farmer Army Officer of England laid the foundation of Theosophical Society in 1875. Its objects was to promote the study of esoteric religious philosophers of the East. In 1879 Madame Blavatsky and Olcott came to India and established a Society at Adyar near Madras in 1886. But the success of the Theosophical Movement in India was due to Mrs. Annie Besant who joined the society in 1889 and settled in India four years later.

The Theosophical Movement aimed at the quest of the Hindu spiritual wisdom. It pointed out the value of Hindu teachings; it held up the Vedas and the Upnisbads as the glory of India and proclaimed the value of Indian thought. The society also promoted the education of all section of the people. It established the Central Hindu School at Banaras in 1898 which latter developed into a College and ultimately in to the Hindu University in 1915.

Religious and Social Movements of the Muslims –
After the end of their rule in India certain social and religious evils had crept in among the Muslims. In order to toot out the social and religious evils among the Muslim, the Muslim reformers started many, movements such as- Wahabi Movement, Aligarh Movements, Ahmadia Movement, Anjuman-i- Hamayat-i-Islam etc.

Wahabi and Farazi Movements. In the early 19th century Wahabisim made its appearance in India as a religious reform movement. Sir Sayed Ahmed, Ismail Haji and Maulvi were the prominent leaders of this movement. It was influenced by the Wahabi Movement of Arab. Quran was translated into Persian for the use of common man.

The Wahabi Movement was much better planned and organised with a missionary zeal the khalifas toured the country recruiting new followers and appointing local agents throughout the length and breadth of the country. After the death of Saiyid Ahmed in 1831 Patna became the main spring of the movement. A central committee was in charge of overall operations and there were also district committees and permanent prechers. It used to meet every Friday night after prayers.

The transmission of recruits from Patna to Sittana in the Frontier Province – a distance of about 2000 miles indicated a wonderful network of the organisation evolved by the Wahabis. Regular agencies were set up at Banaras, Kanpur, Delhi, Thaneshwar, Ambala, Amritsar Jlielum, Rawalpindi, Alloate and Peshawar. The district centres maintained regular connection with the central headquarters at Patna. But each centre was self contained with its own machinery for raising men and money. There was regular arrangement for Collecting Taxes and money was sent to Sittana twice or thrice a year through various devices.

Character of the Movement. The Wahabi Movement in its earlier phase was a purely religious one restricted to a particular section of the Muslim Community. Gradually it assumed a political character and became popular with every rank to the Mohammadan Community. The British found it difficult of unearth the conspiracy owing to the sympathetic attitude of the entire community and the esteem and popularity of the leaders. The Hindus became suspicious of the movement when it was directed against the Sikhs. The British had to deal hard with the Wahabis inNorth Western. India. Many leaders were transported for life and their property confiscated.

Farazi Movement. Haji Sharcatullah of Faridpur founded a sect called Farazis. In 1804 he began to preach his doctrine by attacking the superstitions and corruptions of the Islami Society. But he gradually gave it a political character when he declared the country under British occupation to be darulharal (enemy territory). He gathered round him a band of devoted followers especially the landless peasents and unemployed artisans. Shariatullah died in 1837. His son continued the work of his father. He organised the poor cultivators against the tyranny of the Zamindars. But the real object of the Farazis was the expulsion of the British and the restoration of the Mohrmmandan Power.

Aligarh Movement. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898) was the first who brought about a change in the outlook of the Hindus who had so far referred to reconcile themselves with the changes that had taken place by the advent of the English in India. He asked the Muslims to change their political, religious, educational and social ideas. He asked the Muslims that they could achieve progress by studying modern education and science.

He himself went to England and on his return asked the Muslims and there was no harm in adopting the good things of the Western Civilization. He advocated imparting education to women. He also encouraged women to discard purda system. In the beginning he was severely criticised for his liberal policy but later on he achieved success and was able to change the social religious and political outlook of the Muslims. He founded the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College which later on grew into the Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. He made untering efforts for the Hindu Muslim Unity.

Ahmedia Movement. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed of Qadian was another famous Muslim Reformer. He was born at Qadian in District Gurdaspur of the Punjab. He was conservative and reactionary in his. He was the supporter of the Islamic practice of devorce and polygamy and was opposed to the abolition of purdah. He died in 1918 and after his death the movement was managed by a Khalifa. There was a split in 1914 and the movement was divided into two groups – the Lahore Party and the Qadiani Party. While the Qadian Party regarded the Mirza as a prophet, the Lahore Party considered him only as a reformer in Islam-just a Mujahid.

There were some other small movements to reform the Muslim Community. Anjuman-i-Hamayat-i-islam of Lahore, Navakhat-ul- Ulema of Lucknow. The main aim of these movements was to reform the social evils of the Muslim Community. In order to increase the feelings of brotherhood among the Muslims, Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan started a movement which is known as Khudai Khitmat Gar. Likewise Inayat Ullah Khan popularly known as Alama Mashreki started Khaksar movement which laid emphasis on the discipline and military training. Muslim League also developed the political consciousness among the Muslims.

Christian Missions. Towards the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the 19th century the Christian Mission exercised great influence on the Indian mind. The Baptist Missionary Society was founded in 1795 and the Chirch Missionary Society in 1800. Through the efforts of Carey, Marshman and Ward BiLle was translated into Bengali and distributed among the masses. The missionaries also questioned the social customs and religious practices of the Hindus. The Christian Missionaries made a striking impact on the Bengali society. The Serampore Mission near Calcutta was a great centre of their activities.

Between 1800 and 1837 Bible was translated into forty Indian languages. A few hundreds of Hindus were converted Christians. This alarmed the Hindus and in i821 Raja Ram Mohan Roy attacked the missionaries for their uncharitable remarks against Hinduism and Islam. The Tatve Badhami Patrika (1943) edited by Akshaye Kumar Dutta and sponsored by Devendra Nath Tagore resisted Christianity.

Question 22.
Give a brief account of the social development of India during the British role.
Social Development
Social Reforms. Many social evils such as female infanticide, polygamy, child marriages, caste system, untouchability etc. were prevalent among the Hindus Society in the 18th century. These social evils had made the society stagnant. In order to reform these social evils many social reforms were introduced in the 19th and 20th centuries.

(i) Abolition of Sati. The abolistion of Sati or the practice of a wife burning herself on the funeral pyre of her husband was the most salutary measure of the companys government. The main areas were the Punjab, Rajputana, Madena and the Ganges Valley. Since 1789 the English had tried to stop this evil practice. But they were handicapped from doing so for fear of Hindu opinion.

In the decade 1817=26 the number of widow burning varied from 500 to 850 annually. But Lord Bentenck was determined to put a stop to this in human practice on 4th December 1825 he declared the custom of Sati illegal and punishable by law. The courts were empowered to pass the death sentence on persons held responsible for Sati. The opposition led by Raja Radkakant Deb against this measure was of no axil. The abolition of Sati was strongly supported and favoured by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

(ii) Widow marriage. The abolition of Sati brought with it the problem and fate of the young widows. It was Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar the great Sanskrit scholar and social reformer who began a compaign for widow remarriage. On 26th July 1856 an Act was passed which legalised widow remarriage and gave legitimacy to the children of the married widows. A widow Re-marriage Association was started in Bombay in 1866.

(iii) Infanticide, In the first quarter of the nineteenth century the British social policy was one of patience and caution. They first attacked the abuses which were considered to violate the universal moral law. In 1803 Lord Wellesley suppressed infanticide i. e., sacrifice of children at the mouth of the Ganges.

The evil custom of female infanticide prevailed among the Rajputs who put their new born daughters to death to escape the humiliation of being called father-in-law. Another cause for the prevalence of this evil custom was the extravogaut expenditure which conventions demanded on the occasion of a daughters marriage. According to Tod “Although religion no where authories this barbarity, the laws which regulated marriage among the Rajputs powerfully promote infanticide.

In 1795 Bengal Regulations XXI was issued and infanticide was declared to be a murder. Inspite of this the custom of infanticide continued. Therefore, the British Government had to take forceful action as well as to make propaganda to educate the public opinion to end this evil custom. The Mughal Emperor Akbar had also tried to stop this evil customs of sati and infanticide but could not achieve much success.

Measures to stop early marriage and polygamy. These evils were prevalent in society for a long time. The marriages of hoi’s and girls were solemnised at very early age and on the other hand many rich persons married several girls. The Brahmo Samaj started the movement for the first time to remove these evil customs. On account of the efforts of Shri Keshavo Chandra Sen Native Marriage Act of 1872 declared child marriage illegal. In 1891 the age of Conset Act was passed. This Act fixed 12 and 10 as the minimum marriageable age of the boys and girls respectively.

In 1930 the Central Legislative Assembly passed the Sharda Act which fixed 18 and 14 as the minimum age for the boys and girls respectively at the time of marriage. But the provisions of this Act could not be implemented for a long time on account of the opposition of the orthodox section of the Hindus and the apathy of the Government. In the course of time however, the custom of earlymarriage has almost ended on account of the expansion of education and economic circumstances of the people. After the independence the Government of India has passed the law making polygamy illegal and has made it punishable. Thus the custom of polygamy has also almost ended.

Widow Remarriage. After the abolition of sati, the movement for widow remarriage also got momentum. As a result of untering efforts of Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar and other social workers a law was passed in 1856 legalising the remarriage of widows. The efforts of Brahmo Samaj and Arya Samaj are creditable in this direction. Ramabai, Sri Kaive and Shri Gang Ram opened institutions at Bombay, Poona and Lahore respectively where the Hindu widows are tried to be rehabilitated.

Education of Women and Franchise to Women. A Hindu Girls School was opened for the first time in Calcutta is 1849. Thereafter the number of girls schools went on increasing. The Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj and, Theosophical Society and the Servants of India Society and other social movements. Despite the aggregate increase in female education in India the Education Commission in 1882 remarked that it was still in an extremely backward condition. The commission focussed attention on female education and observed that it should receive special encouragement. In 1907 the Indian Womens Association was established.

In 1914 the womens medical service and a lot of remarkable work for the training of nurses and midwives. In 1916 LadyHardinge Medical College was opened at Delhi. The maternity and Child Welfare Bureaues of Indian Red Cross Society also gave the training of useful services to women. Many Schools and Colleges were opened &r the education of women. Efforts were also made for the up lift of the women of the depressed classes. Women were given employment in provincial and All India Services.

After the declaration of independence in 1947 women have been granted equality with men in almost every respect Indian Constitution brought the women at par with men and granted them equality in every aspect. Thus the conditions of women gready improved after the independence.

After 1947 the women have occupied the high posts of ministers, ambassadors, Governors etc. At present even our Prime minister is woman. Laws have been passed entiding the women to have a share in the property of their parents. Thus the woman have been granted equality with mm and now they do nut lay behind mm in any respect The Constitution of India also grants rights of casting vote to every adult women.

Question 23.
Discuss in brief the main constitutional changes that took place during the period 1773-1857.
Discuss the features of the Regulating Act of 1773 why were its clauses unworkable? .
Constitutional Development (1773-1857) Under Company Rule
The Regulating Act of 1773. The Regulating Act of 1773 has been described the first land mark in the constitutional development of India. It was though this Act that the British Parliament for the first time interfered into the affairs of India. In the early days of the Company its three important settlements of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta were each under the charge of a Governor who was assisted by a council of merchants and writers. The ultimate authority rested with the Courts of Directors and proprietors who exorcised their power subject to the noninal Contral of Parliament.

The Company gradually developed from a purely mercantile body into a territorial power, it established e. double government. In Bengal and Madras,’ the internal government was in the hands of the Nawab while the Company managed the military defence. This system of double governments with its faulty devision of duties led to gross corruption and mis-govemment. So in the interest of good government the British Parliament began to interfere in the affairs of India. The Indian Constitution is the product of such parliamentary interference. The development of the constitutions falls into two well marked periods, viz.,

(A) under the Company and (B) under the crown. The first parliamentary interference in the Company’s affairs was famous Regulating Act of 1773.

Provisions of the Regulating Act of 1793 –

  • The qualifications for a vote in the court of proprietors was raised from £500 to £ 1000. In other words the Act gave the right of vote for the election of Directors of the Company to shareholders holding stock worth £1000 for 12 months preceding the date of election.
  • The Governor of Bengal was made the Governor General of India and the governors of Madras and Bombay were made subordinate to him.
  • Warren Hasting’s was appointed the first Governor-General ofBengaL
  • Governor-General in council was empowered to made rules, ordinance and regulations for the good order and civil government of Company’s settlement at Fort William and factories and places subordinate to it.
  • A Supreme Court of Judicature consisting of a chief justice and three puisne judges was established at Calcutta.
  • All the servants of the Company were farbidden to receive anypresents or bribes or to indulge in private trade.
  • The Act provided that if the Governor-General, Member of the Council or a judge of Supreme Court committed any ofference he would be liable to be tried and punished by the King’s bench England.
  • The Directors of the Company were directed to send the copies of the letters and advices received from the Governor-General and Governors were asked to obey and respect the directions of the Directors and inform them all the matter affecting the interests of the Company.
  • The Act also fixed the salaries of the Governor-General, Governors, Chief Justice and other judges. Their salaries were fixed at £25000, £10,000, £800 and £ 600 annually respectively.

The Regulating Act is reckoned as the beginning of the constitutional development of the British India. It contributed to the strengthening of the British rule in India. It limited-the private trade of the savants of the East India Company This Act also marks the beginning of the Control of the Central Government ova Provincial Governments However, this Art had many short comings. P.E. Roberts calls it “a help measure, disastrously vague in many points.”

The Amending Act of 1781. The amending Act of 1781 was passed in order to remove the defects of the Regulating Act The following changes were brought about this Act:

  • It was made clear that the Governor-General and the members of his Council were not to be subject to the authority of the Supreme Court for the acts done by them in their public capacity.
  • Like wise the subjects of the Company were also not to be subject to the authority of the Supreme Court for their officials acts.
  • The matters relating to the Collection of revenues were exempted from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
  • While enforcing its decrees the Supreme Court was to take into consideration the religion and social customs of the people.
  • The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court was clearly defined. It was to have jurisdiction over all persons residing at Calcutta. It was to apply personal law of the defendant.
  • The appeals against the decision of the Company’s Provincial Courts were to lie before the Governor-General in Council.
  • It also ruled out the necessity of getting all the rules and regulations issued by the Governor-General in Council registered in the Supreme Court.

According to Dr. Keith : ‘It commenced an era of independent Indian legislation of the authority of the Supreme Court of the establishment of a Board of Revenue entrusted with the charge and administration of all the public revenues of the provinces and invested in the fullest manner with all the powers and authority under the Control of the Governor-General and Council of the recognition by Act of Parliament of the established Central and Provincial Courts; and of the recognition by Act ofParliament and in therecrossed Code of Bengal of file right of Hindus and Mohomedans to be governed by their own laws usages.” The year of 1781 may therefore, will be taken as the first dividing point of time at which the character of that history essentially changes at which the boundaries of authority have at last become strongly defined.”

Pitts India Act 1783. Pitt the younger, the British Prime Minister introduced his famous bill on India in the British Parliament and got it pass. The main provisions of the Pitts India Act 1784 were –

(i) The Board of Control consisting of a secretary of State, the Chancellor of Exchequer and four other Privy Councillors was to be created. These Commissioners were to be appointed by the king and were to hold office during his pleasure.

(ii) The Board of Control was to be empowered to have supervision and Control ova Indian administration. It provided that all the dispatches from India received by the Court of Directors were to be placed before it. It was empowered to make amodifications in all the despatches and orders prepared by the Board of Directors.

(iii) The Board of Control was to have the power to ask for quick disposal of business on any subject. In case such a direction was not complied by the Director with in 14 days it could itselfprepare and despatch and send is to the Directors for transmission to India.

(iv) The act provided for the appointment of a committee of secrecy consisting of three Directors only. Instructions regarding declaration of War making of peace and the concluding of treaties were to be sent by the Board of Control to this committee and these instructions were not to be disclosed to other directors.

(v) Court of Directors was to retain the power of making appointments to most of offices in India. However, the crown was to have the power to recall any of such officials.

(vi) The Court of Proprietors was not to have right of over-riding the decisions of the Court of Directors.

(vii) The secretary of state was to be the Chairman of the Board of Control. In his absence the Chancellor of Exchequer was to act as Chairman. In case ,> both the secretary of state and-the Chancellor of Exchequer were absent, the senior most Commissioner was to preside its meetings.

(viii) The Act provided that the expenses of the Board were to be met out of Indian revenues and they wore not to exceed £ 16,000.

(ix) The Board of Directors retained the control over commercial activities. However, the policy of intervention as followed by the servants of the company in India was disfavoured. According to the Act: where as to pursues scheme of conquest and extension of dominion in India are measures repugnant to the wish the honour and policy of this nation, the Governor General and his council were not with out the express authority by the Court of Directors or Secrecy Committee, to declare war, against any of the country, provinces or state in India.

(x) The number of the members of the Governor-General’s Council was reduced from four to three and one of them was lobe the commander in chief of the armies of the company in India.

(xi) Governor-General was to be appointed by the Directors with the approval of the Crown. Such as approval was not necessary for the appointment of the Governors of Presidencies and members of the Governor General’s Council.

(xii) The powers of the Governor-General’s. Council were increased. It was given the power of superintending, controlling and directing the several presidencies.

The most important feature of the Pitt’s India Act was the introduction of what is known as the system of dual control from England. The Act made the Governor-General Supreme over the Governors of the other Presidencies and thus helped the unification of India. The dual system established by Pitt’s v India Act has been subjected to Criticism. According to Lcrd Palmerston : “Thefunction of Government and the responsibility have been divided between the Board of Control and the Court of Directors and the Governor-General in India and among these authorities it is obvious that despatch and unity can hardly exist Before a despatch upon the most important matter can go out to India, it has to oscillate between the Common Row and the India House. ”

The Act of1786. The Act empowered Lord Camwallis, the Contemporary Governor to override his Council on his own responsibility. He was also made the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian forces. The privileges were to given Lord Camwallis personally on account of his ability.

The Charter Act of 1793. The main provisions of the Act were :

  1. The East India Company was granted the monopoly of carrying on trade with East for 20 years.
  2. The Expenses of the members of Board of Control and their Staff were to be met ont of Indian revenues.
  3. The Governor-General of Bengal and the Governors of Bombay and Madras were to have only three member Council. These members must have resided in India for at least 12 years before the date of appointment.
  4. The Commander-in-Chief was not to be a member of the Council by the virtue of his office. However he could become a member of the Council if specially appointed by the Court of Directors.
  5. The Governor-General and the Governors were empowered to override their Councils on their own responsibility.
  6. It further confirmed and emphasised the Control of the Governor- General over the Presidencies of Bombay and Madras. It was provided that when the Governor-General went to a Presidency he was to supercede the Governor of that Presidency.
  7. The Governor-General was empowered to appoint a Vice-President of his Executive Council from the members of the Council and the latter was to’ act in the place of the Governor-General in case of his absence from Bengal.
  8. The Act provided that the Governor-General, Governors, Commander- in-Chief and a few other high officials were not to be given leave of absence out of India during their tenure of office.
  9. The Governor-General was given power to appoint justices of peace in any presidency with the advice qf his Council.
  10. The Act extended the admirelity jurisdiction of the Calcutta Supreme Court to the high seas.
  11. The policy of non-intervention was again emphasised.
  12. It was laid down that the two junior members of the Board of Control need not be Privy Councillors.
  13. The Act prohibited the receiving of gifts by the Servants of the Company.
  14. It laid down that the length of service was to be considered in matters of promotion.
  15. The sale of liquor was made subject to the grant of a licence.
  16. An effort was also made to Control the finances of the Company.

Charter Act of 1813. The Charter Act of 1793 had given to the company the monopoly to trade with the East for a period of twenty years. But during this period people had started opposing the monopoly of the company to trade with the East. The Free trade policy of Adam Smith had become quite popular in the beginning of the 19th Century.

The supporters of free trade policy were pointing out many advantages of which the abolition of monopoly would bring viz the extension of British Commerce and industry, the prevention of the diversion of Indian trade to other countries of Europe and America; the reduction in the cost of trade especially in transportation and warehousing charges and the cheapening of the Indian raw imports into British. On the other hand, prominent men like Warren Hastings, Malcolm and Munro defended the monopoly of the Company. After a long debate in the Parliament the Charter Act of 1813 was ultimately passed. The following were the main provisions of the Charter Act of 1813 :

  1. The Charter of the Company was renewed for a further period of twenty years. The monopoly of Company’s trade with India was ended.
  2. Trade with India excepting in tea was thrown open to all subjects of His Majesty.
  3. The British merchants and missionaries were permitted to came to India and settle in India.
  4. The justice of peace were empowered to try cases of assault and trespass by British subjects on the natives of India and in case of debts not exceeding 50 rupees due to the natives from the British Subjects.
  5. The Company was to keep separate its territorial and Commercial accounts.
  6. The vacancies in the offices of Governor General. Governor and Commander-in-Chief were to be filled by the Court of Directors with the approval of the Crown.
  7. A bishop with three archdeacons was to be appointed at Calcutta for the propogation of Christian religion.
  8. It laid down rules for the application of Indian revenues.
  9. The Act empowered the Company to make laws, regulations and articles of War for the Indian troops. Besides this the power of holding Court materials was also given to the Company.
  10. They all defined the powers of Superintendence and direction of the Board of Control.
  11. The Act empowered the Local Governments in India to impose taxes on persons and to punish those who did not pay them.
  12. The Act provided that a sum of Rs. 1,00,000 a year was to be spent for therevival and to the improvement of literature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India.
  13. Aprovision was made for the training of the civil and military servants of the Company.

Charter Act Of 1833

  1. The charter of the company was renewed for a further period of 20 years but the Company was deprived of its Commercial privileges. Thus the Company lost its monopoly of carrying on trade with China also.
  2. The Government of India had to pay the debts of the Company. The shareholders of the Company were guaranteed an dividend of 1014 percent per annum out of the Indian revenue for the next 40 years.
  3. The Governor-General of Bengal was to be called hence forward as the Governor-General of India and his powers and controls were further enhanced.
  4. It was decided to reduce the number of members of each presidency Councils from 3 to 2.
  5. The Governor-General was given many civil, administrative and military a powers over the Presidencies.
  6. The Governor-General was empowered to make rules and laws and
    only the Board of Directors could declare such rules and laws invalid.
  7. The Legislative powers of the Central Government were increased and provision was made for the codification of laws in India.
  8. A Law member was added to in Governor-General’s Council.
  9. Lord Macaulay was appointed the Law Member in Council of Governor- General and a Law Commission was appointed undo- him.
  10. The legislative powers of the Central Government were greatly enlarged.
  11. It was not necessary for the Europeans to seek permission or to
    obtain licence for coming to India or setting here. ,
  12. The Control of Directors was limited and President of the Board of Control became the Minister for Indian affairs and two assistant commissioners were appointed to assist him.
  13.  It was proposed to divide the Presidency of Bengal into two Presidencies viz; Presidency of Agra and Presidency of Bengal.
  14. It wasdecided to appoint the Bishops of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta for the benefit of the Christians in India.
  15. It was laid down that merit was to be file basis for employment in Government Services and the religion, birth place, colour and sace of the Candidates were not to be considered in respect of employment.

Charter Act Of 1853 –

The Charter of Company was again renewed in 1853 by the CharterAct of 1853 which had the following main provisions:

1. The Charter of the Company was not renewed for definite period. The Company was to hold the territories in India as a trust for the British Crown Until Parliament should direct otherwise.
2. The number of Directors were reduced from 24 to 18, six of there were to be appointed by the Crown.
3. It was provided that the salary of the President of the Board of Control could not be less than that of a Secretary of State.
4. The Board of Directors was deprived of patronage of officers in ‘ Coveunanted Civil Service which was thrown open to all under the rules made by the Board of Control.
5. In order to relieve the Governor-General from the administrative works of Bengal, a Lt. Governor was appointed for Bengal.
6. The Court of Directors were given the power to constitute to a new province and to alter the boundaries of the provinces
7. The Powers of the Law member were increased and he was made a full member of the Governor-General Executive Council.

8. A Legislative Council Consisting of 12 members (which included Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief as extraordinary members four members of the Executive Council and six additional members of the Legislative Councillors) was created for India. The six additional members were to be the Chief Justice of Bengal one judge of the Supreme Court and four Civil servants of 10 yea’s of standing to represent Bombay, Madras, Bengal and N.W. Provinces.

9. The Governor-General could into the bills passed by the Legislative Council.

Significance of the Charter Act of 1853. The Act marks the beginning of a Parliamentry system in India. The Charter Act of 1853 indicated clearly that the rule of the Company in India could not last a long time. The power and influence of the Company bad been reduced. The British Crown could nominate six Directors. Another feature of the Act was that the Legislative Council was clearly distinguished horn the Executive Council. The Governor- General was relieved of the administrative duties of Bengal. He was to devote his whole time to work for the Government of India.

Question 24.
Discuss the constitutional under the British Crown since 1858 to 1947.
Constitutional Development Under british Crown (1858-1947)
Government of India Act, 1858. Agitation had been growing in England for a long time against the rule of the Company. It was pointed out that it was not proper to entrust the work of administration of lndia to a trading Company. This agitation strengthened after the out break of mutiny and its suppression. The British Parliament decided to abolish the rule of the Company and for this the British Parliament passed the Govern Government of India Act,1858. The following were the main provisions of the Government of lndia Act 1858:

1. The Act declared that hence forth ‘India shall be governed by and in the name of the Queen” and this the territories of lndia wore transferred from Company to the Crown.
2. The Governor-General of lndia was also to be called Viceroy and was to rule ova: India in the name of the crown.
3. The Board of Control and the Court of Proprietors were abolished and all their powers were transferred to Secretary of State for India and his Council.
4. The Secretary of State for India was to be a member of the British Parliament and a member of the British Cabinet. An under secretary was also to be appointed for this assistance.

5. Indian Council of the Secretary of the State was to consist of 15 members, 7 of them ware to be elected by the Court of Directors and the rest of 8 members were to be appointed by the Crown. More than half the members must have lived in India for lOyearsandmustnothaveleftthecountrymore than ten years before the date of appointment. Each member was to be paid £ 1200 a year out of Indian revenues.

6. The Secretary of State of India was empowered to preside at the meetings of the Indian Council. He was to have a vote and also a casting vote in Bass of a tie.

7. The Secretary of State for India was empowered to said and receive secret messages and despatches from Governor-General and was not bound to communicate these to the India Council. ‘

8. The Act established the control of the Parliament over Indian affairs. Now the members of the Parliament could ask questions from Secretary of State for India regarding Indian administration.

9. Lord Canning was appointed the first viceroy. The assumption of the Government of India by the Crown was announced by the ‘Proclamation of Queen Victoria’ which was read at a Durbar at Allahabad.

Significance of the Act. It marks the beginning of new chapter in the history of lndia. It established the rule of the British Crown and ended that of the Company. It abolished the double system which had been established by the Pitt’s India Act. The power of the Secretary of State for India and his Council were enhanced. The policy of lapse and annexation was discarded.

Indian Council’s Act Of 1861

Provisions of the Act Indian Council’s Act 1861 contained the following main provisions:-

  1. 1. A fifth member was added to the Executive Council of the Governor- General.
  2. 2. Governor-General’s Legislative Council was to be expanded for the purpose of making laws and regulations.
  3. 3. The Legislative Councils of Bombay, Madras and Bengal were reestablished. The Governor-General was empowered to establish similar Councils for North West Province and the Punjab according to his direction.
  4. Subject to the approval of the Governor-General, the Governor was
    empowered to nominate the members of the Provincial Councils. Half of these members ware to be non-officials.
  5. The powers of Legislative Councils ware strictly limited to legislation. It was clearly laid down that no motion could be introduced or entertained by the Council unless it was for leave to introduce a measure or had reference to _ some measure already introduce in it.
  6. No bill passed by Governor-General’s Legislative Council could become
    an Act unless it received the assert of Governor-General. Likewise the assent of the Governor was necessary for all the bills to become Act in the Legislative Council of a Presidency of Province. ‘
  7. All the previous rules and regulations made in the executive capacity by the Governor-General in Council or by Governor in Council in executive capacity were to be treated as laws and accordingly enforced.
  8. In case of emergency the Governor-General was empowered to issue ordinances for the peace and good government of British India or any part of it. Such an ordinance was to have the force of law for a period of six months unless disallowed earlier by Her Majesty or superseded by an Act of Legislature.

Estimate of Indian Council’s Act 1861. The most significant features of this Act was the association of Indians with the legislation work. Secondly it provided a framework of governmental structure which, with some modifications continued till the end of the British rule in India. It also marked the beginning of the decentralisation:which lata on developed into Provincial Autonomy in 1937.

However, the Legislative Councils established by this Act had no control over Executive Councils and their powers were vary limited. The Act marks an important stage to the development of the constitutional history of India. G N. Singh has rightly remained: “The Indian Councils Act 1861 is important in the constitutional history of lndia for two reasons. Firstly, it enabled the Governor-General to associate the people of the land with the work of legislation and secondly by vesting legislative power to the Government of Bombay and Madras and by making provisions for the institution of similar legislative Councils in other provinces. It land the foundations of the policy legislative devolution which resulted in the grant of almost complete internal autonomy to the provinces in 1937.”

Indian Council Act 1892

With the growth of nationalism in the country, Indians had become conscious of their rights. The exploitation of the people through free trade further increased their discontent. . After the foundation of the Congress in 1885 the feeling to make reforms in the administration and the demand or more representation of the Indians developed rapidly. In 1884 Lord Dufferin sent a letter to England with regard to making some reforms. After a long debate Indian Councils Act 1892 was ultimately passed. The Act increased the functions of Legislative Councils. The following were the main provisions of the Act –

  1. The powers of the Legislative Councils were increased with some restrictions, they were empowered to discuss annual financial statement.
  2. The number of additional members in the Councils was incr eased.
  3. At least 2/5 of the additional members were to be non-officials.
  4. The members of the Councils were given the right to ask questions on public matters from the Government but they were to give 6 days notice before putting any question.
  5. A certain proportion of non-official members should be nominated by the head of the Government on the recommendations of certain bodies like Municipal Councils, District Boards, Chambers of Commerce etc.

Significance of the Act. The act marks the beginning of re-presentative form of Government. Although the principle of direct election was not directly conceded, rules were framed under the Act to provide for the nomination of non-official members. In the Imperial Council four members were to be elected by the non-official members of the local Councils. Thus the representative though not the elective principle was cautiously introduced. It was the first milestone on a road leading eventually to political dead lock and strangling of executive government. According to Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya “The Act still left Indians without any real voice in the administration of their country.”

Minto-Morley Reforms, 1909
The Indian Councils Act of 1892 had failed to satisfy the Indians who had now become conscious of their rights. Complete control of the Secretary of State for India continued over the Government of India. There was a lot of agitation and discontentment in the reign of Lord Curzon. There was also the rise of extremism in the Congress under, the leadership of B.G Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhle went to England and met Mr. Morley the Secretary of State for India. Lord Minto also emphasised the need of making some re-forms. At last the British Parliament passed India Councils Act of1909 which is popularly known as Minto-Morley Reforms.

Provisions of the Act

  1. The size of the Imperial Legislative Council was en’ arged. The number of additional members was increased from 16 to 60 now the total number of members in the, Imperial Legislative Council was to be 69(37 officials, 32 non – officials).
  2. The size of the Provincial Legislative Councils was also enlarged.
  3. The Act increased the functions of the Legislative Councils. Detailed rules were made with regard to the discussion of the budget in the Imperial Legis1aive Council and the Provincial Legislative Councils.
  4. The members were given the right to ask questions and supplementary questions.
  5. Matters of public interest could be discussed in the Legislative Councils.
  6. The Act introduced restricted and discriminatory franchise.
  7. The Act introduced the system of communal and class re-presentation of different communities, classes and interests for the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils. The composition of the 26 elected seats in the imperial Legislative Council was as under:
    DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of India Notes Chapter 3 Modern Colonial State after Revolt 2
  8.  Indians were appointed to Executive Councils. S.P. Sinha was appointed a member of the Governor-Generals Executive Council.
  9. The Act did not introduce responsible government

Estimate. Instead of introducing a responsible Government, Minto Morleyreforms established benevolent despotism. There was no mention that the Executive Council was to be responsible to the Legislative Council. The right of franchise was restrictive and discriminatory. Separate electorates were constituted. This resulted in the division of the Indian sub-continent into two nations-India and Pakistan in 1947. Morley was fully aware of the defects of the system of communal and class electorates. According to Sri H.M. Munshi “Political changes known as Mino-Morley Reforms we brought in as a soap to the moderates. Legislative Councils established under it were not intended to bring Parliamentary Government as Viceroy Minto himself hastened to emphasise. Though they were merely consultative, special care was taken to see that class was set against class, community against community each to / cancel out the effect of the other.”

Government Of India Act, 1919

The growing discontent of the people brought home to the British Govemment the necessity of making some concessions to the roused political consciousness. This was all the more necessary in view of the great services rendered by the Indians to the cause of the Allied powers in the Great War. Moreover the Government wanted to rally the moderate opinion as the recent repressive measure had driven many moderates to the extremist camp. All these causes combined led Mr. E.S. Montague, the Secretary of State to make a momentous declaration of British Policy with regard to India on August 20, 1917. Mr. Montague visited India and with consultation with Lord Chelmsford published a Report on the basis of which the India Act of 1919 was passed.

Main features of the Government of India Act 1919. According to the Preamble of the Act British India was to remain an integral part of the British Empire. The objective of the Parliament was to establish a responsible Government in British India. It was necessary to ensure the increasing association of the Indians in every branch of administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions.

2. So far the salary of the Secretary of State fin India was paid out of the Indians revenues. This Act provided that his salary will now be paid from the treasury of England. His power and functions were also reduced.

3. Certain changes were made in the constitution of India Council. It was ‘ now to consists of not less than 8 and not more than 12 members. Half of the members must have remained in India for years before the time of appointment The salary of the members of Council was enhanced from £ 1000 to £ 1200. In case any member was in India at the time of appointment he was to get an ‘ allowance of £600.

4. The Secretary of State for India was to act with the advice of the Council in matters of expenditure of Indian revenues and Indian Civil Service. In other matters he was free to act independently.

5. The Act created the post of a High Commissioner who was to live in England and was directly Subordinate to Governor-General in Council. He was to be paid out of Indian revalues.

6. The Act of 1919 set up a bicameral legislature at the centre consisting of Central Legislative. Assembly and the council of state. The Caitral Legislative Assembly consisted of 145 members out of which 103 were to be elected and the rest of the 42 were to be nominated. Out of the nominated members 27 were to be officials and 15 non-officials. The council of states consisted of 60 members out of which 33 were elected and 27 were nominated by the Governor-General. The life of the Central Legislative Assonbly was 3 years and fee council of states 5 years.

7. The central legislature could make laws for the whole of the British India. But there were certain restrictions. Theprevious sanction of the secretary of state in council was necessary to pass legislation abolishing a High Court.

8. The Provincial Government was thoroughly remodelled. The Executive was divided in to two halves-the Reserve Department and the Transferred Department. The Resawed Subjects were to be administered by the Govonor with his executive council with no responsibility to the legislature. The Governor was responsible only to the Central Government and Parliament.

The Transferred subjects were placed in charge of the Governor acting with the ministers selected by him horn amongst the elected members of the provincial legislature.
The ministers in the provinces were made responsible to the legislature.

This dual government in the provincial Executive is known as ‘Dyarchy’. The ministers had to serve two mastas the Governor and the Legislative Council.

The provinces were to have unicamercial legislatures called Legislative Councils which were to have a clear majority of the elected members.

9. Communal electorates first set up in the case of Muslims in 1909 was extended to other groups like Sikhs Europeans Anglo-Indians and Indian Christians. The provincial budget was in the main made voteable by the Legislative Council which could cut down or refuse any demand in respect of Transferred Subjects. But if the demand related to Resaved Subjects was rejected by the Council the Governor could restore it by catifying the expenditure as essential for the discharge of his responsibility.

Importance of the Act. There is no doubt that Government of India Act of 1919 was an important instalment of constitutional reform. It was more substantial and comprehensive than any attempted before. It introduced direct election, widened the franchise and at points crossed the line between legislative and authority. For the first time Indian ministas were appointed to take charge of certain departments of provincial administration not as official nominees but as the leaders of the elected majorities in their legislatures and responsible to them alone. This was responsible government although to a very limited extent All these woe no doubt significant concessions. Besides, the Act afforded valuable opportunity to the people for training in politics and in the art of government. But despite these commendable features the Act was defective in many respects. As Dr.AK.

HeithTemarks “The executive remained wholly free from direct authority of the legislature”. The Dyarchy or the double executive betrays a lack of confidence in the capacity of Indians to manage their own affairs and that was why only inch subjects were transferred to their care as were politically unimportant. The system did not make for efficiency of administration. It gave minister responsibility without power and the legislatures power without responsibility.

Besides subjects vitally related to one another were divided into reserved and transferred subjects. Sir- K.V. Reddy ex-minister of Madras very pertinently observed, “I was minister for Development without the Forest. I was the minister for Agriculture minus irrigation.” Development of Agriculture is impossible without irrigation but the latter being a ‘reserved’ subject the minister had no control over it. The Moderates accepted the reforms as they regarded them as important steps in the direction of self government. The Nationalist partyhowever, rejected them as being in adequate, unsatisfactory and disappointing.

Government Of India Act, 1935
The Government of India Act of 1919 was regarded as in-sufficient disappointing and dissatisfactory by the Congress. The Congress decided not to take a part in the elections. But lata the Swarajists Party entered the Legislative Councils. In 1927 Simon Commission was appointed to submit a report on the reforms of 1919. The Indians boycotted this Commission because all the members of the commission were Britishers.

The commission submitted its report in 1930 since the Nehru Report had not been accepted and the Congress had started Satyagraha Movement in 1930-31, three Round Table Conferences were held at London in 1930, 1931 and 1932 respectively to decide the future of India. Only in the Second Round Table Conference Mahatma Gandhi participated as a sole representative of the Congress.

In August 1932 the British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald announced the famous Communal Award and the famous White Papa* was published in 1933. The joint select committee submitted its report on 22nd November 1934, On the basis of its recommendations the government of India Act was passed.

Provisions Of Government Of India Act 1935

1. Proposed Federation of India. The Act proposed to set up an All India Federation consisting of eleven Governor’s Provinces, Six Chief Commissioner’s provinces and such states as would agree to join the Federation. ,

2. Provincial Autonomy. The Act established the autonomy of the provinces and abolished the distinction between the Reserved and Transferred departments by making all the provincial subjects as transferred subjects. It made the ministers responsible to the Legislature.

3. Division of subjects. On account of the establishment of provincial Autonomy, the devision of subjects, hitherto existing had to be revised. The Act of 193S divided the subjects into three lists-Federal, State and concurrent.

4. Dyarchy at Centre. Though the system of dyarchy was abolished in the provinces the Act of 1935 introduced the system of dyarchy at the centre. The Federal subjects were to be divided into reserved and transferred. Defence Ecclesiastical affairs, External Affairs, the Administration of the Tribal Areas etc. were to be Reserved Subjects were to be Governor-General with the help of the Executive Councillors not exceeding three in number. The rest of the subjects wore to be transferred ones. The Governor General was to administer the Transferred Subjects with the help of council of ministers who were responsible to the Governor-General and the Legislature.

5. Inclusion of safe guards and Reservations. The authors of the Act were of the view that certain checks on the Central Legislatures and on the Provincial Legislatures were,necessary to make responsible government a success. In certain circumstances, the Governor General and the governors were entided to override the decisions of the Council.

6. Increased size of Legislatures and Extension of Franchise. The Act of 1935 enlarged the size of the Legislatures. The Federal Legislature was to consist of Council of State having 260 members and Federal Assembly having 375 members. Bicameral system of Legislature was introduced in six out of eleven provinces As aresult of the extension of Franchise, 10 percent people became entided to vote in the elections to provincial legislatures. ’ –

7. Establishment of Federal Court A Federal Court was to be established to adjudicate inter state disputes and matters concerning the interpretation of constitution. TheFederal Court was set up ip 1937.

8. Abolition of India Council. The India Council of the Secretary of State for India which had existed since 1858 was abolished by this Act. In its place Advisers were appointed.

9. Extension of Communal Electorates, the Act of 1935 further extended
the system of communal electorates. Separate electorates were constituted for Indian Christians and Anglo Indians.

10. Supremacy of the British Parliament. The Act maintained the supremacy of the British Parliament which could pass any law relating India.

11. No Reforms in Chief Commissioner’s Provinces. No new reforms were introduced in the Chief Commission er’s Provinces which were continued to be administered under the authority of the Centre.

12. Separation of Burma. With effect from April 1937 Burma was separated from India.

13. Creation of new Provinces of Sind and Orissa. Sind and Orissa were created separate provinces by the Act of 1935.

Criticism. The Government of India Act, 1935 was a great advancement as compared to the Act of 1919. It abolished the system of dyarchy in the provinces and all the provincial subjects were entrusted to the ministars who were responsible to the Legislature as well as to the Governor. The size of the Legislative Councils was also enlarged. The system of elections was encouraged. Franchise was extended. Inspite of these merits the Act of 1935 has been subjected to severe criticism on account of its demerits. Pt. Nehru compared the Act to “a machine with strong brakes and no engine.” Lord Alice the leader of the Labour Party of England said that it was based on the lack of faith in the Indians. Mr. Jinnah remarked “There are 98% special responsibilities and discretionary powers of the Governor-General and only 2% powers of the ministers.” Rajaji called it worst than dyarchy.

Constitutional Development In India From 1937-1950

The period between 1937 to 1950 was notable for great success, great failures and a great mistake. The success was the Congress ministries, the failure was the inability of the Government to persuade the princes to join the Federation. They preferred dealing with the British direct.

The Viceroy was. active and persuasive, but the princes had lost their enthusiasm after the First Round Table conference. They were rent with jealousies among themselves. As for the congress, the more they said its democratic implications, the less they liked it. Having let down the British over federation as they had previously let down the Congress over the danocracy and nationalism they found themselves friendless after the World War II They had no popular backing and they were snuffed out like so many candles.

India may perhaps be grateful for the prince’s folly. It was the Princes failure to cooperate which prevented the federal centre from coming into being. This fact enabled the Congress to take ova- complete power in 1947 and to set up a strong-centre. Without a strong centre the development of modem India would not have been possible.

The whole of the Government of India Act was not enforced. Only the provisions relating to the provincial autonomy were enforced from April 1939. On the assurance that the Govomor would not interfere in the day to day working of the ministries; the Congress took part in the elections and secured complete majority in the six out of the eleven provinces. The Congress formed ministeries in these provinces and from April 1937 to October 1939 they did commendable work relating to primary education, restruction on the consumption of liquors and other intoxicating drugs; development of villages and the improvement of the conditions of the peasants. During this period of 28 months the Governors acted as constitutional heads. The work of the Congress ministries was praised by the contemporary Governor-General Lord Linlithgow. The Second World War broke out in 1939 and on account of the War policy of the British Government, the Congress Ministeries resigned. A state of emergency was declared under section 93 of the Government of India Act of 1935 and the Governors took the reins of administration in their own hands.

la order to get the cooperation of the Indians during the War, the British Government announced in 1940 that Ipdia would be granted Dominion Status after the War but the Congress did not accept it and started the National Movements. In March 1942 Sir Stafford Cripps the leader of the House of Commons came to India with some proposals. He announced that an elected body was to be set up in India for the framing of a new constitution of India. There was provision for the participation of the Indian States in the constituent Assembly. The members of the constitution making body were to be elected by an electoral college consisting of the entire membership of provincial Legislative Assemblies. The said proposals were not acceptable to any party.

In 1942 the Congress passed the resolution of starting the ‘Quit India’ Movement. Although the government arrested many Congress leaders and workers and sent them to jails, yet the movement could not be suppressed.

In 1945, the British Government offered new proposals which are popularly know as Wavell Plan. According to this plan the Governor General’s Executive Council was to be enlarged pending the preparation of the new constitution. All the members of the said council except the Governor-General and the Commander-in-Chief were to be Indians. Section 93 was to be withdrawn and responsible governments were to be set up in the provinces and External affairs was also to be transferred to Indian hands.

The members of the Congress Committee were released from the jails. A conference of the leaders of different political parities was called at Shimla to discuss the said proposals. The Congress accepted the proposals but the Shimla conference could not succeed because of the attitude of the Muslim League. In the words of Maulana Azad “The Shimla Conference marks a break water in Indian political history. This was the first time that negotiations failed not on the political issue between India and Britain but on communal issue dividing different Indian groups”. The same year there were elections in Britain and Labour Party came into power.

Attlee the British Prime Minister sent amission of three cabinet member known as Cabinet Mission to India to solve the constitutional tangle. This mission offered plans for Interim Government and made several suggestions for fixture re-forms also. Both the Congress and the Muslim League accepted the proposals of the Cabinet Mission. The contemporary Governor-General Lord Wavell asked. Pt Jawaharlal Nehru to form the Interim Government. The Muslim League refused to take part in the formation of the Interim Government. Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru formed the Interim Government on September 2,1946. Later on, the Muslim League also joined the Government on October 13,1946.

Elections of the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1947. The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting at New Delhi but the Muslim League refused to participate in its meetings. On February 20, 1947 Lord Attlee declared that the British Government would leave India before June 1943 even if no agreement was made between the Congress and Muslim

League. Lord Mountbatten’s was appointed the Governor-General and Viceroy of India in March 1947. He announced his plan on 3rd June 1947, According to Lord Mount-batten’s Plan (June Third Plan) India was to be partitioned into two countries named India and Pakistan. Both the Congress and the Mušlim League accepted the June 3rd Plan. In order to give effect to the said plani Bill, was presented in the British Parliament on July 4th, 1947. After having been passed by both the Houses of the Parliament the Bill became an Act after having an assent of the British King on August 1947. This Act is popularly known as the Indian Independence Act of 1947.

Indian Independence Act, 1947 .

Main ProvIsions:

  1. India was to be partitioned into the Dominions of India and Pakistan from 15th August 1947.
  2. The Act brought to an end to the legislative supermacy of the British Parliament over india. Full powers òf legislation were given to the Legislature of the Country.
  3. it was provided that from August 15,1947 the British Government was to have no control over the affairs of the Dominions provinces or any part of the Dominions.
  4. The kt provided that the Dominions and Provinces weré to be governed in accordance with the Government of India Act 1935 till the framing of the new constitution. In case of each Dominion the Governor-General was authorised to make the necessary changes in the Act till 31st Márch 1948. Any change after that date cou1r be trade only by the Constituent Assemblies.
  5. The title of the Viceroy was dropped and hencè forth he was to be called only Governor-GernTal.
  6. The Crown was no more to have the right to veto the laws made by Dominion Legislature. Now the GovernoroeGefleral was to èxercise this right on the advice of the Dominion Cabinet.
  7. The Act ended the paramountcý of the Crown over the native states. provided that all the treaties and agreements between the Crown and the native states were to lapse with effect from the date of transference of power. The existing agreements between Indian states and the Government of India were to continue pending the detailed negotiations between the Indian States and the new dominion concerned.
  8. The successor dominions were to negotiate the terms and agreements with the tribes of the North Western Frontier Province of India.
  9. The office of the Secretary of State for India was abolished and the work entrusted to the Secretary of State for Common Wealth Affairs.
  10. The title of ‘Emperor of India’ was to be dropped from the Royal style and the Titles of the Kings of England.
  11. The Indian Army, Government Stores Railways etc. wereto be divided between India and Pakistan.
  12. Both the Dominions could leave the British Common Wealth of Nations ifthey so liked.
    Thus India became free on 15th August 1947. The Constituent Assembly continued its work and prepared a draft of the new constitution of India in February 1948.lt gave final shape to the Constitution of India on 20th November, 1949. The new constitution came into force on 16th January 1950.

Question 25.
Discuss the main features of the new constitution of free india, as enforced in 1950 and ammended them time to time onwards.
The New Constitution
1. The Preamble of the Indian constitution resolves to establish a Sovereign Democratic Republic. It declares that Sovereignty vests in the people of the country. The preamble also refers to justice, liberty, fraternity and equality.

2. There were four kinds of states under the constitution viz. Part A States, Part B States, Part C States and Part D States. A States were previously the Governors provinces. Part B states were previously ruled by Indian princes. Part C States ware under Chief Commissioners and Lt. Govamors. However as a result of the Seventh Amendment of the constitution made in 1956 there were to be 14 states and 6 union territories. The old distinctions among states disappeared. The institution of Rajpramukhs was abolished. In 1960 the state of Bombay was divided into two states of Gujarat and Maharashtra. In July 1960 it was decided to set up a new state known as Nagaland.

3. As regards the citizenship of India, parsons bom or domiciled in India, refugees who have migrated to India from Pakistan and the Indians overseas who apply for Indian citizenship, are Indian citizens The constitution has adopted the principle of single citizoi for the whole of India. No person is entitled to claim that he is a citizen of two countries.

4. The constitution provides for a large number of fundamental rights which are guar anted to every citizoi of India. These rights are to be found in articles 12 to 35 of the constitution. The Supreme Court and the High Courts have been appointed the guaradian of these fundamental rights.

Those rights are: right to equality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, colour, sex or place of birth, equality of opportunity in matters of Public employment, abolition of untouchability, right to freedom of speech and expression, right to assemble peacefully and without arms, the right to form associations and unions, the right to move freely throughout the territory of India, the right to reside and settle in any part of India the right to secure, hpld and dispose of property, the right to practise any profession or to carry on any occupation trade or business, the right to life and personal liberty, the right to freedom from arrest and detention in, certain cases, the prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour, the prohibition of employment of children in any factory or mine or in any other hazardous work, the right to freedom of conscience, and free profession, the right to practise and propogate religion, the freedom to manage religious affairs, cultural and educational rights and the right to constitutional remedies.

5. The constitution also contains what are known as that Directive Principles of the state policy. These principle? relate to those matters which the Government of India is to keep in view for the welfare of the people of the country. Accordingly, all the Indian citizens are entitled to adequate means of likelihood. There is to be equitable distribution of the material resources of the country. The economic freedom of the country demands the accordance of the concentration of wealth and the means of production. There is to be equal pay for equal work for both men and women. The wealth and strength of the workers arenot to be abused. Children and youngmen are to be protected against exploitation and moral and material abondment. All workers are to get a living wage. All people have the right to work, to education and public assistance in case of unemployment, old age sickness etc. There is to be uniform Civil Code for all the people of the country There is to be free and compulsory education for children. It is the duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. The state is to promote international peace and security, maintain just and honourable relations between nations, inculcate respect for international law and treaty obligations and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration. However, it is to be noted that Directive Principles of State Policy differ from fundamental rights in as much as they cannot be enforced by Courts.

6. The Constitution provides for a President of the Indian Republic. He is elected indirectly by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and legislatures of the States. The President must be a citizen of India. He must have completed the age of 35 and he must be qualified for election as a member of the House of the People. He is not eligible for election if he holds a job under the Government He holds office for 5 years but can be re-elected. He gets a salary of Rs. 10,000 and allowances. He can be impeached for the violation of the constitution. The constitution provides a special procedure for the impeachment of the President. The President has been given a large number of powers in the legislative, executive and judicial spheres. He is also authorised to act in times of emergency. He is expected to act as a constitutional head like the King of England.

7. The Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Council of States. Any citizen of India who is 35 years of age or more and who is qualified for the membership of the council of states can be elected to this office by both the Houses of Parliament. When the President is ill or resigns or dies or as removed or is absent for any other reason the place is taken over by the Vice-President of India till such time as a new President is elected.

8. The Constitution provides for a council of ministers to assist the President. The President is to appoint the Prime Minister and the other ministers are to be appointed by him on the advice of the Prime Minister. All the ministers are collectively responsible to the House of the People. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to communicate to the President all the decisions arrived at in the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Cabinet. His position is the same as that of the Prime Minister of England.

9. The Indian Parliament consists of two Houses viz ; the House of the People and the Council of States. The House of the People consists of 500 members who are directly elected by the voters in the several states. Every adult or grown up citizen of India is given the right to vote. The life of the House of the People is 5 years. The House of the People has a speaker and a Deputy Speaker. The Council of State is a permanent body of 250 members. Its members are elected indirectly. About one third of its members retire after every two years. Twelve members of the Council of States are nominated by the President from men of learning and persons of experience. A member of the Council of States must be a citizen of India and must not be less than 30 years of age.

The House of the People is stronger than the Council of States. It has practically complete control over Money bills. Even in the case of ordinary bills the opinion of the House of the People prevails on account of its numerical majority in the joint session of the two Houses.

10. Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of India will consist of a Chief Justice of India and not more than seven other Judges. However the number can to increased by Parliament. All the judges of the supreme court are appointed by the President. Judges hold office during good behaviour till the age of 65. Provision is also made for ad hoc judges of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court has been given both original and appellate jurisdiction.

As regards its origins jurisdiction, it can try any dispute between the Government of India and one or more States or between the Government of India or any state or statesmen one side and one or more other states on the other, or between two or more states if and in so far as the dispute involves any question whether of law or fact on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends. The appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is of three kinds viz ; constitutional, civil and criminal. An appeal can be taken from a High Court to the Supreme Court if a case involves a substantial question of law with regard to interpretation of the Constitution.

The Supreme Court also possesses advisory jurisdiction. It is to advise the President on questions of law and fact. However, neither the Supreme Court is bound to.give opinion on such matter nor the President is bound to accept its opinion. But in practice, the opinion of the Supreme Court has not so far been disregarded. As a matter of fact, the Supreme Court of India has more powers than any other Supreme Court in the World.

The constitution also makes provision for a High Court in every state. It consists of a Chief Justice and such other judges as are appointed by the President.

11. Union Public Service Commission. The constitution also makes provision for a Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions. The main functions of the Public Service Commissions are to conduct examinations for recruitment to the services and to recommend candidates for appointment.

12. Comptroller and Auditor General. There is also provision, for a Comptroller and Auditor General who is appointed by the President and who performs all duties and exercises powers relating to the accounts of the Union and the States.

13. Distribution of Powers between the Union and the States has been made through the three lists-Union lists, State list and the Concurrent list. The Union List contains the number of subjects on which laws can be passed, by the Indian Parliament. The State Legislatures can pass laws on the subjects enumerated in the State list. Both the Indian Parliament and the State Legislatures can pass laws, on the subjects enumerated in the concurrent list. Union Parliament exercises jurisdiction over all the residuary subjects.

14. There is provision of freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the territory of India. Certain restrictions can be placed on the said right in the interests of the public. The constitution clearly provides that no tax can be levied or collected except by authority of law. Clear provisions have been made in the constitution for the creation of certain funds such as the consolidated Fund of India and a Consolidated Fund for each State.

15. The work of Superintendence, direction and control of elections to Parliament and Legislature of every state and the President and Vice President has been entrusted to the Election Commission. The constitution provides for one general electoral roll for every territorial constituency There is to be no discrimination on the ground of religion, race, caste, sex etc., no property qualifications are necessary for the voters. The franchise has been considerably extended rather made universal by providing that every person having the citizenship of India and having completed the age of 21 years and having been not otherwise disqualified is entitled to vote at the elections of the House of People and the Legislative Assemblies of the states.

16. Hindi in Devanagari Script shall be the official language of the Union.
However, the use of English language for official purpose was allowed for a period of 15 years. Buithe President was empowered to authorised the use of Hindi in addition to English language during the said period. The constitution also provided that if at the end of 15 years ifit was found that Hindi could not replace English completely Parliament might provide for the continuance of the use of English, hi addition to this the use of 14 Indian languages as regional languages in different states has also been recognised.

17. Though the written new Constitution of India is flexible and can be amended through the procedure laid down in the Constitution.
Estimate. Justice P.B. Mukerjee has remarked : “Our lady of constitution receives both praise and cause according to the moods of the suitor. ’’The critics points out that the new constitution has been drafted on the basis of the Government of India Act, 1935. The fundamental rights guaranteed in the constitution are illusory and unreal. A large number of restrictions have been imposed on the said fundamental rights so that the people are not materially benefited by them. The provisions relating to central administrative directives to the states powers to issue ordinance etc., are undemocratic. The emergotcy powers of the President have also been criticised.

A careful study of the constitution will enable us to come to the conclusion that the criticism levelled against the Constitution is not fair and appropriate.

The Constitution of India aims to establish justice, equality, liberty and fraternity. It has declared India to be a Sovereign Democratic Republic. It provides for a secular State and grants freedom of religion to the people of India. A significant feature of the constitution is that it provides for clear distinction between the Executive mid Judiciary. The provision of Judicial .

review over all executive and legislative works is also a significant feature.
The form of constitution is federal yet there are certain provisions in it which have created a strong centre. Although it provides for Parliamentary types of Government at Centre and the Provinces as in the case of England, it has also certain provisions which resonble the Presidential type of Government as in the United States of America. Thus in short the constitution of India is unique in the world, and is suitably adopted to conditions and circumstances of our country.

Amendments To The Constitution –

In article 368 of the Chapter XX of the constitution, process has been laid down for amending the constitution. If both Houses of Parliament pass an amendment bill by two thirds majority of the members present, it will became a part of the constitution after the assent of the President. But if some amendment is likely to be made in (i) articles 14,55,73,162,241 (if) chapter IV of part 5 chapter V of part 6 or chapter I of Part II (iff) any list of schedule VII, (/v) representation of the States in the Parliament, (v) provisions of article 368 at least half of the States of the country must give their consent before being assented to by the President. The Indian Constitution was enforced on January 26,1950. Since then it has been, amended many times.

First Amendment (1951). Amendments were made in articles 15, 19, 85, 174, 341, 342 and 372 besides, the addition of articles 31 (a) 31 (b) and Schedule 9 after Schedule 8. These amendments provided the increase in the powers of the State to restrict the activities of differentiation among the people, to expand the friendly relations with foreign countries to curb the tendency of the people to malign others. The Ninth Schedule incorporated the thirteen laws of the state regarding Zamindari abolition.

Second Amendment (1952). Articles 81 (1) (b) was amended, a new standard was laid for representation of the people in the Lok Sabha. The amendment removed the upper limit of 7 1/2 lakhs of people for one representative.

Third Amendment (1953). In place of 33rd serial number of Schedule v corresponding the VII Schedule, a new column was introduced which provided that the distribution of cereals, fodder, cotton, Jute etc., could be taken over by the Central Government if it was in general interest of the public. Some imported commodities were also added in this list.

Fourth Amendment (1955). This amendment related to the rules regarding Zamindari abolition. The Parliament and the State Legislative assemblies were empowered to frame laws to take over any specialised field of trade or commerce.

Fifth Amendment (1955). The President was empowered to lay down some time limit with in which the State Government was bound to give its opinion on any bill pending before the Parliament and which was likely to effect their boundaries or areas.

Sixth Amendment (1956). International trade is based on custom duties of the articles imported and exported. This amendment empowered the Central Government to impose custom duties and to regulate them.

Seventh Amendment (1956). This amendment removed the classification of Part A, Part B and Part C states of the country and placed them in two – categories consisting of 14 states and 6 centrally administered areas.

Eighth Amendment (1958). This amendment increased the period of reservation of seats for the representation of the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes to the central legislature and nomination of Anglo Indians to the state legislature for 10 years beginning from January 26,1960.

Ninth Amendment (1960). This amendment provided for the change in the first Schedule of the Constitution so that the transfer of land could be made effective in accordance with the agreements between the Governments oflndia and Pakistan in 1958 and 1959.

Tenth Amendment (1961). This amendment enabled the Government of India to annex former Portuguese colonies of Dadar and Nagar Haveli to India and empowered the President to frame laws for these territories.

Eleventh Amendment (1961). This amendment classified that the election of the President or Vice-President cannot be withheld on pretext that some seats of the Central or provincial legislatures are vacant. It also provided that the election of the Vice-President would be made by the electorate consisting | of both Houses of the Parliament.

Twelth Amendment (1962). This amendment provided for the annexation of former Portuguese colonies of Goa, Daman and Diu which were liberated I by the army. This amendment was passed unanimously.

Thireenth Amendment (1962), This amendment was necessitated to facilitate the creation of the State ofNagaland in accordance with theagreement between the Government of India and Naga people Convention.

Fourteenth Amendment (1962), This amendment provided (1) that separate legislatures and Councils of Ministers be formed in the centrally administered areas (2) Pondicherry, Karikal, Malie, Yamen liberated from the French possessions be made centrally administered areas, and (3) the territories of Goa, Daman, and Din be made one centrally administered areas having a separate legislative Assembly

Fifteenth Amendment (1963). This amendment provided that (i) the rights of government officials in respect of constitutional propriety was restricted to an enquiry only, (ii) the President was empowered that in case of doubt about the age of the Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts, he could consult the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and. (Hi) the age of retirement of the judges of the High Court was raised from sixty to sixty two years.

Sixteenth Amendment (1963). This amendment (i) enabled State Governments to put restrictions on destructive elements of the Country, (ii) Proclaimed that any State or Party could not make the separation of the State from the country an election issue, and (iii) also proclaimed that to keep the integrity and sovereignty of the Central and State legislatures, Central and State Ministers, members of the Central and State legislatures, Judges of Supreme Court and high Courts and Comptroller and Auditor General of the Government of India shall be responsible.

17th Amendment (1964-65). This amendment restricted the government from taking over a land tilled by the farmer himself and which was at that time within the maximum areable limit of the ate with paying compensation at the market rate, Moreover, in ninth Schedule forty three more laws were added.

18th Amendment (1966). This amendment aimed at reorgalisation of Punjab on the basis of language Some part of Punjab as transferred to Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh was made a ventrally administered area.

19th Amendment (1966). The appeals of elections could be heard directly by the High Courts and their appeals by the Supreme Court in accordance with this amendment.

20th Amendment (1966). This amendment revalidated the appointments, transfers judgements, decrees, punishments and other orders made by the officials, of the High Courts which were earlier invalidated by the ofiicials of the Supreme Court.

21st Amendment (1966). This amendment provided the incorporation of Sindhi as one of the languages in the eighth Schedule.

22nd Amendment (1969). This amendment provided for the establishment of a self governing state, a legislature or a ministry or both with in the state of Assam for the benefit of Scheduled tribes.

23rd Amendment (1969). This amendment changed the articles 330, 332,333, and further extended the period of reservation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Anglo Indians for their representation to the Central and state legislatures.

24th Amendment (1971). This amendment has authorised the Parliament to make changes in any part of the Constitution. At this stage it should be remembered that in 1968 the Supreme Court had ruled that the Parliament could not restrict the fundamental rights of a citizen. This amendment puts an aid to that ruling of the Supreme Court. Further it has also been made compulsory for the President to give his consent on any bill of Parliament.

25th Amendment (1971). This amendment had empowered the Parliament to acquire any private property in accordance with legal procedure. It has no longer been necessary to pay compensation for the property acquired. No challenge can be made in any High Court regarding the quantum of compensation. This amendment also provides that before enacting any law for acquiring private property, the State government should take the consent of the President.

26th Amendment (1971). This amendment deleted Articles 291 and 362 and in its placeanew Article 363 (a) was introduced. This amendment put an end to the Privy purses and other privileges of the former Princes and Rajas.

27th Amendment (1971). This amendment modified Articles 239 (a) and 240 and introduced two new articles 239 (b) and 371 (c). This amendment provided the Parliament and the President the authority to establish legislatures in all Centrally administered areas including Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh and to appoint officers for administration.

28th Amendment (1972). This amendment deleted Article 314 and introduced Article 312 (a) which authorised the Parliament to make changes in the service conditions of the officers of the Government and in the termination of their services. This amendment also put an end to the privileges enjoyed by I.S.C. officers.

29th Amendment (1972). This amendment incorporated two additional acts of land reformation in the State of Kerala and increased the number of land reformation laws to 66.

30th Amendment (1972). This amendment made changes in the Article 133 of the Constitution. Before this amendment, appeals of civil cases to the Supreme Court could be made only if their evaluation exceeded 20,000 rupees. Now appeals to the Supreme Court can be made taking into consideration the constitutional and legal aspects of the case and not the monetary evaluation.

31st Amendment (1973). This amendment made changes in the Article 81 of the Constitution which provided that the House of People would consist of not more than 500 members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States and not more than 25 members to represent the Union Territories. This amendment increased the upper limit of representation from the States to 525 from 500 and bring down the upper line to 20 from 25. Thus the total strength of the Lok Sabha has been raised to 545 from 525.

32nd Amendment (1973). This amendment made certain changes in the Article 371 of the Constitution and provided certain reservation and facilities for the people of Telangana in Andhra Pradesh. It also authorised the President to establish a Central Universitry in Andhra Pradesh and the expenses of the same would be available from the University Grants Commission.

33rd Amendment (1974). The object of this amendment was to prevent forcible resignation of the legislators. The presiding officer would not accept the resignation of a legislators it he was satisfied that such resignation was forced on him and it was not the result of his free will. The amendment did not curtail or abudge the tight of a legislator to resign voluntarily.

DU SOL BA 3rd Year History of India Notes

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