DU SOL BA 3rd Year Administration and Public Policy Notes Chapter 6 Development Administration
Define Development Administration with reference to the contribution of Riggs to it. What are its basic features ?
Development Administration –
Let us first see the definitions of Development Administration which will enable us to arrive at some basic features of Development Administration. Edward Weidner defined Development Administrations as “action-oriented, goal-oriented administrative system”. Viewing the Development Administration as a process of change, he further added that it is “the process of guiding an organisation towards the achievement of progressive, political, economic and social objectives that are authoritatively determined in one manner or the others”.
1. Merle Fainsod regarded the Development Administrations as “a carrier of innovating values which embraces areas of view’ functions assumed by developing countries embarking on the path of modernization and industrialization. Development Administration ordinarily involves establishment of machinery for planning, economic growth and mobilizing and allocating resources to expand national income”.
2. John Montgomery gave an economic-oriented definition saying that Development Administration is, “carrying out planned change in the economic (agriculture or industry or capital infrastructure supporting either of them), and to a lesser extent in the social services of the state (especially education and public health).
Although the major contributions to the conceptualization of v Development Administration have come from Western scholars a number of Indian authors have also written on various themes of Development Administration. Some of the definitions given by Indian authors may be relevant from the point of view of Development Administration. We give some of these definitions Wow.
3. V. A. Pai Panandikar feels that, “the central theme of Development Administration is socio-economic and political change brought about through a series of programmes designed specially to attain certain clear-cut and specified objectives and goals expressed in operative terms”.
4. J. N. Khosla differentiated Development Administration as from routine administration and stated that, “Development Administration, is concerned with the will to develop the mobilization of existing and new resources and the cultivation of appropriate, skills to achieve the development goals”.
5. V. S. Khanna described the Development Administration “an administration geared to tasks of economic, social and political development which has been induced by an increasing tempo, momentum and diversity emanating front the elite and groups of people”.
6. V. Jayanathao defines Development Administration as “a process of action motivated by and oriented to the achievement of certain pre-. determined goals”.
Contribution Of F. W. Riggs –
Ideas of Riggs on Development Administration can be summed up in his saying, “Developing Administration should centre on the ways and means for implementing and furthering decisions that express social discretion while protecting autogamy and tolerating detachment Further acceptance of the legitimacy of the decision-makers and optimum preservative of autogamy are important steps in this direction”.
Further, according to Riggs, development is “a process of increasing autonomy (discretion) of social systems” which is “made possible by rising level of defloration”. Discretion’ is the ability to chose among alternatives, while diffraction is the extent of differentiation and integration in a social system Autogamy is “degree of independence of a social system in relation to its nexus or role set”. In this terminology, detachment “is the ability of agent to stand apart from the roles he plays and to view them as alter egos”. Differentiation increases the load carrying capacity of a system. Integration is the degree to which differentiated system secures an effective linkage of its inter-dependent parts.
A social system in the process of increasing its general discretion develops inter-dependence with other social which are members of its nexus or role set. Such inter-dependence of a system with other members of its role set has been termed by Riggs as heterogeny which is antonym of autogeny. Riggs has observed that development involves an increase in the degree of discretion of social system’, bid a decrease in the degree of its autogamy. The task of development administration should then be to strike
a balance betweer^ development (which leads to heterogamy) and independence of action, i.e., autogamy.
Riggs has adopted an ecological approach to the study of public administration. In fact, he has developed a whole field of comparative study of administration of different countries from an ecological angle. It is true that in his conceptualistic on the comparative administration. Riggs has not touched upon development administration to any great extent. He has, however, written a lot separately on the theme of Development Administration. His whole approach here also is based on ecological orientation. According to him, in an ecological context, social systems enter « into transactions with their environment. Environments influence without determining the behaviour of human groups and reciprocally social systems shape their environment. Thus an ecological approach considers all possible situational or environmental variables and dimensions. It would, therefore, be worthwhile to re-state in a slightly different form the ideas of Riggs on Development Administration.
As already mentioned Riggs defined development as a “process of increasing the autonomy (discretion) of the social system made possible by rising level of diffraction. He considered diffraction as a necessary and sufficient condition of development. Emphasis on discretion enabled Riggs to view development as “an increased ability of human societies to shape their physical, human and cultural environment”. Thus, the task of development administration is to reshape the social environment in a desired manner. The efficiency of Development Administration could be measured in terms of the desired goals.
This is a rather extreme conceptualizing of Development Administration of Riggs. He, however, operationalised the concept by saying that Development Administration “refers to the administration of development programmes, to the methods used by large scale organisations, notably governments, to implement policies and plans designed to meet their development objectives”. The study of development administration would thus involve the study of such organisations which are involved in the process of implementing the policies related to the development programmes.
Main Features Of Development Administration –
On the basis of the conceptualisation of various scholars mentioned above, some features of the Development Administration may be identified. v We give below a brief description of some of these main features :
(i) Change Orientation. The most important features of Development Administration is that it is concerned with socio-economic change. It is this special orientation which distinguishes it from other parts of public demonstration. In fact the whole concept of Development Administration „ arose out of the need to study the process of change and development in the newly emerging and developing countries.
(ii) Action Orientation. Development Administration seeks to bring about changes in socio-economic conditions. Such a change can be brought about only be well-coordinated action towards the define goals. The Development Administration, therefore, emphasises a vigorous action for achieving the goals and objectives.
(Hi) Goal Orientation. As already mentioned above the study of public administration was mainly concentrated with matters of efficiency, i.e., the best possible use of the available resources. The emphasis was on the means rather than the goals. In stable societies, goals can probably be taken as given. In such situations, emphasis on means be justified. However, in the changing situation of a developing society, goal orientation is essential. Without such goal orientation, the direction of development would not be clear. At the same time, the definition of goals is also not easy. As Samuel Katz observed it is difficult to define goals for development action. May be that the existing goals are net expected to be set in future. Or, more often these may be just anticipated objective based on observations of conditions somewhere else, e.g when a developing nation attempts to emulate developed nations.
Weidner has pointed out that goal definitions is “never simple and in complex developmental change situations it can be very illusive and difficult”. Formal an informal, stated and unstated, intended and unintended, planned and unplanned and goals of whom – these are a few of the dimensions that need to be taken into account”. No much-research has been done in respect of these problems. Lack of clarity on important aspects of goal orientation sometimes causes confusion about the true nature of development administration.
(iv) Commitment. In Development Administration, the organisational commitment is to socio-economic change and concern for completing time- bound programmes. The Development Administration in these situations cannot adapt the traditionally neutral role characteristic of bureaucratic model as developed by Max Weber. The administrators have got to be involved in the Implementation of the various programmes- that have been authoritatively determined. This type of commitment need not be confused with the loyalty to a person or a party. The commitment is to the programmes.
(v) Client Orientation. The Development Administration is concerned with the improvement in socio-economic conditions. The various plans and programmes devised for the purpose are meant to improve the socio economic conditions of the people. A number of programmes are designed to meet the needs of different target groups. A satisfaction of the needs of these target groups is the touchstone for judging the performance of the Development Administration. The people for whom the programmes are meant in developing countries should not be passive beneficiaries. They should be actively involved in the formulation and execution of these programmes. This leads to the real question of decentralization of administration. Such attempts have been made in Developing Administrative institutions at the local under the control of local people. An obvious example in India is the Banchayati Raj which is an experiment in democratic decentralizations. Most of the development programmes are meant to be transferred to these institutions.
(vi) Temporal Dimension. The socio-economic changes have some sort ^ of urgency about them. A large number of people are suffering from various kinds of handicaps. The programmes for the improvement of their efficiency have to be completed within some reasonable time-frame. This brings in the concept of planning In the development process. Most of the developing nations have come to some kind of development planning for the implementation of its various development programmes. The planning therefore, is an essential part of Development Administration.
(vii) Innovation. Some scholars have identified Development Administration with a high degree of innovation in administrative system. Such innovation is expected to incorporate a similar process in the noh- administrative area. Weidner has observed that “the problem of how to maximise the effectiveness of a bureaucracy so that it contributes to growth in the direction of modernity of nation building and socio-economic progress is a problem of how to strengthen innovative forces in the bureaucracy”.
(viii) Normative Elements. The traditional views of the value-neutrality of the administration does not hold goods in respect of the Development Administration. The administration cannot keep itself aloof from the normative elements in the development process. When large sections of the people are living below the poverty line, the administration has to intervene positively on their behalf. The concept of neutrality in such a situation would mean perpetuation of poverty and misery on the part of the unfortunate people. Any administration concerned with the development process cannot ignore these value questions.
It is true that the normative questions cannot be seen in isolation. The normative and empirical streams, in the writings of Development Administration have, therefore, moved side by side. Some scholars are concerned primarily with “normative question” with the desirability of proposed course of action; with prescription for the maximization or optimization of selected values, while others have a dominant interest in empirical questions, in the description and analysis of existing practices and situations and in the prediction of what is likely to happen under certain given conditions. These observations made by Riggs give an idea of the normative and empirical concern of Development Administration. These foci have, however, been interdependent.
The scholars interested in prescription generally seek the help of empirically-based knowledge while the scholars interested in empirical studies often choose the normative field of study for its probable policy relevance. However, the empirical aspect is common to the entire process of administration. But, the study of Development Administration has generally had a dominant normative concern with the enhancement of administrative abilities in developing nations, particularly various technical assistance programmes undertaken by developed countries as well as the United Nations.
All policy science have a paramount concern with the question of values. Weidner has viewed Development Administration as “an aspect of public administration that is centrally concerned with one of the many values men seek and which varies in strength and kind of allegiance, it commands from country to country, group to group and person to person. This focus has provided the whole area of public administration with a framework of goal or value orientation. Development Administration studies both the processes of selecting values and .the ways in which they influence administration in various ecological settings.
Distinguish between Developmental and Non-Oeveiopmental Administration; Developmental Administration and Administrative Development and Development Administration and Planning.
Developmental Non-Developmental Dichotomy –
Too much emphasis should however, not be laid on the developmental as against non-development administration. Following’ issues are relevant in this regard :
(i) Both the development administration and non-development administration are similar insofar as they are concerned, with how the rules, policies and laws etc. are implemented by the government agencies. However, they differ in respect of the objectives, scope, complexity and degree of innovation in its operation. Swerdelow as used the urban-renewal programme and the running of city water department to demonstrate the difference between tire two. He said that the difficulties in the execution of the urban renewal programme; amount of pioneering requires and the difficulties of finding adequate procedures for moving people who are unwilling to move, for reconciling conflicting interests, in no-designing a section of the city; for establishing new relationships in favour of major changes is how people and governmental agencies customerily do business.
All these processes are much different from these running a city water supply programme. The relativity of the developmental and non-developmental nature of a particular programme was pointed out by Wood in respect of the above illustration given by Swerdelow. Wood argued that in a developing country operating an urban-renewal programme and running a city water department, might present the same degree of difficulty in meeting the requirements of innovation, resources, public support and inter-organisational support Hence both these programmes would be called developmental in a developing country. Differing mixes of administrative departments can be seen as developmental in different ecological settings.
(ii) Another popular contention is that colonial governments are non- developmental while non-colonial governments are developmental. This need not necessarily be so. For example, in India developmental programmes had started in the 40s before independence. It is equally possible that a country with self government may be unable to initiate developmental programmes. It would, therefore, not be correct to generalise that colonial administration is law and order administration while public administration under self-government is a developmental administration. In many of the newly emerging nations, very often, top priority is given to the need for maintenance of law and order.
(iii) In an administrative system, some organisations are often treated as developmental while others are treated as non-developmental. There may be, in fact, certain organisations which are created for Specific developmental purposes, such as Planning Commission, development banks etc. It should however, not be taken to mean that the other parts of the administrative system should be treated as completely non-developmental. This kind of a rigid distinction between developmental and non-developmental activities may create a problem of morale in respect of the officials who are’ branded as performing non-developmental activities.
The so-called non-developmental activities, dike maintenance of law and order and collection of taxes also contribute, indirectly to developmental process, it there is no law and order, hardly any development can take place. The dacoity affected areas in this country are the obvious examples where no much of development activity can be undertaken as the fruits of development are taken away by the dacoits. Similarly, if the collection of * taxes is not up to the mark, finances for development activities would not be available. It is, therefore, essential to have public peace and tranquillity as well as adequate machinery for tax administration before any development can be taken up.
Moreover, it should be understood that a large number of assets are created during the developmental process. After these developmental programmes and projects are completed the problem of the maintenance of these assets crops up. Usually, this activity of maintenance is considered non-developmental in character. This has created a lot of problems resulting in the poor maintenance of assets created through the developmental process.
Any distinction between developmental and non-developmental activities or development and non-developmental is, therefore, uncalled for. There are only varying degrees of development orientation in different programmes.
(iv) Another factor which contributes to the apparent development, non-development dichotomy is the impression that development, administration is concerned solely with the administration of developing countries. This type of assumption reduces the ability of the concept of development administration in its application to the comparative analysis of developed and developing countries.
The impression has generally been created by the literature associated with the contemporary comparative public administration movement in which there has been a heavy emphasis on the study of bureaucracies in developing countries. Relatively little attention has been given, to bureaucracies in developed countries’, except in so far as this has become necessary to understand the administrative problems of tire developing countries. The impression should be corrected to the extent that even in the developed countries, new problems of social and political adjustment keep cropping up and • call for various developmental programmes.
The emphasis of the comparative administration group on the study of developing countries is justified orf the ground that very few studies were available. However, this should not create barrier for future study of the developmental administration in developed countries. There should be no rigid dichotomy between the study of administration in developing and developed societies although it may be understand that the emerging nations have to face greater challenges of rapid societal change.
(v) The development administration is often associated with a high degree of innovation of administrative system. As already mentioned, tins should not imply that the other parts of the administrative system which do not require much innovation are completely non-developmentaL
(vi) The ideal type constructs of various theoretical formulations create categories like developmental and iron-developmental, in practice this line of dichotomy usually does not exist. We may be using the term hot or cold while forgetting that there is yet another category, viz., warm which can be used to describe variations in the temperature. Nothing is either folly developmental or folly non-developmental.
Development Administration And Administrative Development –
In foe literature, tire terms development administration’ and ’administrative development* have been used almost synonymously However, there is a subtle distinction between tire two. Development administration refers to the administration of development programmes, to foe methods used by large scale organisation; notably governments to implement policies and plans designed to meet their development objectives. On the other hand, administrative development involves strengthening of administrative capabilities. These, two aspects of development process are closely interrelated. There can be hardly any development without improving the administrative capabilities. So much so that in most of the definitions of development administration both these aspects are intertwined.
Development Administration And Planning –
The development administration is intimately connected with the planning process. Essentially, the development administration is concerned with foe achievement of developmental goals in an efficient manner. This has given rise to foe concept of planned development which is based on foe desire to achieve’ particular results within a given period of time and with minimum of cost It must be remembered that the concept of planning has an important place even in traditional public administration, particularly in foe works of Henry Fayol and Luther Gulick. However, the concept was not so wide as it is today. The need for rapid social and economic change has necessitated increase in planned effort Hence, the development administration is very closely linked with the planning process, so much so that Pai Panandikar has observed that “development administration is essentially administration of planned change. However, h must be remembered that all development administration may not be planned and All planning may not be developmental”.
Distinguish clearly between “Administrative Development and Development Administration”, Administrative Development and Administrative Reforms; and Administrative Development and Administrative Change.
Administrative Development And Development Administration –
Many writers like Fred Riggs and Hemy Friedman have used the two concepts almost synonymously. There is, however, a subtle difference between the two.
Development administration is the administration that is trying to bring about development of the entire socio-politics economic system of the country and is qualitatively different from the law and order or regulatory administration. In other words it can be said that development administration is that administration which is oriented towards bringing about human and societal development. In simple terms development administration means a goal oriented and action oriented administration. It would naturally refer to the dynamics of an administrative system which is engaged in the process of achieving social, economic and political goals.
Administrative development refers to the change L the capacity or capability of an administrative system. Incidentally its capacity relates to the goals which are prescribed for the administrative system to achieve.
Thus the “administration of development”, and the “development of administration” are closely interwined and interdependent processes. Their relation has rightly been compared to the proverbial chicken and egg syndrome, making it difficult to assert as to what follows what :
Administrative Development And Administrative Reforms –
Administrative Reform is generally considered as the artificial inducement of administrative transformation against resistance. It is artificial because it is man-made, deliberate and planned. It is induced because it involves persuasion, argument and the ultimate threat of sanctions, it refers to such a change in the administrative system as is designed to remove its defects. Thus administrative reforms is a negative concept which may be assumed to involve a movement from minus to zero.
Administrative development, however, could be said to be a movement from zero to plus because administrative development is such a change within administration that makes the administration better, it is thus a positive concept in the sense that it means a change for the letter ur a change which is desired.
Administrative Development And Administrative Change –
Change is a natural process. Administrative change, therefore, means a natural change which occurs due to the natural changes in the environment and within the administrative systems. Unlike administrative reforms and administrative development, it is not a deliberate or man-made change. Even if a change is planned, a large part of the operation remains unplanned. It is well-known that in the area of planned change there are intended and unintended results. The change may, therefore, be for better or for worse , depending upon the natural circumstances.
Administrative development is different from administrative change in two important aspects. Firstly, administrative development can be deliberate and induced process whereas the administrative change is by and large a } natural process. Secondly, administrative development is assumed to be a change for die better while administrative change can take place in either direction.
The above discussion would make it clear that change is the common phenomenon in all the four related concepts, namely, development administration, administrative development; administrative reform and administrative change. The major difference is in the nature of this change.
Administrative change involves a natural process of change which could be in desirable or undesirable direction! As against this administrative reform is an induced change against resistance. It is an induced change, but, it is assumed to be a change for the better. Lastly, development administration speak of a change in the environment whereas the other three concepts speak of a change in the administrative system.
Write a short note on “Administrative Development”.
Basically administrative development is an ecological concept. The development of administrative system upon the changes taking place in the environment. The resulting changes in the administrative system in turn induce changes in the environment. In this context interaction between the administrative system and its environment, administrative development can be studied as an independent variable. In that case, it may be taken as free from and independent of outside influence and may take place its own and this becomes a casual variable which causes or brings about changes in its environments. In this concept die effect of making deliberate changes in administrative system is studied. Administrative development on or be governed by changes outside the administrative system.
For example, the introduction of Panchayati Raj brought in its wake wide-ranging administrative development. In another approach, administrative development may also be looked upon as an intervening variable which roughly speaking is a mixture of an independent and the dependent variable. This view appears to be nearer to reality. There are always some social, political, cultural and economic factors which have their effect on administrative development and similarly the administrative development has its effect upon social, political and economics system as well as the cultural ethos.
1. Administrative Development as an Independent Variable. If we look upon administrative development as a casual or intervening variable than we may say that the administrative development is such development in administrative system which will lead to :
(i) political development; (ii) economic growth; (iii) social change.
How much of the above three is possible may depend on the size of the administration and. also, on its quality.
2. Administrative Development as a Dependent Variable. If we look upon the administrative development as an independent Or intervening variable then administrative development would mean the administrative changes that are. a result of :
(i) new discoveries; (ii) modernization; (iii) change in environment or in society.
This brings us to the major problem of the content of administrative development. The major question which arise in this connection are :
Whether administrative development has universal characteristics or whether it differs from society on the basis of level of modernizations achieved. If there are more than one patterns of administrative development then how many types are there ? Is there something in common in the different types of administrative development ? The important reasons for the study of administrative development are to find answers to these questions. The different types of administrative development also depends on the accepted ideology of the socio-political system in question. What appears to be administrative development to a democratic socialist may seem to be administrative decay to a fascist. Likewise, a communist and ‘ liberal may have different ideas about the concept.
Discuss the Role of Public Administration in Developed and Developing Societies.
Role Of Public Administration In Developed Countries
Public Administration stands for implementation of public policy which is laid down by the political executive. However, such a neat division does not prevail anywhere. The administrators do wield a good deal of influence over policy-making. Firstly, this is so because Of the advice tendered. by the administrators who acquire a lot of expertise and experience in their jobs. Secondly, the laws have to give a lot of discretion to the administrators in implementing the decisions of political and legislative matters. Thirdly, during implementation, a lot of new policy matters crop Up. Dividing line between policy formulation and implementation is thus not very sharp. Still in the developed countries the distinction is more clear.
The political development in these countries makes far more mature political leadership which cannot only lay down policy, but can also control the bureaucracy in the implementation of the policy. It is also mature enough to leave the job of implementation to the administrators while still maintaining control. Another function performed by public administrators is to maintain continuity during the transition period when foe governments change. The role of administration in developed countries is thus a subdued one and that explains foe existence of faceless anonymous, neutral civil service performing faithfully the jobs assigned.
It must not however, be misunderstood that foe role of Public Administration in these countries is less important.’ The bureaucracy in ’ these countries is very highly specialised and professionalism. They have to perform complex functions in line with foe highly developed economies based on highly developed technology. The bureaucracy, therefore, develops professional competence and pride in its field of specialization as well as in public service. It is a laige: scale complex organisation desisted to perform complicated-tasks.
It, therefore, has the characteristics of the ‘ideal type’ of bureaucracy conceptualized by Max Weber. Of course, it must then have foe shortcomings usually attributed to the Weberian type of bureaucracy. It means that it tends to perpetuate and expand itself and become a vested interest group. But, the accompanying fact is that the political institutions in these countries have developed simultaneously with foe administrative institutions over foe long period of time. In Riggs terminology, most of these countries have had a balanced political development. There is not much chance of such bureaucracies going out of control.
Role Of Public Administration In Developing Countries –
1. Political Executive not much Mature. The situation, is, however, radically different in developing countries, specially where political development has not advanced much. The political executive is not mature ‘ enough to lay down realistic policies. Growing demands with limited capital resources generate tremendous pressure op the political system and the political executive frames unrealistic policies. Administrators can then not be held responsible. When the political executive does not show enough maturity to lay down realistic policy and cannot enforce its implementation, the administrators tend to acquire a greater role in policy formulation.
This coupled with their natural role of policy implementation gives much more power and prestige to the administrators in developing countries than its ever possible in developed countries. This tendency is further heightened by the fact that most of the developing countries have recently gained independence. During the colonial period the administrators were really representing the political power, albeit of the foreign government. Even with the disappearance of foreign government, this image continues for some time. People do look to the administrators for getting things done. All this bestows on the administrators of developing countries such onerous roles as they were not meant to perform.
2. Role in Social and Economic Fields. In the developing countries, the administrators are called upon to do almost everything, and much has to be done in social, political and economic fields. In the social field the administrators are called upon to initiate appropriate policies and legislation to ameliorate the social conditions of the weaker sections. In economic field they are called upon to undertake the most difficult tasks connected with economic development. They are not only called upon to initiate appropriate policies like providing incentives for productive investment, but often to run these enterprises themselves.
This has led to file emergence of a big public sector to run die economic and commercial activities of the governments. Although the administrators do not take part directly in politics, but they do have to perform many functions in die realm of policy formulation which is truly the task of the political executive. Since in the initial period after independence, the administrators were probably the only people framed in the tasks of governance, they were called upon to perform these tasks in collaboration with the political executive. Another factor, which contributes to this development, is the absence of professionals in technical and managerial fields. These tasks also fall in die lot of the administrators.
3. Development’Orientation. The major characteristic of the Public Administration in developing countries, is, therefore, its development orientation. Most of diem have undertaken the path of planned development Plans of various durations – perspective plans, medium term and short term plans have to be prepared. This itself required new machinery competent enough to collect and analyse voluminous data. These plans have to be implemented and monitored.
This requires phenomenal changes in the existing administrative machinery in India, for example, it required the creation of Planning Commission at the Central level and Planning Boards at the State levels. To take the development to the grass roots, a massive machinery of NES Blocks had to be created. There have been innovations i like Small Farmers Development Agencies and District Rural Development Agencies.
The development orientation of Public Administration thus leads to a vastly increased role for the Public Administration specially in view of the fact that hardly any private associations or professionals are available to help them in this task It should also not be forgotten that all this is in addition to the traditional functions of the Public Administration like maintenance of public order, collection or taxes, etc.
4. Manpower with Might Attitude Absent For performing the above mentioned tasks, the available manpower is grossly inadequate. As many of these developing countries became independent from the colonial rule, the administrators belonging to the previous ruling country usually live. They were no longer welcome in the country, they once ruled and they were also not willing to serve under their erstwhile subjects. This depletion caused serious deficiencies in the senior administrative positions and to some extent even in professional cadres.
Those who were left behind carried on with them the ways of the old masters. They became part of an administrative system designed by the colonial powers to suit their purpose. Very often the whole system was designed on the pattern of the ruling country. Even when the coronial power departed, administrative system continued in its old ways. It appears to continue to initiate the system created by the colonial powers. The characteristic of the alien rule like an authoritarian attitude. Aloofness paternalistic fervour etc. continue. These have to change if Public Administrations as an instrument of public service has to be recognized. They do change also, but it takes time.
5. Some other Factors. Such bureaucracies have often to perform under conditions of all kinds of shortages, including those of manpower and materia] resources. They have also to bear the distrust of the people who might still consider them remnants of the alien rule. The melting pot of changing political and administrative climate creates difficult conditions for them to work in. But, the experience of several developing countries shows that the Public Administrators do adjust to the new conditions and often make significant contribdtior? towards the development of their countries. In fact, the countries which had a developed bureaucratic apparatus before independence have found that they have been better able to cope with the unstable and difficult conditions after independence. The new political masters not very well versed in the art of governance, find their help very useful.
6. An Inflated Role for the Administrator. All these factors contributed to a very inflated role for Hie administrator in the developing countries specially in the initial period of development immediately after independence. This did bring them into conflict with Hie politicians and alt professionals. Gradually with the development of professionals and ‘”Ith proper political development the role of administrators should, in Hie very nature of things diminish. The political executive should come on its own to assume its ‘rightful role of laying down policy and controlling the administrators in implementing it. The professionals should also assume their role in various fields. But until then the administrators continue to have a far more significant role in developing countries than in developed countries.