DU SOL BA 3rd Year Administration and Public Policy Notes Chapter 10 Social Welfare Administration
Critically examine the important issues involved in the welfare of Scheduled Castes in India and the role of Public Administration in it.
Discuss the special programmes for the welfare of Scheduled Castes in India and the pattern of administrative machinery designed for their welfare.
According to the 1981 census, the number of Scheduled Castes was nearly 10.48 crores. It constituted 15.7% of the total population of the country. Only 16% of the scheduled castes of the country live in urban areas. Bulk of the urban scheduled castes population have to reside in slums, without amenities like drinking water, link roads, sanitation, electricity, etc. According to the 1981 census for the country as a whole, the scheduled castes agricultural labourers constitute 48.22% of the total scheduled castes workers. Another 28.1% are cultivators, most of whom are marginal farmers. Thus, the percentage of agricultural labours and marginal farmers in the scheduled castes population comes to about 76.39%.
The other occupations in which the scheduled castes are employed are :
(ii) Traditional Artisans;
(a) leather workers;
(c) other artisans.
(iii) (a) civil sanitation workers; (scavangers and sweepers)
(b) traditional basis.
(iv) Urban marginal labour.
(v) The educated.
These occupational groups may be put into two broad categories namely:
- those engaged in land based activities;
- those engaged in non – land based activities.
Any programme for the economic development or the welfare of the scheduled castes shall have to take into account this occupational pattern along with the fact that 86% of scheduled castes live in rural areas.
Strategy For Development Of Scheduled Castes:
The 6thPlan identified the “lack of economic support” as the main cause of extremely slow pace of the development of scheduled castes during the earlier plans. It was thought that the normal development process will trickle down to the weaker section of the society including the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. However, the experience of the planning process was found otherwise. This necessitated the search for a new strategy during x the 6th Five Year Plan.
A new strategy was, therefore, involved in the 6th plan. It was a combination of the following three instruments :
- The Special Component Plan of the States and Central Ministries (SCP).
- The Special Central Assistance (SCA).
- Scheduled Castes Development Corporation in the States (SCDC).
2. Special Component Plan (SCP):
The Special Component (SCP) was designed to channelise the flow of benefits and outlays from the genera! sectors in the plan of the States and Central Ministries for the development of scheduled castes in physical and financial terms. These Plans were envisaged to help the poor scheduled caste families through composite income generating schemes during 6th Plan period.
Such family oriented programmes were meant to cover all the major occupational groups among the scheduled castes. In addition the SCP also sought to improve the living conditions of scheduled castes through provision of drinking water, link road, house sites, improved housing, establishment of such services as primary schools, health centres, veterinary centres, panchayat houses, community halls, nutrition centres, rural electrification, common society centres, etc., in the scheduled caste bastis under the Minimum Needs Programme. This would improve their access to social, educational and other community services by ear-marking outlays for this purpose in appropriate sectors.
3. Special Central Assistance (SCA):
The Special Central Assistance (SCA) is additive to the States Special Component Plans and Programmes for the development of scheduled castes. During the 6th Plan, it was not tied to specific schemes on the schematic pattern. It was meant for the totality of the State effort for the development of scheduled castes. The only condition laid down was that the fund is to be used by the State only for income generating economic development schemes, such as, directly relevant training, directly relevant back up services and arrangements for implementation, supervision, monitorin and evaluation.
4. Scheduled Castes Development Corporations (SCDC):
The Scheduled Castes Development Corporation (SCDC) in the States are visualized as an interface between poor Scheduled Caste entrepreneurs and financial institutions in respect of bankable schemes of economic development. The government of India provides assistance to the States for investment in the share capital of these corporations. The share of the Central Government and State Government in the share capital of a corporation is’ 49 : 51.
This then was a strategy for the economic development of the Scheduled castes as devised during the 6th Plan. The same strategy has been continued during the 7th Plan. The success of failure of any strategy for development depends to a great extent upon the administrative organisation created for its implementation. We now propose to study as to how far the administrative set up existing in the country is geared to implement the above mentioned strategy for the development of scheduled castes.
1. Central Level:
In Government of India, the work relating to the problems of scheduled castes and tribes was being looked after by the Home Ministry. However, on 25th September 1986, a large scale reorganization of the Ministries took place. At that time it was thought that to put proper emphasis on the welfare aspects of foe administration of Harijan affairs, the subject should be transferred to a Ministry dealing with social welfare.
A new Ministry of Social Welfare was created and the work relating to foe scheduled castes and scheduled tribes was transferred from for Ministry of Home Affairs to this Ministry. The work of the Welfare Ministry is carried out through seven wings headed by five joint Secretaries. One of the Joint Secretaries looks after foe work of scheduled caste and scheduled tribes development.
The other important items dealt within foe Ministry are Social Defence and Child Welfare, Minorities. Welfare of the handicapped, research and evaluation etc. Besides there are some subordinate organizations like the National Institutes of Social Defence, the four National Institutes for foe handicapped, etc. The subject of the Welfare of scheduled caste, therefore, appears to be in the right place where other welfare programmes are administered.
2. State LeveL :
The State Level machinery is broadly responsible for the decision making, planning and reviewing of the programme for the development of scheduled castes. It is directly responsible to ensure that at the planning stage the Special Component Plans is qualitatively improved and at implementation stage.
It is successfully implemented. Since the programme under Special Component Plans fell within the jurisdiction of the various departments of the State Governments, the specific positions at different levels in the department machinery have got to be identified in each of the department from State to the district level.
It has to be ensured that the decisions are taken at the highest level and passed on the intermediate district level and ultimately to the field level for implementation.
While a number of government departments are involved in the formulation of Special Component Plan, the specific responsibility of coordinating their activities fails on the Secretary of Tribal and Harijan Welfare Department.
In most of the States the work relating to the welfare and development of scheduled castes is combined with that of the scheduled tribes. This is a reasonably good combination although the work load in the tribal department is rather heavy anti leaves the Secretary very little time to devote to the problems of the welfare of the scheduled castes.
The Secretary obviously is assisted by a number of Special Secretaries/Deputy Secretaries and Under Secretaries. Of course, the Department of Harijan and Tribal Welfare is usually always overworked due to the overwhelming problems they have to face.
3. District Level Administration:
Until recently the collector was considered to be the Chief Coordinator of the district. Naturally, the work of coordinating the implementation of the Special Component Plan should have fallen on him. Unfortunately, the position has changed in many of the States. Due to a variety of promotional/developmental activities and multifarious problems connected with them, the Collector has become a busy person.
He may probably still handle the coordination work relating to the Special Component Plan, but, vertical pressures of the departmental heads are now increasing. It is, therefore, becoming increasingly difficult for the Collector to coordinate the development of scheduled caste in the district.
There is, however, a general feeling that someone at the district level has to coordinate this programme. It is also understood that nobody except the Collector is probably in a position to perform this function.
4. Block Level:
The block has to be the basic unit of implementation and follow up of the programme. The block level machinery has to be strengthened to perform the functions under this programme as well as several other programmes which are implemented by them. Apart from the need to strengthen the staff, the greater problem is of coordination between the different block functionaries. Here the position of the Block Development Officer (BDO) is much weaker than that of the Collector as coordinator.
The district head of various departments do not keep the BDOs informed of their share of the Special Component Plan. They issue instructions directly to the block functionaries without keeping the BDOs informed. Naturally, the different departments implement their part of the component plan independently of each other. This leads to a complete lack of coordination.
This position has to be rectified if he programmes for the development of scheduled castes are to be implemented properly.
Having achieved to be coordination the block would be required to perform the most important functions of :
- proper identification of the scheduled castes beneficiary families;
- preparation and maintenance of their socio-economic profiles;
- implementation of the programmes covering the identified families;
- identifying the infrastructure requirements and incorporating them in the block action plans.
- preparation and implementation of infrastructures development programmes; and
- identifying the credit needs of the beneficiaries and helping them to obtain credits from the financing institutions.
Some Special Administrative Arrangements:
1. Crime Against Scheduled Castes:
The problem of crimes against scheduled castes and the question of protecting them have been continuously- engaging the attention of the Government of India and the State Governments. The problem stems out of the fact that the members of the scheduled castes are weak and vulnerable and deserve consideration.
A number of State Government have taken special measures in this regard. Most of them have made a senior officer at the Police Headquarters responsible to monitor crimes against the scheduled castes.
The State Governments of Bihar, Gujarat, Harayan, Karnataka, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra have identified a total of 48 districts as sensitive from the point of view of crimes against Scheduled Castes, Both the Central Government and the State Governments are thus trying to evolve methods to protect the scheduled caste from crimes committed against them by others.
2. Commissioner for Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes:
The Special Officer, commonly known as the Commissioner for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes is appointed under Article 338 of the Constitution. It is his duty to investigate all matters relating to safeguards provided for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes under the Constitution and to report annually to the President of India upon these safeguards.
The Commissioner has so far submitted 27 reports to the President. All these reports were laid on the Tables of the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha and were discussed in both the Houses.
Some Issues and Problems Concerned with the implementation of the various welfare measures:
1. Disaggregation of Targets:
In several states the implementation of the scheme under Special Component Plan has suffered primarily because the physical and financial targets under various sectors were not disaggregated and communicated to the district and block levels by the departments concerned. Since the district and block machinery did not have an idea of what they were supposed to do, it was impossible for them to implement the Special Component Plan.
2. Inadequate Administrative Machinery:
It has also been observed that even when sufficient funds are available, the implementing agencies may be structurally so weak that they fail to absorb large amounts placed at their disposal Under different programmes.
The shortage of staff is very keenly felt at the field level. Even when the posts are sectioned, they are not filled up because of the non-availability of suitable persons. This underscores the need for sanctioning sufficient staff and following probably personal policies to ensure the presence of adequately trained staff in all the positions sanctioned under the project.
3. No Proper Personnel Policies:
The problem mainly arises on account of disinclination on the part of the government employees to be posted in Harijan/Tribal Welfare Departments as many of the posts are in inhospitable areas lacking in the basic amenities of life. It is, therefore, essential that the officers posted to -these areas should be given some monetary and non-monetary benefits to make their postings attractive.
Certain amount of indoctrination about the importance of the job that these functionaries are performing may go a long way in improving their morale and motivation. Some of the State Governments have started giving a number of incentives to the employees being posted in Harijan/Tribal areas. For example, a few states have announced a- 20% increase in salary along with other incentives like children’s education allowance, more liberal leave rules, greater facilities of leave travel concession, etc.
4. Scale of Assistance not Sufficient:
In many States the economic assistance given to the scheduled castes is so small and insignificant that it would not have much impact in helping the scheduled caste family to rise above the poverty line within a reasonable period of time, say, one or two years. It is, therefore, essential that the scale of assistance provided to the families should be adequate from die point of view of genera ring reasonable income in the trade/business/asset for which the assistance is given.
The exact quantum Of assistance will, of course, depend upon the circumstances of each business/trade and also according to the location. The real test is to answer the question. “Is the amount of assistance given such that it would really raise the income of the particular scheduled caste family above the poverty line a period of one or two years”. If the answer is negative one has to choose from the other alternatives.
5. Linkages not Taken into Account:
One important reason why a programme may not have satisfactory impact is that it may have been implemented in isolation, without taking into account the necessary linkages that are basic to its success. For example, giving of milch cattle is a popular scheme, but, it can succeed only when the animals given are of appropriate breed and healthy. They should also have clean cattle sheds, adequate nutritious food and veterinary coverage. The beneficiaries may also be required to undergo some training before, they can full care of the valuable animals.
The success of the scheme would, therefore, depend not only on the distribution of the cattle but also on the provision of the other necessary facilities and services. In fact, for this reason it is necessary to coordinate the activities of different departments who may be responsible for providing these services and facilities. If one set of facility/service is provided and the others are not, it results in under utililsation of their capacity further leading to waste of resources. The need for establishing proper forward and backward linkage can, therefore, not be
Write short note on Training of the officers Responsible for implementation of SC’s Welfare Programmes.
The major responsibilities for ensuring and facilitating the successful implementation of the developmental programmes for the scheduled castes falls upon the States and the Central Governments. It is, therefore, essential to organise suitable training programmes for all levels of officers who are responsible for the implementation of these programmes. These training have to be organised for the following levels :
(i) Gross-root Level:
This will include training of short duration for BDOs and of a little duration for extension officers, VLWs and others engaged in the implementation of these programmes at block level.
(ii) District Level:
This would include training of district level officers like agricultural officers, industries officers, Harijan Welfare officers and others who are engaged in this programme at the district level. A few short duration conferences and seminars and workshops may be organised for the Collectors and Additional Collectors who may be coordinating the Harijan Welfare Programmes in the districts.
(iii) State Level:
A number of technical and non-technical officers at the State level will also be required to be trained. Their training should equip them with the skill’s of plan formulation, monitoring and evaluation.
The need for training is very much felt in the area of Special Component Plan. The ignorance of many district and state level functionaries about the Special Component Plan is really remarkable. The position is much worse at the block and village levels where the implementation process really takes place. Needless to say that the training of these functionaries should not really concern their technical subjects but should also inculcate
in them proper attitudes towards the people whom they are supposed to serve.
Write short note on ; Monitoring of Special Component Flans.
Monitoring Of Special Component Plans:
Before the Special Component Plan strategy was adopted for the Scheduled Castes, important programmes for their development were mainly grouped under the backward classes sector.
These were mainly grouped and prescribed by the Ministry of Home Affairs. The progress of schemes was also discussed periodically in review meetings. But ho monitoring system as such was evolved. With the coming of Special Component Plan, their regular and systematic conditions monitoring has become essential.
The monitoring should involve receipt of progress information from operating and implementing levels, its analysis and identification of shortfalls and finally providing die implementing agency the feed-back about its performance. Another aspect of the monitoring should be to feed the information to the State level as well as the Centre level about the progress of the implementation of the scheme and the various problems and bottlenecks encountered in the implementation process.
Evaluation should mean to find out how a family or group has changed over a period of time due to governmental and other assistance acting as a change agent. The objective of the entire Special Component Plan strategy is to improve die economic and social structure of the scheduled castes. The evaluation should therefore, be quantitative as well as qualitative in character. It should not only tell as to how many families have been assisted and benefited, but, should also tell us as to how its, income and quality of life have improved.
A lot of research has been conducted about the problems of the tribals. Tribal Research Institutes have been set up to undertake such researches. However, not much effort has gone into the research regarding Harijan Werlfare. This work may be conducted through the Tribal Research Institutes or by establishing separate research institutes for the problems of the Scheduled Castes.
Discuss the administration for welfare of Scheduled Tribes. What are the Strategies for development of Scheduled Tribes and the role played in it by the Public Administration.
The population of India has historically been made up of various racial and religious groups. In the process of political conquest, social and economic growth, all groups did not progress equally. Some of the ethnic groups retained their separateness by moving away into the remote nill and forest areas.
They were also in many cases forced to do so. In either case, the result their isolation from the mainstream of religious, cultural, technological and economic developments in the country. These groups now make up one section of the backward classes in India, namely, the Scheduled Tribes.
As per the 1981 census, the scheduled trite comprise about 7.8% of he population of our country’. Though the Scheduled trite number over 250, they amy be divided into seven principal tribal groups the bonds, santhals, bhils, oraons, kinds, mundas and kacharis.
Keeping in mind the special problems faced by the Tribal people, the framers of our constitution have made explicit provisions upon the state to take special measures for the welfare and development of the scheduled tribals.
2. Constitutional Provisions:
Article 46 of the Directive Principles of State Policy calls on the State to promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections, especially the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and to protect them from social injustice and exploration.
Special provisions are made in Schedule V for the administration of scheduled areas in States other than Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura while for these states the provisions are contained in Schedule VI.
Further, Article 275
(i) makes it incumbent upon die Centre to provide funds from the Consolidated Fund of India
(a) schemes of development undertaken by the State with the approval of the Government of Indian for promoting tribal welfare and
(b) raising, the level of administration of scheduled areas to that of the rest of the areas of the State.
Thus, it can be seen that the constitution provides a tripool framework in the form of:
(a) Coals and objectives in Article 46;
(b) Legislative and Administrative infrastructure in Fifth and Sixth schedules;
(c) Financial support for tribal welfare in Article 275.
In addition to these provisions which are general in nature, the Constitution also provides for some specific measures for the welfare and upliftment of the SC/STs.
These are :
- Provision for a Commissioner for SC/ST (Article 338) to be appointed by the President to look into matters concerning the welfare of SC/ST. He makes an annual report which is laid before Parliament.
- Provision for reservation of states in State Legislative Assemblies and the Lok Sabha for SC/ST (Article 332 for Assemblies) and (Article 330 for Lok Sabha).
- Provision for reservation for SC/ST in services and posts under the Union or State Governments consistent with the maintenance of administrative efficiency (Article 335).
Strategy For Development Of Scheduled Tribes:
In keeping with its obligations the State has over the years, been taking steps to ensure the welfare of the STs. Though the objectives remain essentially the same, the strategy has undergone several modifications over the years mostly dictated by experience. Here we propose to take upon brief survey of the strategy for development of STs evolved over the years.We shall then take up the administrative machinery built up to implement ‘ the objectives of ST welfare.
(i) Community Development Programmes:
In the first five year plan period the Community Development Programme was taken up, dividing the country into blocks for the purpose of administrative convenience. The programme applied equally to tribal areas, but since the problems of these areas were more difficult, special multi-purpose Tribal Development Projects were introduced in some blocks.
(ii) Tribal Development Blocks:
This approach was reviewed during the Second Plan, and the concept of Tribal Development Blocks’ to cover all tribal areas was evolved. Such a block would cover a population of about 25,000 in an area or about 150 to 200 sq. miles. 500 such blocks | covered about 40% of the Tribal population by the end of the Third Plan i . period.
The Tribal Development Block strategy was no doubt an improvement over the Community Development Approach. However, they were not very effective ensuring development of Tribal because of lack of administrative framework and insufficient attention to the protective and anti-exploitative aspect of Tribal Development
(iii) Tribal Development Agencies in 4thFive Year Plan:
Therefore, in the 4th five year plan, it was decided to take up special programmes in Tribal areas on a pilot basis. For this purpose, six (later increased to 8) Tribal Development Agencies were set up in MP, Bihar, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.
These agencies were to avoid the shortcomings of the Tribal Development Blocks. For this purpose, they were to set up an. administrative framework and to ensure implementation of protective measures besides programmes of economic development and infrastructure creation.
However, the Tribal Development agencies were also unable to make any significant differences in the approach to the problem of Tribal development It was observed that they confined themselves to economic programmes and construction of roads, small bridges etc.
Both the Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes Commission (Dhebar Commission) 1961 and the Shulu Ao Committee, 1969 made pertinent observations about the planning and implementation of Tribal Development’ Programmes.
They felt that the approach to the problem offered from lack of sufficient, investment and slew implementation,especially of the protective and anti-exploitative measures, many of which had been passed by both Central and State governments. They also pointed to the lack- of adequate K-w administrative structure, communication and educational structure for Tribal Communities,
(iv) Strategies of TSP under Fifth Five Year Plan:
The recommendations’ of these two committees, as well as the experience of the previous plans was taken into account by the planners who took a comprehensive view of the tribal development strategy on tire eve of lire Fifth Five Year Plan.
As a result, a new strategy, known as the Tribal sub Plan strategy was evolved. Under- this strategy the different sectorial departments of the various state governments were required to set apart a fixed percentage of their budget for investment in TSP areas. Also, emphasis was laid on development of administrative infrastructure and taking measures to end exploitation of Tribals.
Under the TSP strategy, Tribal areas in the country were grouped into three broad categories as :
- States and UTs having a majority ST population.
- States and UTs having substantial ST population but majority in particular administrative units, and
- States and UTs having despaired ST population
1. Integrated Tribal Development Projects:
For the implementation of the TSP strategy’, Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) were adopted during the 5th plan for covering fee substantial tribal population areas. During the 6th plan Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was adopted to covr smaller’areas of Tribal concentration (having 10,000population of which 50% or more pre-tribals).
And during the Seventh Plan, the TSP strategy was extended, to all the Tribals In the country, including the dispersed tribals. At the end of the seventh plan, there were 191 TTDPs, 268 MADAs and 74 cluster areas is the 19 TSP states/UTs.
The TSP strategy as adopted since the 5thplan, and continued during the 6th, 7th plans, has been a considerable improvement over the earlier approaches. The main achievements of the TSP strategy has been remarkable spirit of investment in Tribal areas. Investment has gone up from Rs. 75 crores in the 4thplan to Rs. 1102 crores in the 5th plan Rs, 5535 crores in the 6th plan and about Rs. 7000 crores in Use 7th plan.
2. Protective Laws to Check Exploitation of Tribals:
Also after the adoption of the TSP strategy, central and State governments have enacted
protective laws to check implication of Tribals. These laws include laws regulating moneylending, prohibiting transfer of Tribal land to non-Tribals and laws for acquiring monopoly rights in collection and marketing of Tribal produce.
The TSP strategy has resulted in accelerated infrastructure growth. There has been good growth in the number of primary schools, primary health centres, arterial roads, civil supplies shops etc. There has also been growth of administration in Tribal areas which we shall cover later.
3. Deficiencies in the Tribal Development Strategies:
Thus it has been observed that while TSP has yielded results, these are not up to the v- expectations. This has occurred mainly because
- in many states, TSP approach is interpreted as an area approach and therefore heavy emphasis is laid on infrastructure development rather than development of STs themselves. Beneficiary oriented schemes heave lagged far behind.
- Implementation of anti-exploitative measures has been tardy and half hearted.
- Project officers/administrators in change of ITDPs do not have adequate administrative and financial control
- There has been little involvement of the Tribals themselves in formulation of schemes for their welfare.
- Certain categories of Tribals such as shifting cultivators and forest dwellers have not received adequate coverage.
- Enough attention has not been paid to the recommendations of the Commissioner for SC/ST, His role has not been fully appreciated.
To remove the glaring deficiencies the Working Group on STs of the Planning Commission has recommended that during 8th Plan, the TSP strategy should be modified. It has suggested that instead of suctorial departments having sub-plans in their budgets a portion of the state budget should be directly placed with the Tribal Development department which may in turn allocate to various departments keeping in mind the various schemes formulated by them.
The state of M.P. has already decided to adopt this approach from 1989-90. The Working Group has also recommended decentralisation of planning to include tribals. devolution of proper financial and administrative authority )o Project Officers and the plugging of loopholes in anti-exploitative laws.
Write short note on ”Administrative-.set up for – Implementation of the’ Tribal Development Programmes”.
Administrative Set Up’For Implementation Of The Tribal Development Programme:
We may now have a look at the administrative set on and the machinery for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the Tribal Development. Programmes. We shall also take up the role of voluntary agencies In Tribal development.
As we have seen earlier, the Tribal areas were divided into separate administrative units for integrated development. These units are :
The administrative framework at the state level included the secretary and/or commissioner incharge of Tribal Welfare. The Secretary or the Commissioner .is assisted by Director, Tribal Welfare and Additional Commissioners. Certain states like MP and Bihar have created Regional Tribal Development Agencies.
At the ITDP in all states/UTs there is a Project Officers/Administrator who has above him project level committees for planning and overseeing the implementation of tribal development programmes. These committees are headed in some states by the local MDA and in others by the district collector.
The Project Officer’s functions and powers vary from state to state, but it is generally been found that he lacks adequate financial and administrative authority and his role has been reduced to that of a mere coordinator.
At the MADA and Cluster levels, there is no separate administrative structure. The line departments of the state governments have to implement development projects at MADA level under the supervision of the District Authorities.
Apart from this structure, 10 states have Tribal Advisory Council as provided for in the 5ttl schedule of the constitution, whose function is to advise the government concerned about new measures as well as to offer constructor criticism.
1. Working Group on Tribal Development for the 8th Plan:
However, the Planning Commission’s Working Group on Tribal Development for the -8th Plan has noted feat there are several shortcomings in the administration of Tribal Areas. Some these are :
- The system of administration as developed is unintelligiable to the Tribals who cannot identify with it
- There is high birr, over of administrative staff in Tribal areas Most officials are sent there a? ‘punishment’, and therefore regard it as such. This results in lack of motivation.
- The Tribals Advisory Councils are hardly active and meet, very rarely.
- The Governor’s reports under Schedule 5 of the Constitution are counting, listing only the state’s achievements. Even these are often late.
- Enough administrative and financial autonomy is not available to the Project Officers at ITDP level.
The Working Group has suggested that to remove these anomalies, the Union Government should consider giving more directive to the states, which it can do under Scheduled V.
An important fact of any kind of development work is fee evaluation and monitoring of Such work, This is of course, all fee more relevant in the case of Tribal Development Programmes. Serious attention was paid to monitoring and evaluation only since the sixth plan. As a result, the following agencies are now available for monitoring and evaluation.
2. Monitoring :
- Monitoring cells of State Governments.
- Tribal Research Institutes in the States.
- Tribal cells of Central Ministries.
- Directorate of Research Monitoring and Evaluation of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
- Directorate of Statistics/Evaluation of state governments.
- Programme Evaluation Organization of Planning Commission.
- Zonal Directors for SC/ST under SC/ST Commission.
- National Level Organisations like Administrative Staff College, National Institute of Rural development. National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, Indian Institute of Public Administration etc.
- Professional and Autonomous Research Organisations working in the field including departments of social work/anthropology of the Universities.
Towards the end of the Sixth Plan, a new feature was introduced, namely, the process of simultaneous concurrent monitoring and evaluation ‘ of TSP programmes, to be conducted by officers of the projects. Tribal Welfare Departments and the Community Development Officers of the state governments. This approach is to be continued in the 8th plan also.
Write short note on : “Role of Voluntary Agencies in the field of Tribal Welfare”.
Role Of Voluntary Agencies In The Field Of Tribal Welfare:
It would be appropriate to have a brief idea of the role of the Voluntary Agencies in the field of Tribal Welfare. It much be released that, however, well intentioned the government may be, it simply cannot cope with such a task on its own. The working group of the Planning Commission, realishing this, has emphasised that Voluntary organisations should not only be encouraged but’ consciously built up in the field of Tribal development. Organisations like the Ramakrishna Mission, Bharat Adimjati Sevak Sangh, Akhil Bhayatiya Adivasi Parishad and Servants of India Society have been doing good work in the field.
The government had formulated a Central Scheme for grants-in-aid to Voluntary Organisation. The allocation in the last year of the VII plan was Rs. 1.15 crores against Rs. 3.3.0 crores released in the first four years, The Planning Commission working group has recommended a sum of Rs. 25 crores for the VIII Plan period.
The Working Group has also recommended that voluntary workers should be given training through organisation like the National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) and the Tribal Research Institute (TR1S). Thus, on the whole voluntary organisations are to be given further responsibility, as well as financial and infrastructure support by the government.
Discuss the various development programmes for welfare of woman and the machinery available to administer them.
Elucidate the major women welfare programmes sad the respective roles of Centre and States in the implementation of them.
Women Welfare Programmes:
According to the 1991 census, the number of programmes in India was 406,33 million which constituted 48,14% of fee total population, of the country. The Sex ratio, la, the number of women per 1000 men; declined from 934 in 198.1 to 929 in 1991. The literacy ratio for women in’ 1991 was 39.42% compared to 63.86% For men and 52.11% for the nation as a whole.
The above figures confirm the continued validity of the conclusion of the Committee on the Status of women in India that almost in all spheres, social, economic or political women enjoy a status inferior to men. Inspect of the known ‘disadvantaged position of women, not much attention was paid to implement special programmes for their development.
It was probably thought that the genera! development programmes should benefit the women also, it is only since tire VI Plan that women’s development programmes have acquired a separate and district focus.
It was realised too late, that the trickle down effect of general programmes has not benefited the women. Such of the programmes for women as existed earlier did not touch’ even the Singe of the problem. They were confined to providing the same financial assistance to voluntary organisations which were supposed to run some welfare institutions for women.
The VI plan for the first time realised that any improvement in the low status of the women in India would require, some concerted effort and attention and some special development programmes for women. The Vii Plan has continued to emphasis the same. A core group of the department of women and child development has prepared a National Perspective plan for women for the period 1988-2000.
It is expected that the VIII Plan will make substantial provisions for the special development programmes for women. But, the most vital question is the creation of a proper administrative framework for the purpose. We propose to study in this question in brief some of the development programmes for women and the machinery available to administer them.
2. At Central Level:
At the Central Level the programmes connected with women welfare are looked after by the Ministry of Human Resources Development. The Department of Women and Children Development within the Ministry is entrusted with this particular task. The department has further been divided into two bureaus :
- Nutrition and Child Development;
- Women Welfare and Development.
The Secretary is incharge of the whole department. There are two joint Secretaries who look after the bureaus. Naturally, they are assisted by the usual contingent of Directors/Deputy Secretaries/Under Secretaries besides the clerical staff
3. Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB).
Apart from the Ministry, there is a Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB), a pioneering agency set up by the government in 1953. The Agency is directly concerned with the – welfare of children and women. The general body of the Board consists of 45 members including the Chairman and the Executive Director.
All states are represented in the general body of the Board. Apart from these, there are 3 representatives in the Board from Union Territories. The Board has eminent social workers, social scientists, social welfare administrators. members of Parliament and representatives of different departments concerned with the programmes of the Board. The members of the Board are nominated by the Government of India.
The Administration of the Board is carried out by the executive committee consisting of 12 members including the Chairman and the Executive Director.
4. At State Level:
At the Secretariat level the department of social welfare is looked after by a Secretory to the State Government. The Secretary’ of the Social Welfare also looks after the functionaries of the Department of Social Welfare, in whose duties the work of women welfare is also included.
Recently several states like Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, M. P. etc. have set up separate Directorates of Women and Child Welfare. But, these Directorates are not adequately staffed Moreover, there is usually no staff below the district level except in Blocks covered by the I. C. S. S. programme.
5. Major Women Welfare Programmes:
In the field of social welfare, most programmes for women are supporting measures for various other sectoral development programmes. Some of department’s own programmes
- Assistance given to voluntary agencies and local bodies for construction of working women’s hostels for working women with children upto 6 years of age.
- A scheme for the rehabilitation of women in distress and other children through residential course so that these women could become economically independent.
- A scheme for Integrated Child Development Services (ICDE) for providing a package of nutritional health and pre-school services to children below 6 years of age and expectant mothers.
- A scheme of financing literacy for adults for providing non-formal education within the formal of ICDS.
- A scheme of short stay homes women and children who are in social a..d moral danger.
- A scheme for creches for children of working women. The most popular programmes in most of the States are :
- Working women’s hostels;
- Homes for destitute;
- Providing funds for voluntary agencies for promoting women’s welfare.
The more crucial activities such as training programmes, production centres, employment schemes, vocational sources and marketing centres etc. aiming at improving income generation potential of the women are not organised on any large scale.
6. Respective Roles of Centre and States:
Social Welfare is not mentioned as such in any of the three lists in Schedule VII of the Constitution. From this none have inferred that the social welfare may be taken as a central subject because the residuary powers vest with the Central Government.
However, there are a number of items pertaining to social welfare which have been included in the State list while several others are included in concurrent list For example, prisons reformatories, Borstal institution, public health, sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries, relief for disabled and unemployable are Included in the State list.
Vagrancy, lunacy and mental deficiency, welfare of labour etc., are included in the concurrent list. The most important is entry 20 in List III. According to this catty, economic and social planning is a concurrent subject.
The entry is broad enough to include different aspects of social planning including social welfare. The subject may, therefore, be treated as concurrent subject and is the responsibility of both the State Government ami the Central Government. This clarification is essential not because there is a great deal of competition in claiming the subject, but because neither the Central nor the State Government appear to be giving it the attention that it deserves. Of course, the situation appears to have changed over a period of time.
7. Role of Union Government:
From the interpretation given above, the basic function of the Centre flows its essential role as leader, innovator technical guide, disseminator of information, planner and evaluator. Although these functions were not very well performed earlier, but recently the Central Government las started playing the role of the leader % providing necessary guidance about the strategy to be followed in the field of women welfare.
A National Committee on status of Women in India was formed which made several recommendation, in various fields like demography, religion and culture, law, economic, education, politics, and welfare and development programmes. The committee has made the recommendations about the action to be taken in various fields. The Government of India has forwarded the recommendations to the State Governments.
The Planning Commission had proposed a specific strategy for Women Welfare and Development in the Sixth Five Year Plan and in the Seventh Five Year Plan also. The strategy and programmes are based on die report of the National Committee and some other committees set up by the Planning Commission. It also took note of several other publications of 1CSSR and UN organisations.
The Union Government organised – many seminars and provided opportunities for the exchange of information through various conferences of the Ministries and Department of Social Welfare and relevant officials and non-officials. It has also complied and published a statistical profile of women in India. In this way, the Union Government is fulfilling its role as a researcher, planner and disseminator of information.
It may again be emphasised that it is only during the last decade or so that the Central Government bas started playing this role a bit more effectively, in fact, the declaration of 1975 as the International Womens Year by the United Nations triggered off this activity on the part of the Union Government. Apart from the Department of Women and Child Welfare mentioned above, the main agencies of the Central Government in the field of planning and implementation of the women’s welfare programme are :
- Planning Commission;
- Department of Education;
- Ministry of Health and Family Planning, and
- Department of Rural Development.
Of course, the Department of Women and Child Welfare has been declared as the nodal point for toe coordination of the activities of the other departments. Besides the Government of India has also set up the Central Social Welfare Board which has already been described above.
The Board handles the government grants-in-aids and routes them through the State Social Welfare Boards to voluntary organisation for administering the social services relating to women and children State Boards, as local representative bodies, recommend and advise the Central Borad regarding grants-in-aid to the voluntary welfare agencies. The welfare extension programmes, family and child welfare projects, integrated child welfare projects, training programmes, etc., are a few example of such schemes and programmes.
The procedure followed by the Central Board is the same as that of. centrally sponsored schemes and centra schemes. It is assumed that when the Union Government evolves such model schemes and lays down general policy and guidelines and runs schemes at central level on model lines, the States will be inspired to draw up or continue such activities on their own, This arrangements may work to some extent, but, makes the States dependent on the Centre and violates their autonomy.
7. Role of the States:
It has been observed that the State Governments have a general disinclination to shoulder responsibilities for women welfare programmes. In fact, they have no clear policy on women welfare. Only a few scattered schemes are implemented without any particular policy or direction. In many States, non-plan expenditure on social welfare schemes is more than the plan expenditure.
This happens because the State Governments undertake many schemes to avail of the Central assistance from the Central Social Welfare Board. After a period of time, the Central assistance ceases and the schemes become the responsibility of the State Governments. Many of the State Governments are not able to take up this burden. A number of such schemes, therefore,get dropped out in due course of time.
1. No Definite Pattern of Co-ordination. A definite pattern of Union State Coordination in women welfare administration is not identifiable even after 35 years of experience in the field. Expect for the pronounced over centralization nothing else has emerged clearly. This is due to the general atmosphere of indifference to women’s problems and consequent neglect of women welfare administration. As already mentioned,, the entire working is based on the assumption that the welfare is the responsibility’ of the community and it is a voluntary effort and the government has only to stimulate it by aids, grants and incentives.
This purpose is served by the Central Social Welfare Board which channelises it and supervise the voluntary agencies. On the other hand the Union Government has also been forced to come into the field directly, through the agency of Department of Women said Child Development This has eroded the position of Central Social Welfare Board. This ambivalance causes a lot of confusion In the Union SEvJ Coordination also.
The Central Board instituted toe Stale Social Welfare Boards zs its agencies in the States. Apart chanelizing aid to voluntary agencies,supervising and advising, the boards are also expected to function as coordinating bodies for various department. The status of the State Social Welfare Board is therefore not clear and various from State to State.
The relations between the State Government, the Central Board and the State Board are not clearly defined. Several schemes run by Central Board through the State Boards are also being run by the State Departments separately. Administering such paralled schemes, without proper coordination, leads only o duplication and waste of resources.
2. Central Financing Women Welfare Programmes:
Lot of problems are caused by the Central Financing of the women welfare programmes, Since these programmes are not initiated by the State Governments, they are not very much interested in them. They accept these programmes only to avail of the assistance of the Central Government. When after the stipulated period of time, the Central assistance ceases, the States are not in a position to support these programmes. If they do, they are unable to take up any new programmes.
This explains the high proportion of non plan expenditure in women welfare schemes. A number of schemes are dropped, thus ceasing discontinuity in the operation of schemes. The Administrative Reforms Commission had, therefore, recommended that there should not be any centrally sponsored scheme. Whatever assistance the Centre has to give to the States, may be in the form of block grants so that the State Governments can initiate schemes which they find useful in their States.
What are the recent developments in the Women Welfare Programmes? Discuss with special reference to the
(a) National Perspective Plan for Women (1986-2000);
(b) Women’s Development Corporations; and
(c) National Commission for Women.
As already mentioned earlier, it has now been recognised that Women’s development programmes should not be confined to uncoordinated social welfare programmes, but, should try to integrate them into the social mainstream. In the VIII Plan the long term objective has been down, as the development or raising of economic and social status of women in order to bring them into the mainstream of national development. The’ welfare of women has, therefore, to be undertaken in a- coordinated way in die following fields.
- Family Welfare and Nutrition,
- Social Welfare and
- Legal Status.
These programmes are being run by different Ministries with different foci. All of them have a direct impact on the development of women but, there has been inadequate emphasis on the part relating to women Such an emphasis is needed in view of the acknowledged disadvantaged position of women in our society. Some of the Ministries have started earmarking and monitoring the- share of the women’s content in their development programmes.
For example, the Ministry of Rural Development has stipulated that at least 30% of the beneficiaries in IRDP programmes should be women. Similar action shall have to be taken by other concerned Ministries. Progress of the women’s share of the programmes shall have to be watched.
At the same time necessary legislation shall also have to be enacted to protect the women from social inequities. Dowry Prohibition Act and Sati Abolition Act are examples of such legislation. Above all, some one has to ensure that all these efforts are so coordinated as to improve the social and economic status of women.
This task will obviously have to be performed by Women and Child Welfare Departments of the State Governments and the Central Govt. at their respective levels. It is for this reason that the creation of separate departments of women and child welfare has been recommended from time to time. VIII Plan thus advocated a well coordinated attempt by all the concerned departments to raise the status of women.
National Perpestive Plan For Women (1986-2000):
To develop an effective and coherent long term policy for Indian Women, a core group was set up by the Department of Women and Child Development of the Human Resources Development Ministry. This core group has submitted its report which is known a« “National Perspective Plan for Women”. Thus plan is an effort at an over all policy for development of women linked to the national targets determined for the end of the century in respect of certain basic indicators like health, .education and employment. The Plan aims at :
Economic development and integration of the women into the mainstream of national economy.
The main recommendations of the Plan are :
(i) All Ministeries should have a Women’s Cell. The new policy thrust for women’s development must be reflected in the Planning Commission as well as the State Planning Boards.
(ii) The Planning Commission should have a Women’s Unit. The methodology for data collection with regard to women must be improved. New Plans must take into account the impact of different macro-economic policies on women.
(iii) Preferential resource allocation for Women’s employment in mainstream programmes and projects should be made. Preference should also be given to investment in industries and occupations preferred by women.
(iv) Department Directorates of Womens Development should be created in all states where the has not been done so far.
(v) There should be two major implementing agencies for executing the programmes of womens development, viz. Social Welfare Boards and the Women’s Development Corporation. The Social Boards should concentrate on welfare/supportive programmes mainly through the voluntary agencies. Womens Development Corporations should implement economic development programmes through the government agencies as well as the N. G. Os.
(vi) Women should entitled to a package of services at the block level created by the convergence of schemes. Every district should have a coordinator to assist in the integration of all these programmes.
(vii) Womens development programmes should not merely receive larger allocations, but, should have the benefit of technical to ensure better resource utilisation.
(viii) A National Resource Centre tor women should be set up. This centre should translate the developmental needs of women into systematic grid of programmes and schemes for training at different levels in skills, knowledge and attitudes.
(ix) A special division should be set up in Department of Women and Child Development to monitor the enforcement of laws for the protection of women. The officer-in-charge of this cell should be designated as Commissioner for Womens’ Rights.
(x) The census in future must take into account Womens’ unpaid work in the households and outside as well as the value added in performing her many tasks for the family.
Womens’ Development Corporations:
As the normal development corporations do not give adequate attention to the needs of women’ a new scheme was drawn up in 1986-87 to set up Womens’ Development Corporations in the States.
The Central Government was to provide 49% of the share capital of the corporation while the remaining 51% was to be contributed by the State Government. The main function of die corporations is to identify the areas where the women can be gainfully employed consistent with their family obligations.
The corporations are then supposed to prepare a shield of viable projects which can either employ women or provide the women opportunities of sell¬) employment. The corporations were supposed to provide assistance to the women directly or through voluntary Non-Governmental Organisations.- Apart from identifying projects, the corporations are supposed to identify women entrepreneurs, encourage entrepreneurial talent among them, help them, select proper projects; help them arrange finance from the Banks, provide them -technical guidance. In short the corporations are supposed to do everything The members and chairperson shall hold office ‘for a period of three years.
2. Functions of the Commission:
The main functions of the Commission are :
- To review the provisions of the constitution and various laws relating – to women and suggest remedial measures to meet any lacunae in such legislation.
- To take suo moto notice and to look into complaints of violation
of laws or non implementation of policies and to take up the matter with appropriate authorities.
- To undertake or get undertaken studies or investigation into specific problems arising out of discrimination and atrocities against women so as to identify concurrents and suggest remedies.
- To undertake promotional and educational research to suggest ways to increase the representation of women in various spheres of life.
- To participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of women.
- To evaluate the process of development of women under the Union or any State.
- Inspect or cause to be inspected remand homes, women’s institutions and other places where women are kept.
- To find litigation involving issues affecting a large body of women.
- To send to the Central Government ‘annually and at such other times as the commission may deem fit report on the making of safeguards for women.
- To make periodical reports to the government on any matter pertaining to women.
- Any other matter that may be referred to the Commission by. the – Central Government.
The Central Government shall cause the Annual Report, together with a memorandum of action taken on the recommendation, and the reasons for non-acceptance, if any, of such recommendations and the audit report to be laid before each House of Parliament.
Various Womens’ organisation have criticized the Act as not being comprehensive enough. It is said that the Commission has a large list of functions without adequate powers to discharge them. Some critics want that the commission should be given constitutional status and its recommendations should be mandatory. Others want that the commission should function on af decentralized basis. A commission at the national level is hardly accessible to toe common people. Now future will tell us how far the critics are right in their assessment of the role of the Commission.