DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 9 Training of Operative Personnel
What do you mean by training ? How is training different from development and education ?
Meaning Of Training:
After the new employee is selected and joins the organisations, the next step of the personnel programme is to impart necessary training to work them fit for the job which has been assigned to him and he is supposed to handle. According to Flippo, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. ” According to Dale Yoder, “Training is the process by which man-power is filled for the particular jobs it is to perform.” According to Beach, “Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. ”
The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs in a better way. The trainees will aquire new manipulative skills, technical knowledge, problem solving ability or attitudes etc. Training is not a one-step process but it is a continuous or never-ending process. Training makes newly recruited workers fully productive in the minimum of time. Even for old workers, training is necessary to refresh them and enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques. In short, training is the act of improving or updating the knowledge and skill of an employee for performing a particular job.
Training is important not only to the organisation but also to the employee. Training is valuable to the employee as he learns new skills and method to do new jobs. It gives employee greater job security and an opportunity for. advancement.
Training and Education. Training is different from education. Education is concerned with improving the general knowledge and understanding of the employee’s total environment. For example, a mechanic who repairs an automobile better than an engineer is only trained and not educated for he does not have engineering education and its principles. Thus education is broader in scope, its purpose is to develop individual Education is generally imparted by our formal school system. The difference between training and education is not precise. In some cases, training and ecducation occur at the same time.
Education means a formal instruction m a school or college whereas training is vocationally oriented and is imparted to do a particular job in a better way.
Training And Development Are Two different Concepts:
Development is concerned with the growth of an employee in all respects. It is the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competency in their present jobs, but also capabilities for future managerial tasks. Training programmes are directed toward maintaining and improving current job performance while development programmes seek to. develop skills and competence for future jobs. Stated briefly, training is job- centred whereas development is career oriented.
A person thus can receive training to improve skills on a new word processing machine whereas development may come from a management course on effective leadership. Both managers and non-managers may derive benefits from training and development programmes but the content of the programmes are likely to vary. Non-managers are more likely to be trained in the technical skills required for their current jobs while managers frequently receive assistance in developing their capabilities for future job responsibilities.
What are the objectives of employee training? Explain the need for training in modern industry.
Objectives Of Training Programme:
The overall objective of training programme is to’ fill in the gap between the existing and the desired level of knowledge, skills and aptitudes. Objectives of training express the gap between the present and the desired performance. levels. A well designed training programme improves the personnel qualitatively. A good training programme needs involvement of top management to integrate the training objectives with the organisational objectives. The main objectives of training may.be defined as follows –
1. To impart Basic Knowledge. One of the objectives of training is to impart entrants'” the basic knowledge and skills required for efficient performances of definite tasks. It increases the skill, knowledge and operative competence of the employee which help to increase the level of performance.
2. To Function more effectively in their Present Position – Due to technological changes, present ways of doing the job have changed. Training assists the employee to function more effectively in their present position by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills required to perform their job in a better way. It increases the level of performance on their present assignment.
3. To build up second line of competent Officers – Training aims at building up a second line of competent officers’. Whenever, there is a change in job position, the new incumbent from within can occupy the position more confidently.
4. To broaden the minds of senior Managers – One of the objectives
of Training is to broaden the minds of the senior managers through interchange of experience within and outside so as to correct the narrow outlook caused due to over specialisation. ‘
5. To Reduce Supervision – Training increases the basic knowledge and skills required for the job. It helps to increase production, productivity, and profitability of the concern. It reduces the degree of supervision and makes the workers more independent and more responsible. It thus reduces cost of production and cost of supervision.
6. To Improve the organisational Environment – Environment of the organisation attracts the prospective employees to join the organisation. Thepurpose of training is to generate an improved organisational environment. Proper training helps in preventing industrial accidents. Proper and safer living and working environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of the employees. It reduces the rate of absenteeism and labour turnover.
Need For Training:
Need for training is unquestionable. There is no choice with the organisation whether to train or not to train workers. If no systematic training programme is designed in an organisation the worker will learn by trial and error method which will prove more costly. The choice with the organisations is that of method.
Training is required on account of the following reasons –
1. Job requirements – Some jobs require specialised knowledge, Employees selected for a job might reasonably be lacking in specialised skill required on the job to perform the job effectively. New and totally inexperienced workers need detailed instructions for effective performance on the job. Such employees need orientation training. In some cases, an experienced person may be quite unfit to the new job or to the new organisation due to change in the job pattern or environment. Remedial training may be given to such person to match the needs of the organisation.
2. Technological Changes – There are fast technological changes in the industrial world. Automation, mechanisation, computerisation etc. are being applied almost in every offices. These changes require a specialised training in the new technologies. No office or organisation can take advantages of the new technology unlesss there is a trained work force. When a company introduces new technology, new and old personnel are required to be trained.
3. Organisational Viability – In order to survive and grow an organisation must continually adapt to itself to the changing environment with the increasing liberalisation and globalisation in India, business firms are experiencing expansion, growth and diversification. In order to meet the global competition, firms must upgrade their capabilities by imparting training to their existing employees in new production and marketing techniques, to keep them abreast of new knowledge. It prevents obsolescence skills. An organisation can build’second time of command through training in order to meet their future needs.
4. Internal Mobility – When an employee is promoted to a higher job or transferred to a new job, he needs training so that he may be able to perform the new responsibilities in a better way. Training is widely used to prepare employees for higher level jobs.
Thus, there is ever present heed for training people so that organisations may take advantages of new techniques. Training is required to old and new employees. Need for training has increased in modem times due to growing complexity of jobs, increasing professionalisation of management, growing uncertainties in the environment, global competition, vast untapped human potential etc.
Explain the importance of worker training.
Explain the advantages of training to the employees and the organisation. Are there any limitations of training ?
Importance Of Training:
Training enables the employees to get acquainted with jobs and increase their aptitudes, skills and knowledge. It helps newely recruited employees to be productive in minimum amount of time. Even for experienced workers, it is necessary to refresh and enable them to keep up with new methods, machines, techniques and equipments for doing the work. According to Dale S. Beach “Training is vital and necessary activity in all organisations. It plays a large part in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the establishment.” Training is advantageous not only to the organisation but also to the employees.
(A) Advantages to the Organisation –
1. Follow up of Selection Procedure. Training is a follow up of selection procedure. It helps in choosing the most appropriate individuals for different jobs. Training can be used in spotting out promising men and in removing defects in selection process.
2. Better Performance. Training brings about an improvement of the quality and quantity of output by increasing the skill of the employees. Training makes the fresh and old employees more skilled and accurate in performance of their work. The management can make anassessment of those who might be well suited for new jobs and responsibilities.
3. Reduction in Cost of Production. Trained personnel will be able to make better and economical use of materials and equipments wastage will also below. In addition, the rate of accidents and damage to machinery and equipment will be kept to the minimum by the well trained employees. These will lead to lesser cost of production per unit.
4. Reduced Supervision. If the employees are given proper training the need of supervision is lessened. Training does not eliminate the need for supervision but it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision. A well trained employee is self-reliant in his work because he knows what to do and how to do it. Under such situations close supervision is not required, the management can well afford to focus its attention on other basic functions.
5. Increased Morale. The morale of the employees is increased if they are given proper training. As a common objective of the organisation training programme will mould its employees’ attitudes to achieve support for organisation activities and to obtain better cooperation and greater loyalty. With the help of train ing dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism and turnover can also be reduced among the employees. Thus training helps in building an efficient and cooperative work force.
6. Organisational Stability and Flexibility. Training increases the stability and flexibility of the organisation. Creation of a reservoir of trained replacements will increase the stability of the organisation in the sense that organisation will be able to sustain its effectiveness despite the loss of key personnel. Training can also be used to help the employees to gain multiple skills to enable their transfers to jobs where the demand is highest. It will bring about flexibility in the sense that organisation will be in a position to adjust to short run variations in the volume of work. Moreover, a manager can delegate his authority and responsibility to a well trained subordinate who will not be reluctant to accept new assignment.
(B) Advantages to the Employees –
- Increase in Wage Earning Capacity – Training helps the employees in acquiring new knowledge and job skills. In this way, training increases their market value and wage earning power. This increases their pay and status and their career.
- Job-security – Continued training can help an. employee to develop his ability to learn – adapting himself to new work methods, learning to use new kinds of equipment and adjusting to major changes in job contents and work relationship. The possession of useful skill enhances their value to their employer and thereby increases their job security. :
- Chances for Promotion – Training also qualifies the employees for promotion to more responsible jobs.
- Increased Mobility. A trained employee can shift from one job to another or even from one organisation to an other in order to get advancement in his career. ,
Limitations Of Training :
There are some limitations of training. They are as follows:
- Training is a costly affair and expensive process.
- Training may result dislocation of work and loss of output because regular office work is likely to be interrupted or delayed because of the time spent in training.
- Sometimes, it is difficult to obtain good training instructors and leaders to impart training to workers.
- Self reliance and capacity for new ideas might be stiffed.
Explain different types of training programmes. .
Types Of Training :
Depending upon the needs training programmes may be of different types as follows –
1. Orientation or Induction Training. Orientation and induction training is meant for newly appointed employees to make them familiar with work environment of the organisation. When an employee is inducted to the job, it is necessaty to make him familiar with his job, his superiors, subordinates and his fellow employees and with rules and regulations of the company. It is a pre job training and is brief and informative. This types of training is nothing but introduction of the organisation and its environment to the newly inducted worker.
2. On the Job Training. It refers to the training which is provided while working on the job with a view to increase knowledge and skills of an employee for improving performance on the job. The employee is taught how to handle equipment and machinery or how to carry out the job more efficiently or effectively. Such training help in reducing wastage accidents and inefficiency in the performance of the job. Job training is also meant for new employees to acquaint them with the job they are expected to performs.
3. Safety Training. This type of training is required on the jobs which are accident prone, this training involves instructions how to use safety device so as to minimise accidents on the machine and also damage to the machines
4. Remedial Training. This type of training is arranged to overcome the shortcomings in the behaviour and performance of old employees. Some of the experienced employees might not have picked up appropriate methods and style of working. Such employees are identified and correct methods, and procedures are taught to them. Such training is generally imparted by psychological experts.
5. Internship Training. Under this type of training, educational and vocational institutes enters into an arrangement with an industrial employers to provide the students of that institute the practical training in that field. It is meant for such vocations where advance theoretical knowledge is to be backed up by practical experiences on the job. For instance, medical or engineering students are sent to some hospitals/industries for practical training after they have gained theoretical knowledge. The period of such training varies from six months to two years. The trainees are not the employees of that business enterprises. However, it is usual that enterprises absorb them.
6. Promotional Training. This type of training is meant for existing employees who are to be promoted to make them enable to perform responsibilities of higher positions. Employees with potential are selected and given training before they are promoted so that they do not find any difficulty in handling the new job to which they are being promoted. ‘
7. Refresher Training. When existing techniques become obsolete due to new developed techniques employees who are already doing work ‘ with old methods are trained in the use of new methods and techniques. With the passage of time, employees forget some of the methods of doing work. Refresher training is designed to revive and refresh the knowledge and to update the skills of the existing employees. Short term refresher courses have gained propularity due to rapid changes in technology and methods. It avoids obsolescence of knowledge. ,
8. Graft training or Apprenticeship Training. Apprenticeship training involves preparation not for a single job/craft but for the many types of related jobs which can be assigned to competent craftsman. The extent and intensity of training differs from craft to craft.
The Governments of various countries have passed the laws which make it obligatory on the part of certain type of employers to impart apprenticeship training to young people who are interest in that craft/job. The usual apprenticeship training programme combine on the job training and classroom instructions in particular subjects.
The trainee receives wages while working. Under this type of training the trainee is put under the supervision of an experienced person who teaches him necessary skill and observe his performance. It becomes a source of labour for the employers. Apprenticeship training is advantages to the trainee as he acquires valuable skill in a particular trade which command a high wage – in the labour market. This type of training is desirable in industries which require a constant flow of new employees become all around craftsman.
Evaluate the various methods of training to the industrial workers.
Describe in brief the different methods of training.
Methods Of Training :
A great variety of employee training and development are used by different organisations to develop their manpower. The selection of technique of training depends on the philosophy of management. There are three principal methods of employeestraining which are used by the firms –
(a) On the job methods training
(b) Off the job method training
(c) Vestibule training
(A) on thejob training methods :
On-the-job training methods are by far the most commonly used in training for all levels of personnel. The object of on-the-job training is to bring the employees to at least a minimum acceptable standard of performance in the shortest possible time. Under the same working conditions and with the same process, materials and equipment that they will be using ultimately.
The worker by these methods learns to master the operations involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting this training. Various methods of on- the-job training are as follows:
(a) Experience – This is the oldest method of on-the-job training. But as a sole approach, it is wasteful, time consuming and inefficient. It has been observed that it should be followed by other training methods to make it more effective. In a survey, it was found that they kept upto date through a variety
of activities which were largely unrelated to formal continuing education = courses. On-the-job, problem-solving and colleague interactions were prompted as being most important for professional growth.
(b) Coaching – On-the-job coaching by a superior is an important and potentially effective approach if superior is properly trained and oriented.
The technique involves direct personnel instruction and guidance, usually, with extensive demonstration and continuous critical evaluation and correction.
The advantage is increased motivation for the trainee and the minimisation of the problem of learning transfer from theory to practice. The danger in this method lies in the possible neglect of coaching by superior.
(c) Understudy – The understudy method is considered a somewhat different approach from those described above, that a certain person is specifically designated as the heir-apparent. The understudy method makes the trainee an assistant to the current job holder. The trainee learns by experience, observation and imitation. The advantage of this method is that training is conducted in a practical and realistic situation.
It prepares the subordinate to assume the responsibilities of the superiors job in case the superior leaves the organisation or to fill the vacancy caused by death, retirement, promotion or transfer of the superior. However disadvantages are many. The method tends to perpetuate mistakes and deficiencies of existing managerial practices. Moreover, the understudies are frequently neglected by those who assist.
(d) Position Rotation – The major objective of job rotation training is the broadening of the background of trainee in the organisation, ff trainee is rotated periodically from one job to another job, he acquires a general background. The main advantages are: it provides a general background to the trainee, training takes place in actual situation; competition can be stimulated among the rotating trainees, and it stimulates a more co-operative attitude by exposing a man to other fetlow’s problems and view points.
There are certain disadvantages of this method. The productive work can suffer because of the obvious disruption caused by such changes. Rotations becomes less useful as specialisation proceeds, few people have the breadth oftechnical knowledge and skills to move from one functional area.
Advantages. The main advantages ofonthejob training are as follows –
- It is considered to be the most effective method of imparting training to operative personnel.
- It strongly motivate the trainee to learn.
- It permits the trainee to leam on the equipment and in the work environment.
- This method is the cheapest and less time consuming.
Disadvantages. On the job training suffers from the following drawbacks –
- It takes long time for the employee to learn the required skill.
- Expert guidance may not be available to the employee. The supervisor or the worker under whom he is an understudy generally pass on their weakness to the trainee.
- There is disturbance in work schedule. The supervisor is more interested in production rather than in teaching the skills.
3. Special projects – This is a very flexible training device. Such special project assignments grow ordinarily out of an individal analysis of weaknesses. The trainee may be asked to perform special assignment, thereby he learns the work procedure. Sometime a task force is created consisting of a number of trainees representing different functions in the organisation. Trainees not only acquire knowledge about the assigned activities, but also learn how to work with others.
(B) Off-The-Job Training Methods:
In these methods, trainees have to leave their work-place and devote their entire time to the development objective. In these methods development of trainees is primary and work produced during training is secondary. Following training techniques are used off-the-job:
1. Special Cou rsfe and Lectures. Lecturing is the most traditional form of formal training method. Special courses and lectures can be established by business organisations in numerous ways as a part of their development programmes. First, there are courses which the organisations themselves establish to be taught by members of the organisation. Some organisations have regular instructors assigned to their training and development departments such as Tata and Hindustan Lever in private sector, Life Insurance Corporation, State Bank of India and other nationalised commercial banks, Reserve Bank, Hindustan Steel, Fertilizer Corporation and many others in public, sector.
A second approach to special courses and lectures is for organisations to work with universities or institutes in establishing a course or series of courses to be taught by instructors of these institutions. A third approach is for the organisations to send personnel to programmes established by the universities, institutes and other bodies. Such courses are organised for a short period ranging from 2-3 days to a few weeks. Orientation programmes about organisation and safety training can be accomplished more effectively in the classroom.
Lecture method can be used for providing instructions to large groups and the cost per trainee is low. Lecture method can easily be combined with other techniques such as group discussion. Formal reaching assignments may be given. Demonstration may be presented and video films may be shown along with lecturer.
2. Conferences. This is also an old method, but still a favourite training method. In order to escape the limitations of straight lecturing many organisations have adopted guided-discussion type of conferences in their training programmes. In this method, the participants pool their ideas and experience in attempting to arrive at improved methods of dealing with the problems which are common subject of discussion.
Conferences may include buzz sessions that divide conferences into small groups of four or five for intensive discussion. These small groups then report back to the whole conference with their conclusions or questions. Conference method allows the trainees to look at the problem from a broader angle. These conferences, however, have certain limitations. Unless the discussion is directed to the felt needs of the participants that may well feel that the whole session is useless.
3. Case Study. This technique, which has been developed and popularised by the Harvard Business School, USA is one of the most common form of training. A case is a written account of a trained reporter or analyst seeking to describle an actual situation. Some cases are merely illustrative, others are detailed and comprehensive demanding extensive and intensive analytical ability.
Cases are widely used in a variety of programmes. This method increases the trainee’s power of/observation, helping him to ask better questions and to look for a broader range of problems. A well chosen case may promote objective discussion, but the lack of emotional involvement may make it difficult to effect any basic change in the behaviour and attitude of trainees.
4. Brainstorming. This is the method of stimulating trainees to creative thinking. This approach developed by Alex Osborn seeks to reduce inhibiting forces by providing for a maximum of group participation and a minimum of criticism. A problem is posed and ideas are invited. Quantity rather than quality is the primary objective. Ideas are encouraged and criticism of any idea is discouraged.
Chain reactions from idea to idea often develop. Later, these ideas are critically examined. There is no trainer in brainstorming and it has been found that the introduction of known experts into it will reduce the originality and practicability of the group contributions. Brainstorming frankly favours divergence, and this fact may be sufficient to explain why brainstorming is so little used as yet in developing countries where new solutions ought to carry the highest premium, ft is virtually untried even though its immediate use is limited to new ideas only, not change in behaviour.
5. Laboratory Training. Laboratory training adds to conventional training by providing situations in which the trainees themselves experience through their own interaction some of the conditions they are talking about. In this way, they more or less experiment on themselves. Laboratory training is more concerned about changing individual behaviour and attitude. It is generally more successful in changing job performance than conventional training methods. There are two methods of laboratory training – simulation and sensitivity training.
(a) Simulation. An increasingly popular technique of management development is simulation of performance. In this method, instead of taking participants into the field can be simulated in the training session itself. Simulation is the presentation of real situation of orgnisations in the training session. It covers situations of varying complexities and roles for the participants, ft creates a whole field organisation, relates participants through key roles in it, and has them deal with specific situations of a kind they encounter in real life. There are two common simulation methods of training’: role-playing is one and business game is the other.
(i) Role-Playing. Role-playing is laboratory method which can be used rather easily as a supplement to conventional training methods. Its purpose is to increase the trainee’s skill in dealing with other people. One of its greatest uses is in connection with human relations training but it is also used in sales training as well. It is spontaneous acting of a realistic situation involving two or more persons under classroom situations. Dialogue spontaneously grows out of the situation, as it is developed by the trainees assigned to it.
Other trainees in the group serve as obsevers or critics. Since people take roles every day, they are somewhat experienced in the art, and with a certain amount of imagination they can project themselves into roles other than their own. Since a manager is regularly acting roles in his relationship with others, it is essential for him to have role awareness and to do role thinking so that he can size up each relationship and develop the most effective interaction possible. Role-playing has many advantages.
By this method, a trainee can broaden his experience by trying different approaches, while in actual situation, he often has only One chance. In evaluation of role¬playing in six firms, it was found that such sessions resulted in an increase in sensitivity and improved quality of actions of a work sample involving a human relations difficulty. Role-playing also has weaknesses which partly offset its values. It is time consuming and expensive. It requires experienced trainers because it can easily turn sour without effective direction.
(ii) Gaming. Gaming has been devised to simulate the problems of running a company or even a particular department. It has been used for a variety of training objectives, from investment strategy, collective bargaining techniques, to the morale of clerical personnel. It has been used at all levels, from the top executives to the production supervisors.
Gaming is a laboratory method in which role-playing exists but its difference is that it focusses attention on administrative problems, while role-playing tends to emphasise mostly feeling and tone between people in interaction. Gaming involves several teams, each of which is given a firm to operate for a number of periods. Usually the period is a short one, one year or so. In each period, each team makes decisions on various matters such as fixation of price, level of production, inventory level, and so forth.
Since each team is competing with others, each firm’s decisions will affect the results of all others. All the firm’s decisions are fed into a computer which is programmed to behave somewhat like a real market. The computer provides the results and the winner is the team which has accumulated largest profit. In the light of such results, strengths and weaknesses of decisions are analysed.
(b) Sensitivity Training. Sensitivity training is the most controversial laboratory training method. Many of its advocates have an almost religious zeal in their enhancement with the training group experience. Some of its critics match this fervour in their attacks on the technique. As a result of Criticism and experience, a somewhat revised approach, often described as ‘team development’ training, has appeared. It was first used by National Training Laboratories at Bethel, USA. The training groups themselves called ‘T-Group’. Since then its use has been extended to other organisations, universities, and institutes.
Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction under stress in an unstructured encounter group which requires people to become sensitive to one another’s feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. T-group has several characteristic features:
- the T-group is generally small, from ten to twenty members;
- the group begins its activity with no formal agenda;
- the role of trainer is primarily to call attention from time to time to the on going process’ within the group;
the procedure tends to develop C introspection and self-examination, with emotional levels of involvement and behaviour and the possibility of colleagues and some breakdown of established insulation and self-defence on the part of individuals. The objectives of such training are increased openness with others, more concern for others, – increased tolerance for individual differences, less ethnic prejudice, understanding of a group process, enhanced listening skills, and increased trust and support.
(B) Vestibule Training :
In this method a training centre called Vestibule school is set up. In such schools, working conditions are provided that are similar to those available at the actual shop. Vestibiile schools are adapted to the same general type of training programme that is faced at the actual place of work.
Expert trainer is employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with these used in the shop/place of work. This type of training is suitable for clerical/office jobs. Such training is usually shorter and less comply. Vestibule training is relatively expensive but these costs are justified if volume of training is large or uniform higher standard results are important.
Point out essential features of a good training programme.
Discuss the principles of training.
Principles Of Training
A sound training programme must be based on the following characteristics –
- The training programme Should be designed so as to achieve pre-determined objectives and needs of the organisation.
- Training programme should be less expensive.
- Training programme should be developed for all in the organisation and not for a particular group.
- Training programme should be pre-planned and well organised, taking in view the objectives of training programme.
- Training programme should be designed according to size, nature and Financial position of the concern.
- The programme should be flexible enough so that it may be adjusted to the changing circumstances.
- The programme should be conducted by a senior and experienced ” supervisor or executive of the concern or by the training director who is incharge of the training section under personnel department.
- Theoretical and practical aspects of training should be given due consideration while preparing a training programme.
- Training programme should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees.
- It is not essential to follow a single method of training for all the employees. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups taking individual differences into consideration.
- Training should be followed by a reward. A reward should be provided at the conclusion of the training such as promotion or a better job so that employees may be motivated.
- Sufficient time should be provided to practice what has been learned by the employees.
How will you organise a training programme in a large industry?
Organising Training Programme In An Industry:
It is not possible to suggest a training programme equally good for each and every organisation. Training programmes differ on the basis of many individual characteristics of the organisations and the employees usually in the organisation of training programmes. The following steps are taken to organise the training programme :
- Discovering or identifying the training needs
- Getting ready for the job ‘ ‘
- Preparation of the learner
- Presentation of operations and knowledge
- Performance try-out
- Follow up and evaluation of the programme.
1. Identifying the Training Needs. Training programme should be set up only after having decided the clear-cut objective in mind. A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. The most important step is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organisation, its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out “the trouble spots”.where training may be needed.
Training is not the ultimate cure for all troubles. For example, if the employees’ output is low this may be corrected by better skill training. But this problem may be because of faulty material, process equipment or engineering design. If it appears that general calibre of the employe is low, this problem may be solved by training. But in other cases, the training will not be of much use. Following are the steps for discovering training needs.
- Analysing Jobs and Men. If the men are less capable to perform the particular jobs they can be given training to increase their skills. Jobs and worth of the men should be analysed through job analysis and performance appraisal.
- Identifying Production Problems. Production problems like low productivity, poor quality, high cost, high rate of absenteeism, labour turnover etc. should be identified to indicate the need for training.
- Collecting Opinions. Opinions should be obtained from the management and the working people through interviews or through questionnaire regarding necessary and desirable training programmes.
- Anticipating Requirements. The line managers can forecast beforehand the manpower requirement on the basis of long-term plans regarding business expansion, new plants, new designs and new technology. Training may be given.to the existing ernployees to enable them to meet the requirements of the new jobs in the future.
2. Getting Ready for the Job – Following steps are taken in this regard:
(a) Identifying the Trainee. Under this step it is to be decided who is to be trained. Who is to be trained – The new comer or the older employee or the supervisory staff or all of them selected from different departments. The proper selection of trainees is very important to obtain permanent and gainful results of training. A trainee should be trained for the kind of job he likes and is suitable to perform.
Careful screening of candidates for training raises the effectiveness of the training work. Trainee should be given the proper background information before he starts learning new job skills and knowledge. Trainer should explain the trainee the importance of the job, its relationship with the work flow and the importance of training.
(b) Selection of Training Method. Now it is advisable to lay down which method is to be adopted for the training. Different methods of training may be suggested for the different levels of personnel. Unskilled workers may be trained on the job. On-the-job and apprenticeship training may be awarded, to skilled and semi-skilled workers. For supervisory and executive personnel on-the-job and off-the-job methods such as role-playing, lectures and seminars etc. may be recommended. Thus, a decision regarding the method of imparting training should be taken cautiously bearing the objectives of training in mind.
(c) Preparation of Trainer or Instructor. The success of the training programme much depends upon the instructor. Instructor must be well- qualified and may be obtained from within or outside the organisation. It should be decided beforehand what is to be taught and how. He should be able to divide the job into logical parts so that he may teach one part at a time without losing his perspective of the whole.
As because training must be based upon the needs of the organisation therefore, the trainer must have a clear-cut picture of the objectives of training in mind. It should’not be in a vacuum. Trainer needs professional expertise in order to fulfil his responsibility. If he is ill-informed about the training process or knows little about possible connection between training and management, he deserves the casual treatment. The trainer should explain, and where necessary, demonstrate the operations step by step and should allow the trainees to repeat these operations. He should also encourage the question from the trainees.
(d) Training Material. There should always be the training material with the instructor. Training materials may include some text or written materials as a basis for instruction, review and reference. This may be prepared in the training section with the help of supervisors. The written materials should be distributed among the trainees so that they may come prepared in the lecture class and may be able to understand the operation quickly and remove their doubts, if any.
(e) Training Period. The length of training period depends upon the skill of the trainees, purpose of the training, trainee’s learning capacity and the training media used. Generally no single session should last longer than two hours. The time of training whether before or after or during working hours should be decided by the personnel manager taking in view the loss of production and benefits to be achieved by training.
3. Preparation of the Learner – This step consists:
- the putting the learner at ease so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact that he is on a new job,
- in stating the importance and ingredients of the job and its relationship to work flow
- in explaining why he is being taught,
- in creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs,
- in explaining why of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows,
- in planning the learner as close to his normal working position as possible, and
- in familiarising him with the equipment, materials tools and trade terms.
4. Presentation of Operations and Knowledge. This is the most important step in a training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job and why each step in its peformance is necessary instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently. Trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations.
5. Performance Try-out. Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected and if necessary some complicated steps are taken for the trainee for the first time. Then the trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated.
6. Follow up. On the completion of training programme trainees should be placed to the job. The supervisor should have a constant vigil on the person still facing any difficulty on the job, he must be given full guidance by the immediate supervisor and should be initiated to ask questions to remove the doubts.