DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 6 Job Analysis
What is job analysis ? Evaluate its significance in personnel management.
“Job analysis is the process of critically evaluating the operations, duties and relationship of the job.” Elucidate this statement.
Job Analysis – Meaning And Significance:
The first function of personnel management is the employment or select function i.e., to select qualified workers in adequate number. It is concerned with recruiting the right people in the right place at the right time. This function involves two steps: (a) determination of kind or quality of personnel needed and (b) determination of the number of personnel required. The first duty of the personnel department is to find out accurate information about the knowledge, skill and experience etc. that an individual should possess to perform a particular job.
It requires job-analysis. Job-analysis is the process of collecting all facts relating to the nature of a specific job through scientific observation and study. It studies and collects information relating to operation and responsibilities of specific job. Following are some definitions:
According to Terry, “Job analysis is the process of critically examining the components of a job, both separately and in relation to the whole, in order to determine all the conditions and duties. ”
In the words of Flippo, “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of specific job. ”
According to Michael J. Jucius, “Job analysis refers to the process of studying the operations, duties and organisational aspects of jobs in order to device specification, or as they are called by some job specifications. ”
From the above definitions it is clear that job analysis is a process by which job, duties and responsibilities are defined and the information of various factors, relating to jobs are collected and compiled to determine the work and conditions, nature of work, qualities of person to be employed on job, position of the job, opportunities available and authorities and privileges to be given on the job etc.
The mainpurpose ofjob analysis is to describle and define the distinctions among various jobs in the organisation and their relationship. In job analysis following informations are usually collected:
- Content of a job.
- Difference in the nature of different jobs.
- Tasks involved in the job.
- Equipments and machines required.
Job analysis, thus provides information both for the job and the job holder. The requirements of the job are known as ‘job description’ and the qualities demanded from a job holder are termed as ‘job specifications’. The important contents ofjob description and job specification, products ofjob analysis, are shown in the following figure:
– Summary of duties
– Detailed statement of work
to be performed
– Tools, equipment, machines
– Materials used
– Qualifications required
– Wording conditions
Relation to other jobs.
– Special aptitude
– Analysis and judgement ability -Adaptability
– Mental and visual demand
– Emotional characteristics
Significance Of Job-Analysis :
Job analysis is an essential ingredient in designing a sound personnel programme. Job information gathered frOrnjob analysis may be used for following purposes –
1. Organisation and Manpower Planning. Job analysis is helpful in organisational planning, for it defines labour needs in clear terms. It coordinates the activities of the work force and facilitiates the division of work, duties and responsibilities. Thus, it is an essentia! element of manpower planning because it matches jobs with them. ,
2. Recruitment and Selection. Job analysis indicates the specific job ’ requirements of each job i.e. skills and knowledge. In this way, job analysis provides a realistic basis forhiring, training, placement, transfer and promotion of personnel. Basically, the goal of job analysis is to match the job requirements with a worker’s aptitude, abilities and interests.
3. Training and Development. Job analysis determines the levels of standard of job performance. Job analysis provides the necessary information to the management of training and development programmes. It helps to determine the content, and subject matter of training courses. It also helps in checking application information, interviewing, weighing test results and in checking references.
4. Wage and Salary Administration. Job analysis is the foundation for job evaluation. By indicating the qualifications required for doing a specified job and the risks and hazards involved in its performance, it helps in salary and wage administration because it evaluates jobs in terms of money.
5. Performance Appraisal. Job analysis helps in establishing clear cut standards which may be compared with the actual contribution of each
individual.’Job analysis data provide a clearcut performance for every job.
6. Job Re-engineering. Job analysis provides information which enables the management to change jobs in order to permit their being manner by personnel with specific .characteristics and qualifications. This takes two forms – industrial engineering activity and human engineering activity. Industrial engineers may use the job analysis information in designing the job by making the comprehensive study. It helps in time study and motion study and work measurement. Human engineering activities such as physical, mental and psychological are studied with the help of job analysis.
7. Health and Safety. Job analysis provides an oppportunity for identifying hazardous and unhealthy conditions so that corrective measures ’ may be taken to minimise the possibility of accidents and sickness.
8. Placement and orientation. A clear undertaking of job requirements helps in matching these requirements with interest, aptitude and abilities of the manpower placed oh these jobs. The purpose is to assign the job to a person who is best suited to the job. Similarly, the orientation programme should be greased toward shelping the employee learn the activities, tasks and duties which are required to perform the job more effectively and efficiently.
9. Career Planning. Jobs are graded through job analysis and therefore it provide a clear cut picture of opportunities in terms of career paths and job available in the organisation. With the help of such understanding, employees and the organisation both can make efforts for career planning and career development.
‘Explain the process of job-analysis.
How should job-analysis be performed ?
Process Of Job-Analysis
Following steps are undertaken in the process of job-analysis:
1. Collection of Factual Material – Collection of the factual information relating to job in each department is the first step in job analysis process. According to Terry, “the make-up of a job, its relations to other jobs and its requirements for competent performance are essential information needed for a job evaluation.” Two types of information are collected
(a) information regarding job such as its physical environment, its social environment, financial conditions, the purpose for which it is undertaken etc. and
(b) information relating to qualities of persons holding the job. Such information may either be collected by specialists from outside (hired persons) or by members on staff having relevant ability. Whichever choice is made preliminary training is called for. In collecting the data, a number of methods may be used. (For various methods used in collecting data are given in the next question).
2. Developing a Job-Description – The information collected is to be developed in the form of a job description. Job description is a written statement that describes the main features of the jobs as well as the qualifications which the job incumbents must possess.
3. Developing Job Specification – The next step is to convert the job description statements into job specifications. Job specification is a statement of minimum acceptable qualities of a job incumbent. It specifies the standard by which the qualities of the person are measured. Such statement is used in selecting a person matching with the job.
4. Preparation of Report – The job analyst prepares a report mentioning the analysis of various activities on the job and the qualities of the individual to be placed on the job. The report is submitted before the supervisor and the personnel manager for suggestions and comments. The report is revised in the light of the suggestions given by the supervisor or the personnel manager.
5. Approval – The complete report is now submitted to the top executive for approval. The office bearers of the trade unions may also be taken into confidence before approving die report. Any suggestion made by the office bearers of the trade unions may be considered to be incorporated in the report before giving final approval on it. The final report should be approved by the top executive who is responsible for making final decision on the matter.
What are the different methods employed in job analysis ?
Methods Employed In Job Analysis:
Following methods are employed to eollect information for a job analysis –
1. Questionnaire – In this method a detailed questionnaire is prepared – by the job analyst containing question pertaining to the nature of duties, tasks and responsibilities and is distributed among the job incumbents. The job incumbents are asked to provide data about their jobs in their own words. They can easily express themselves in writing. This method is best suited and widely used for analysis. But it is often a very time-consuming process to analyse the data obtained in this manner. It does not yield satisfactory results as many employees do not furnish the correct information or sometimes do not fill the questionnaire.
2. Check list – Questionnaires and checklists though, appear to be similar, differ somewhat in the degree to which they are structured. Questionnaires needs narrative description of the tasks, knowledge, abilities, working conditions hazards etc. involved in the performance of their jobs. On the other hand checklists requires the worker to cheek the tasks he performs from a long list of possible task statements. However in order to prepare the check list extensive preliminary work is required in collecting appropriate task statements. Check lists are easy for the job incumbent to respond to. But they do not provide an integrated picture of the job in question. They are more structured than questionnaires and are mainly of ‘yes’ and ‘no’ variety.
3. Observation – This is the most practical and reliable technique of getting information regarding job. This method can be followed right on the job. The analyst observes the incumbent as he performs his work and asks questions regarding the various jobs performed by him. It is costly and slow method and this also interferes with normal work flow. However, it produces a complete and good job description. This method is particularly desirable where manual operations are prominent and the work cycle is short and repetitive.
4. Interview – In this method a group of representative job incumbents are selected for extensive interview – usually outside ofthe actual job situation. The interview may be carried out either individually or in a group to save time. The replies obtained from the interviewees are then combined into a single job description. This method is very costly and time consuming but it helps in getting a complete picture of the job.
In this method, usually a structured interview form is used and information is collected. In this method, it is important that the interviewer must have considerable knowledge and skill of the jobs.
5. Office Records. Human resource department maintains complete records of each job and the job holders. The analysts collects the required information from the records maintained by the HR development. The method is not frequently used because complete information about work and worker cannot be obtained by this technique as the technique is time consuming.
6. Participation – In this method, the job analyst actually performs the job himself. In this way, he is able to obtain first hand information about the job. This method is fairly good for simple jobs but in case of complex jobs advance training of the analyst becomes necessary. This method is also time consuming and expensive.
7. Technical conferepce – In this method, information about the characteristics of the job is collected from experts – usually the supervisors – and not from the actual job incumbents. Experts may have poor knowledge about the job which they are not actually performing themselves and may give answers based on their past experience.
8. Log-Records. In this method, a diary or log-book is provided to every job holder. The job holder daily records the duties performed and the time taken in performing the job. The analyser then analysis the diary or log records. This method is time consuming. Moreover, the job holders are not disciplined fnough to maintain a regular diary. In addition, the diary provide incomplete information because information concerning. Working conditions, equipment used and supervisory relationship is not available from diary records. This method is useful for jobs where observation is difficult such as engineering job, scientists’ jobs, research man etc.
The job analyst has to decide which of the above methods or combination is needed to do a thorough j ob analysis. He often uses a method which is more specific. Widely used method that incorporates various features of the general techniques a provides a quantitative score.
Explain the meaning of job-description. What are the lontents of job-description ?
Job description is the by-product of the job analysis. The job analyst incorporates the informations relating to job in a prescribed blank called job description blank which contains the findings of the job analysis. Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It provides both organisational information and functional organisation. It defines the scope of job activities, major responsibilities and positioning of the job in the organisation.
In the words of Edwin B. Flippo, “The first and immediate product of the job analysis is the job description. This document is basically descriptive in nature and constitutes a record of existing and pertinentjob fact.” Pigors and Myres defines the job description as, “a pertinent picture (in writing) of the organisational relationship, responsibilities and specific duties that constitute a given job or position. It defines a scope of responsibility and continuing work assignment that are sufficiently different from those of other job to warrant a specific title.”
Job description is different from performance assessment. The job description concerns such functions as planning, coordinating and assigning responsibility while the performance assessment concerns the quality of peformance itself.Though job description is not assessment, it provides an important basis for establishing assessment standards and objectives.
Contents Of Job-Description :
A job description contains the following data –
1. Job-Identification – Job-identification or organisational position includes the job title, alternative title, department, division, plant and code number of the job. The job title identifies and designates the job properly. The department, division etc. indicate the name of the department where it is v situated. The location gives the name of the place. –
2. Job Summary – Job-summary serves two important purposes. Firstly, it provides a short definition which is useful as an additional identification information. Secondly, it serves as a summary to orient the reader towards an understanding of detailed information which follows. It gives the reader a “quick capsule explanation” of the content of a job usually in one or two sentences.
3. Job Duties and Responsibilities – Job description clearly states the duties and responsibilities to be performed on the job with proper classification as primary, secondary and other duties. It is regarded as the heart of a job., It also describes time to be taken in performing the job and sub-job.
4. Relation to other jobs – This helps to locate the job in the organisation by indicating the job immediately below or above it in the job hierarchy. It also gives an idea of the vertical relationships of work and procedures.
5. Supervision – The degree and nature of supervision required on each job is also mentioned in the job description. Under it is given the number of persons to, be supervise along with other job titles and the extent of supervision involved – general, intermediate or close supervision.
6. Machines, Tools and Materials – The machines, tools and materials required in the performance of each jobs are also includes in the job description. It indicates the nature and complexity of the job and helps devising training programmes.
7. Working Conditions – Job description usually gives us the . information about the environment in which a job holder has to work. They include heat, cold, dust, wetness, moisture, fumes, odour, oily conditions etc.
8. Hazards – This gives us the nature of risks to life and limb, their possibilities of occurrence etc.
Explain the characteristics of a good job-description. How a job Description is prepared and by whom ?
Characteristics Of A Good Job-Description:
A good job description must possess the following characteristics:
- It should be kept upto date i.e. necessary adjustments should have : been incorporated from time to time.
- Job title should be short, definite and suggestive as to indicate the nature of the work.
- Duties and responsibilities should be clearly defined.
- Job description should give a clear concise and readily understandable picture of the whole job. A new employee should understand the job if he reads the job description.
- Statements of opinions should be avoided.
- Job specifications should clearly be mentioned.
- It should be descriptive but short.
- Every item should be exactly worded.
- Job description should clearly mention the job specification.
- Special work conditions and special qualification of the job should be clearly explained in job description.
Preparing Job Description – Job description is prepared from the informations gathered through the job analysis. In order to prepare the job description, the detailed information is collected about the’job title. Job summary, duties and responsibilities etc’, through any of the technique’s of job analysis and compiled in a well-designed blank in an organised manner. Separate blanks are filled for each job. It is prepared by the job analyst who may be a personnel manager or any executive or supervisor.
What are the uses of job description ?
Uses Of Job Description :
Job description has several uses :
- Preliminary drafts can be used as a basis for productive group discussion, particularly if the process starts at the executive level.
- It aids in the development of job specifications which are useful in planning, recruitment, training and hiring people with required skills.
- It can be used to orient new-employees towards basic responbsibilities and duties.
- It is a basic document used in developing performance standards.
- It can be used for job evaluation, a wage and salary administration technique.
- A job description enables the manager to frame suitable questions to be asked during an interview.
- A job description becomes a vehicle for organisational change and improvement. It helps top executives in fixing the responsibilities.
Explain job specification and distinguish it from job description.
Job specification is also the by-product of job analysis. Job
specification takes the job description and answers the question. “What human traits (qualities) and experience are needed to do the job well”? It tells what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities that person should be tested. A job specification is. a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job satisfactorily. According to Flippo “ajob specification is a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly.” In the words of Dale Yoder “the job specification is a specialised job description emphasising personnel requirement and designed especially to facilitate selection and placement.”
Job specifications translate the job description into terms of the human qualifications which are required for a successful performance of a job. They are intended to serve as a guide in hiring and job evaluation. As a guide in hiring, they deal with such characteristics as are available in an application blank with testing, interviews and checking of references.
Job specifications are developed with the cooperation of the personnel department and various supervisors in the whole organisation. The personnel department coordinates the writing of job descriptions and job-specifications and secures agreement on the qualifications required. These specifications include following –
- Physical Characteristics which include health, strength, endurance, age-range, body-size, height weight, vision, voice, poise, eye, hand and foot coordination, motor coordination etc.
- Psychological characteristics which include judgement, resourcefulness, analytical ability, decision-making ability, alertness etc.
- Personnel characteristics which include pleasing appearance, good manners, leadership, cooperativeness, initiative and drive, mental stability etc.
- Responsibilities which include supervision of others, sense of responsibility etc.
- Other features of a demographic nature such as age, sex, education, experience etc.
Distinction Between Job Description And Job-specification:
Both the documents – job description and job specification are the products of the job analysis. But both are not the same; they are different from each other. Job-description is the summary of the duties, responsibilities and other characteristics of the job whereas job specification is a statement of qualities of the persons who handles the job. Former measures the job and the latter measures the person handling the job.
Job specification assists the management in selecting a match for the job while job description assists the job incumbent to understand the requirements of the job which are to be fulfilled by him.