DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year E-Commerce Notes Chapter 2 Planning Online Business

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year E-Commerce Notes Chapter 2 Planning Online Business

Question 1.
Write a short note on Nature and Dynamics of the Internet.
Answer:
With the advancement of technology, man has gained lots of things, some for his personal benefits and some for his professional. Overall there has few instances where the advancement of technology has not helped the human kind.

Internet is one of them. It has benefitted the mankind tremendously. It has revolutionized the way people communicate. It is actually a network of networks. The need to communicate is innate in man and begin centuries ago. Today these primitive methods like drum codes and smoke signals have way to electric pulses. Computers are being used to send bits of information across the globe. Using telephone links data is transmitted across the countries via satellites almost instantaneously. Concept of computer networks was born around 1965. Modem technologies make use of satellites and topic fiber cables. Data can fly to distinct computers at 1.5 million bits per second.

Internet concepts : Before you understand what Internet is, you must understand what networking is. It is a method of connecting two or more computers, either by means of connecting them or through wireless. Now come to Internet. It is the network consisting of millions of machines. Millions – of machines are networked together to share the data and information. Data you require may be scattered across the globe updated and kept consistent by the owner of the data and you can retrieve it when needed via Internet.

Now with the onward march of technology it is possible to keep the program that work with the data along with the data that it works on and call V upon both when needed a sort of ‘just in time’ software that you call upon when you needed and discard when no longer required.

You no longer need to locally store and maintain the data and programmes. Internet is not just one network. It is co-ordinated union of networks. Computer users on the Internet anywhere in the world, very much like a telephone user can communicate with user anywhere in the world. So internet is also called Internet works. Internet is also the common language of different or computers dissimilar in hardware and software to communicate with each other, via a standard protocols (protocols is a set of rules and regulations for computers to communicate via networks).

Sitting on a PC at home one can trip round the globe in minutes, one can get any kind of information one needs. Internet is a large source of enjoyable, important and up to data information, which can be accessed and shared by millions of users across the world. Every information on the internet is there because some person or group of people, somewhere in the world, had an idea, developed it and then most important, made it available to the entire world using Internet. It has become a major part of business.

One can use Internet for many different purposes like as discussed below—

  • Sending and receiving E-mails (it is an instantaneous way of sending and receiving messages, called electronic mail) round the world at minimal price.
  • Finding information on any topic or can be used as educational tool. One can find information on infinite number of topics ranging from how to make a cake to how to write a program for a computer. To visit a bookstore on the Internet this all can be done on the Internet sitting at home PC.
  • One can participate in discussions on wide range of topics from recreational activities to scientific researches via a utility called Usenet news group.
  • It is also used to send data inform of files from one computer to other with the facility called FTP (File Transfer Protocol). There are sites offering information on paid basis but on the other hand there are many sites, which provide information free of cost. There are called anonymous FTP sites. The biggest advantage of FTP is one don’t have to wait for days to receive some information after ordering with FTP files will be one in minutes after ordering.
  • One can use it for research purpose. With every major university connected to Internet one can be sure to find information that help in research projects.
  • It is also a form of education. Using Internet is great learning experience. One will learn things from the content one is reading and will also be more proficient at navigating computer tools, forming searches for information. Writing and typing skills also improves.
  • One can enjoy reading jokes, stories, articles, play games with other users s on Internet join with chess matches and one can enjoy Internet relay chat to talk to different people round the world.
  • On can login on to other network via as if one is a member of that network this is done through utility called Telnet. This is only possible if one get permission to log on to that network.
  • To search some topics on the Internet one can use gopher.
  • Archive is a search utility that search on the Internet based on file names or partial file names.
  • One can make profits on the Internet. Internet can be ah effective medium for business communications. Services such as gopher and World Wide Web (WWW) are the best ways to distribute information about your product or service. E-mail is a great medium to communicate with contacts and customers in business.
  • To find a particular world on the Internet in text documents one can use the utility WIAS (Wide Area Information System).
  • One can have a live talk with persons all round the world and can held meetings as if sitting just by there side by video conferencing of multimedia conferencing.

Who Runs Internet ? As said earlier, Internet is Network of Networks. If fact, nobody runs or owns it. Is it not surprising? Every network that is connected to the Internet is responsible for its own part. However, there 3 main organizations which are supposed to guide and coordinate the working of Internet are –

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It develops and maintains the Internet’s communication protocols, which are the methods by which computers on the Internet are connected.

Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). It looks into long term research problems, many of which are at times critical to the Internet.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB). This oversees the IETF and IRTF and ratifies any major change to the Internet that comes from the IETF.

Internet Funding. The question arises that who pays Internet to make it reach us. Everyone pays for its part to use the Internet; no one pays for Internet as a whole. For example VSNL pays for the gateway assess to India and NASA pays for its NASA science Internet. Networks interconnections.

Institutions, corporate agencies and colleges pay for their connections to some regional network, which in turn pays a national provider for its access.

History Of Internet:

The Internet was by product of cold war. When network of computers was set up by military to ensure communication did not break in event of war. The USSR launches Sputnik in 1957, the first artificial earth satellite. In response, the United States forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1968 within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military.

ARPA awarded the ARPANET contract to BBN, BBN had selected a Honeywelminicomputer as the base on which they would build the switch. The network was physically constructed in 1969 by linking four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah. The network was wired together via 50 Kbps circuits. The first public demonstration of ARPANET was given in October 1972. The net quickly grew to spread to entire country. From this point onwards the journey can be traced by years—

1972. The first E-mail program was created and The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was renamed The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency TCP/IP, it was developed by a group headed by Bob Kahn from DARPA and Vinton Cerf from Stanford. This new protocol was to allow diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other.

1974 The term Internet was used for the first time.

1976 Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe develops Ethernet, which allowed coaxial cable to move data extremely fast. This was a crucial component to the development of LANs.

1979 In 1979 USENET (the decentralized news group network) was created by Steve Bellovin (a graduate student at University of North Carolina) and programmer Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis. It was based on UUCP. The Creation of BITNET, by IBM, “Because its Time network”, introduced the “store and forward” network. It was used for email.

1980 Additional networks especially LANs were connected to the

ARPANET. As the scale increased finding hosts addresses
became increasingly expensive so DNS (Domain Naming System) was created by University of Wisconsin! to organize machines into domains and map names onto IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. This allowed packets to be directed to a domain name, which would be translated by the server database into the corresponding IP number. This made it much easier for people to access other servers, because they no longer had to remember numbers.

1981 National Science Foundation created backbone called CSNET 56 Kpbs network for institutions without access to ARPANET. Vinton Cerf proposed a plan for an inter-network connection between CSNET and the ARPANET.

1983 Internet Activities Board (IAB) was created. On January 1st, every machine connected to ARPANET had to use TCP/IP. TCP/IP became the core Internet protocol and replaced NCP entirely.

1984 In 1984 The ARPANET was divided into two networks: MILNET and ARPANET. MILNET was to serve the needs of the military and ARPANET to support the advanced research component.

Department of Defense continued to support both networks. New circuits would be T1 lines, 1.5 Mbps which is twenty-five times faster than the old 56 Kpbs lines. IBM wold provide advanced routers and Merit would manage the network. New network was to be called NSFNET (National Science
Foundation Network), and old lines were to remain called CSNET. So network broke into two parts, Millnet for military sciences and smaller Arpanet for managing non military sites.

1986 The Internet Engineering Task Force to IETF was created to serve as a forum for technical coordination by contractors for DARPA working on ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system.

1987 B1TNET and CSNET merged to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN), another work of the National Science Foundation.

1988 Soon after the completion of the T1 NSFNET backbone, traffic increased so quickly that plans immediately began on upgrading the network again. Merit and its partners formed a not for profit corporation called ANS, Advanced Network Systems, which was to conduct research into high-speed networking. It soon came up with the concept of the T3, a 45 Mbps line. NSF quickly adopted the new network and by the end of 1991 all of its sites were connected by this new backbone.

1990 In 1990 while the T3 lines were being constructed, the Department of Defense disbanded the ARPANET and it was replaced by the NSFNET backbone. The original 50kbps line of ARPANET were taken out of service. Tim Berners-Lee and CERN in Geneva implement a hypertext system to provide efficient information access to the members of the international high-energy physics community.

1991 CSNET (which consisted of 56kbps lines) was discontinued having fulfilled its important early role in the provision of academic networking service. A key feature of CREN is that its operational costs are fully met through dues paid by its member organizations. The NSF established a new network, named NREN, the National Research and Education Network. The purpose ofthis network is to conduct high speed networking research. It was not to be used as a commercial network, nor was it to be used to send a lot of the data that the Internet now transfers.

1992 Internet Society is chartered. The site http:// www.worldbank.org/ comes on-line World-Wide Web released by CERN.

1993 InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (by AT&T), registration services (by Network Solutions Inc.), and information services (by General Atomics/CERFnet). Merc Andreessen and NCSA and the University of Illinois develops a graphical user interface to the WWW, called “Mosaic for X”.

1994 No major changes were made to the physical network. The most significant thing that happened was the growth. Many new networks were added to the NSF backbone. Hundreds of thousands of new hosts were added to the INTERNET during this time period. ATM (Asynchronous transmission Mode, 145 Mbps) backbone is installed on NSFNET.

1995 The National Science Foundation announced that as of April 30,1995 Foundation contracted with four companies that would be providers of access to the NSF backbone (Merit). These companies would then sell connections to groups, organization, and companies. $50 annual fee is imposed on domains, excluding .edu and .gov domains which are still funded by the National Science Foundation.

1996 Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years). Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, PLO Leader Yasser Arafat, and Phillipine President Fidel Ramos meet for ten minutes in an online interactive chat session on 7 January. The controversial US Communication Decency Act (CDA) becomes law in the US in order to prohibit distribution of indecent materials over the Net. A few months later a three-judge panel imposes an injunction against its enforcement. Supreme Court unanimously rules most of it unconstitutional in 1997.

Lately Most Internet traffic is carried by backbones of independent ISPs, including MCI, AT&T, Sprint, UUnet, BBN planet, ANS and more. Currently the Internet Society, the group that controls the INTERNET, is trying to figure out new TCP/IP to be able to have billions of addresses, rather than the limited system of today. The problem that has arisen is that it is not known how both the old and the new addressing systems will be able to work at the same time during a transition period.

The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new release are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions.

Internet In India :

Internet was introduced in 1970s by Educational Research Network (ERNET) in India. This was set up jointly by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Department of Electronics (DoE) of Government of India. It is still operative today but still the access isrestricted to educational institutes and research organizations.

Later on 15th August, 1995, Videsh Sanachar Nigam Limited (VSNL) launched the first private accessible internet services called Gateway Internet

Access Service (GIAS). This was initially available only in Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Madras, Bangalore and Pune but it is now available at most of the major cities of the country.

Recently even the private service providers were allowed to provide the Internet access to the public. These are called ISPs (Internet Service Provides). Some of them are Satyam Online, Bharti Telecom, etc. There are more in the pipeline since most of these people have been given the licence to provide services on State to State basis.

There have been some moves to provide these services through the Cable Network Service providers. With more and more service providers joining the fray, the rate of connecting to the Internet is fast becoming less and less.

Question 2.
What are the differences between Pure Online and Brick and Click Business.
Answer:
Pure Online business can be an extension of an existing physical business or a completely independent business by itself.

The following are some basic requirements to setup an online business.

1. Website or web application. A website or a web application is a software which puts your business on the Internet in electronic form. A good professional website has innumerable qualities to aid for competition with other similar online businesses and has to be carefully built by a software professional.

2. Hosting services. A website or web application has to be hosted on a professional server from a reliable Internet Service Provider (ISP). The website should be addressed by a relevant name called as a domain name. The domain name is the address by which your website or web application is identified on the Internet.

3. E-commerce setup. Though optional, this should be the ideal method to execute monetary transaction in any online business. Today, there are wide varieties of merchant and sub-merchant e-commerce technologies that can be implemented with ease and low cost to a website or web application.

4. Website transaction maintenance. A website or a web application has to be consistently maintained. Here maintenance means that customers should be immediately and thoroughly addressed for their needs. All data and transactions should be immediately and consistently processed.

5. Search engine and search directory presence. Most of the visitors to a site come from search engines and search directories. Therefore steps should Se taken to get the site listed in all major search engines and search directories.

6. Web marketing. Analogue to conventional marketing, web marketing IS the mode to market products and services on the Internet. The main aim of web marketing is to generate relevant traffic to the site and at the same time create a brand for the site.

7. Website technical maintenance. A website may require frequent updating of data and information and an occasional upgrade of the software ltself. An intelligent website or web application has utilities for updating of data and information without the interference of a programmer. Therefore it does not need a technical programmer to execute the same.

8. Capital. Publishing, maintaining and marketing an online business requires fair amount of capital. As in conventional business, considering standard conditions, results are directly proportional to investments.

Bricks And Clicks Business Model :

Bricks-and-clicks is a business model by which a company integrates both offline (bricks) and online (clicks) presences. It is also known as click- and-mortar or clicks-and-bricks, as well as bricks, clicks and flips, flips referring to catalogs.

For example, an electronics store may allow the user to order online, but pick up their order immediately at a local store, which the user finds using locator software. Conversely, a furniture store may have displays at a local store from which a customer can order an item electronically for delivery.
The bricks and clicks model has typically been used by traditional retailers who have extensive logistics and supply chains. Part of the reason for its success is that it is far easier for a traditional retailer to establish an online presence than it is for a start-up company to employ a successful pure “dot com” strategy, or for an online retailer to establish a traditional presence ( including a strong brand).
The success of the model in many sectors has destroyed the credibility of analysts who argued that the Internet would render traditional retailers obsolete through disintermediation.

Advantages of the model. Click and mortar firms have the advantage in areas of existing products and services. In these cases there are major advantages in retaining ties to a physical company. This is because they are able to use their competencies and assets, which include-

Core competency. Successful firms tend to have one or two core competencies that they can do better than their competitors. It may be anything from new product development to customer service. When a bricks and mortar firm goes online it is able to use this core competency more intensively and extensively.

Existing supplier networks. Existing firms have established relationships of trust with suppliers. This usually ensures problem free delivery and an assured supply. It can also entail price discounts and other preferential treatment.

Existing distribution channels. As with supplier networks, existing distribution channels can ensure problem free delivery, price discounts, and preferential treatments.

Brand equity. Often existing firms have invested large sums of money in brand advertising over the years. This equity can be leveraged on-line by using recognized brand names. An example is Disney.

Stability. Existing firms that have been in business for many years appea more stable. People trust them more than pure on-line firms. This is particularly true in financial services.

Existing customer base. Because existing firms already have a base of sales, they can more easily obtain economies of scale in promotion, purchasing and production; economies of scope in distribution and promotion; reduced overhead allocation per unit; and shorter break even times.

A lower cost of capital. Established firms will have a lower cost of capital. Bond issues may be available to existing firms that are not available to dot corns. The underwriting cost of a dot com IPO is higher than an equivalent brick and click equity offering.

Learning curve advantages. Every industry has a set of best practices that are more or less known to established firms. New dot corns will be at a disadvantage unless they can redefine the industry’s best practices and leap v frog existing firms.

Pure dot corns, on the other hand, have the advantage in areas of new e – business models that stress cost efficiency. They are not burdened with brick and mortar costs and can offer products at very low marginal cost. However, they tend to spend substantially more on customer acquisition.

Question 3.
What are the various requirements for E-commerce designing, developing and deploying the business?
Answer:
E-commerce companies will have greater needs for logistics and , fewer infrastructures to support these needs that will require a high level of outsourcing. E-commerce is the business environment in which information for the buying, selling and transportation of goods and service moves electronically. It includes any technology that enables a company to do business electronically. Some of the direct benefits of EC are-

  1. Improved Productivity
  2. Cost Saving
  3. Streamlined Business Processes
  4. Better customer Service
  5. Opportunities for Nero Businesses
    Let us learn about them one by one.

Improved Productivity. Using E-Commerce, the time required to creates, transfer and process a businesses transaction between trading partner is significantly reduced. Further, Human errors and other problem like duplication of records are largely eliminated with the reduction of data entry and re-entry in the process. This improvement in speed and accuracy, plus the easier access to documents and information will result in increase in productivity.

Cost Saving. While using E-commerce technology, the cost which is occur due to human error or duplication of entries etc. are reduced and the cost on sending the information to the partners, etc., are reduced. Research has eliminated that doing business on the Internet can result in cost saving of about 5% to 10% of sales. This cost saving stem from efficient communication, quicker turnaround time and closer to markets.

Streamlined Business process. Cost saving are amplified when business
go a step further and adapt their internet process and back – end legacy if businesses use the Internet to share such information a provisional plans, point of sale data and sales forecasts. Business process can also be made more efficient with automation.

Better Customer Service. With E-Commerce, there is better and more efficient communication with customer, in adding, customers can also enjoy the convince of shopping at any hour anywhere in the world. Opportunities for New Business: Business over the internet have a global customer reach. There are endless possibilities for businesses to exploit and expand their customer base.
Other benefits-

  1. Reduce time to complete the Business transaction, particularly- from delivery to payment.
  2. Reduced errors, time and overhead costs in information on processing by eliminating requirement of re-entering data.
  3. Better quality of goods after specification is standardizes
  4. Increase ability for customized product.

We need the ability to manage data across the enterprise. This includes meeting the requirements of new e-commerce applications, such as Corporate Portals. In most major enterprises, we have outgrow the data infrastructure. That is the major driving force for Enterprise Data Architecture. We need a better approach to data integration in order to implement applications quickly and efficiently. The demands of E-commerce are really shining a spotlight on the inadequacies of existing approaches to data architecture and integration.

This requirement needs to combine aspects of-

  1. Operational systems
  2. Decision support Systems
  3. Legacy systems
  4. New systems, both internal and external
  5. Data warehouse

It will be very useful when there is a corporate acquisition or merger and must perform on all hardware platforms operating systems, database systems and all the other engines of data (such as online analytical processing). Proposed merger often have to be abandoned at an advanced stage because of the problems of integrating IT systems.

Requirements in order to conduct E-Commerce?

The following are the requirements for conducting business over the net.
i. e., e-commerce. Out of these first 3 are always needed while the next 3 are optional.

  1. You need a website. We can assume that since you are reading this, you probably already host a website with HostIndy.com! So far, so good.
  2. You need products or services that you plan to sell through your website.
  3. You need a shopping cart system or an order form that your customers can use to shop for and purchase what you are selling.
  4. If you plan to accept credit cards as payment, you will need a credit card merchant account
  5. If you plan to process credit cards in real time over the Web, you will need an online payment gateway.
  6. If you plan to process credit cards in real time over the Web, you will need a secure socket layer (SSL) for secure transmissions.

Question 4.
Write short note on Tools for Promoting Websites.
Answer:
Perhaps the most important – and inexpensive – strategy is to rank high for your preferred words on the main search engines in “organic” or “natural” searches (as opposed to paid ads). Search engines send robot “spiders” to index the content on your webpage, so let’s begin with steps to prepare your webpages for optimal indexing. The idea here is not to trick the search engines, but to leave them abundant clues as to what your webpage is about.

1. Write a Page Title. Write a descriptive title for each page of 5 to 8 words. Remove as many “filler” words from the title, such as “the,” “and,” etc. This page title will appear hyperlinked on the search engines when your page is found. Entice searchers to click on the title by making it a bit provocative. Place this at the top of the webpage between the <HEAD></ HEAD> tags, in this format: <TITLE>Web Marketing Checklist – 32 Ways to Promote Your Website</TITLE>. (It also shows on the blue bar at the top of your web browser.)

Plan to use some descriptive keywords along with your business name on your home page. If you specialize in silver bullets and that’s what people will be searching for, don’t just use your company name “Acme Ammunition, Inc.” use “Silver and Platinum Bullets – Acme Ammunition, Inc.” The words people are most likely to search on should appear first in the title (called “keyword prominence”). Remember, this title is nearly your entire identity on the search engines. The more people see that interests them in the blue hyperlinked words on the search engine, the more likely they are to click on the link.

2. Write a Description and Keyword META Tag. The description should be a sentence or two describing the content of the webpage, using the main keywords and keyphrases on this page. If you include keywords that aren’t used on the webpage, you could hurt yourself. Place the Description META Tag at the top of the webpage, between the <HEAD></HEAD> tags, in this format: Some search engines include this description below your hyperlinked title.

<META NAME=”DESCRIPTION” CONTENT=”Increase visitor hits, attract traffic through submitting URLs, META tags, news releases, banner ads, and reciprocal links”>.
Your maximum number of characters should be about 255; just be aware that only the first 60 or so are visible on Google, though more may be indexed.

When I prepare a webpage, 1 write the article first, then write a description of the content in that article in a sentence or two, using each of the important keywords and keyphrases included in the article. This goes into the description META tag. Then for the keywords META tag, 1 strip out the common words, leaving just the meaty words and phrases. The keywords META tag is no longer used for ranking by Google, but it is currently used by Yahoo, so I’m leaving it in. Who knows when more search engines will consider it important again? Every webpage in your site should have a title, and META description tag.

3. Include Your Keywords in Header Tags HI, H2, H3. Search engines consider words that appear in the page headline and sub heads to be important to the page, so make sure your desired keywords and phrases appear in one or two header tags. Don’t expect the search engine to parse your Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) to figure out which are the headlines — it won’t. Instead, use keywords in the HI, H2, and H3 tags to provide clues to the search engine. (Note: Some designers no longer use the H I, H2 tags. That’s a mistake. Make sure your designer defines these tags in the CSS rather than creating headline tags with other names.)

4. Make Sure Your Keywords Are in the First Paragraph of Your Body Text. Search engines expect that your first paragraph will contain the important keywords for the document –  where most people write an introduction to the content of the page. You don’t want to just artificially stuff keywords here, however. More is not better. Google might expect a keyword density in the entire body text area of maybe 1.5% to 2% for a word that should rank high, so don’t overdo it. Other places you might consider including keywords would be in ALT tags and perhaps COMMENT tags, though few search engines give these much if any weight.

5. Use Keywords in Hyperlinks. Search engines are looking for clues to the focus of your page. When they see words hyperlinked in your body text, they consider these potentially important, so hyperlink your important keywords and keyphrases. To emphasize it even more, the webpage you are linking to could have a page name with the keyword or keyphrase, such as blue-widget.htm –  another clue for the search engine.

6. Make Your Navigation System Search Engine Friendly. Some webmasters use frames, but frames can cause serious problems with search engines. Even if search engines can find your content pages, they could be missing the key navigation to help visitors get to the rest of your site. JavaScript and Flash navigation menus that appear when you hover are great for humans, but search engines don’t read JavaScript and Flash.

Supplement them with regular HTML links at the bottom of the page, ensuring that a chain of hyperlinks exists that take a search engine spider from your home page to every page in your site. A site map with links to all your pages can help, too. If your site isn’t getting indexed fully, make sure you submit a Google Sitemap following directions on Google’s site (www.google.com/webmasters/sitemaps/login).

Greg Tarrant’s Google Sitemap Generator and Editor (www.sitemapdoc.com) is a free tool to build these. Be aware that some content management systems and e-commerce catalogs produce dynamic, made-on- the-fly webpages. You can sometimes recognize them by question marks in the URLs followed by long strings of numbers or letters. Overworked search engines sometimes stop at the question mark and refuse to go farther.

If you find the search engines aren’t indexing your interior pages, you might consider URL rewriting, a site map, and targeted content pages (see below). Commercial solutions include Bruce Clay’s Dynamic Site Mapping (www.bruceclay.com/web_dsm.htm) and YourAmigo.corn’s SpiderLinker (www.youramigo.com)

7. Develop Several Pages Focused on Particular Keywords. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) specialists no longer recommend using external doorway or gateway pages, since nearly duplicate webpages might get you penalized. Rather, develop several webpages on your site, each of which is focused on a different keyword or keyphrase. For example, instead of listing all your services on a single webpage, try developing a separate webpage for each. These pages will rank higher for their keywords since they contain targeted rather than general content. You can’t fully optimize all the webpages in your site, but these focused-content webpages you’ll want to spend lots of time tweaking to improve their rank.

8. Submit Your Webpage URL to Search Engines. Next, submit your homepage URL to the important Web search engines that robotically index the Web. Look for a link on the search engine for “Add Your URL.” In the US, the most used search engines are: Google, Yahoo, MSN, AOL Search, and Ask.com. Some of these feed search content to the other main search engines and portal sites. For Europe and other areas you’ll want to submit to regional search engines.

It’s a waste of money to pay someone to submit your site to hundreds of search engines. Avoid registering with FFA (Free For All pages) and other link farms. They don’t work well, bring you lots of spam e-mails, and could cause you to be penalized by the search engines. We’ll talk about submitting to directories under “Linking Strategies” below.

If your page is already indexed by a search engine, don’t re-submit it unless you’ve made significant changes; the search engine spider will come back and revisit it soon anyway.

9. Fine-tune with Search Engine Optimization. Now fine-tune your focused-content pages (described in point 7), and perhaps your home page, by making minor adjustments to help them rank high. Software such as WebPosition (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/webposition.htm) allows you to check your current ranking and compare your WebPosition’s Page Critic provides analysis of a search engine’s preferred statistics for each part of your webpage. You can do this yourself with WebPosition. The best set of SEO tools by far is Bruce Clay’s SEOToolSet (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/clay_seotoolset.htm). You can find links to hundreds of articles on search engine strategies in our Research Room (www.wilsonweb.com/cat/cat.cfm?page= 1 &subcat=mp_Search).

If you want more detail, consider purchasing my inexpensive book Dr. Wilson’s Plain-Spoken Guide to Search Engine Optimization (http:// www.wilsonweb.com/ebooks/seo.htm). Many small and large businesses outsource search engine positioning because of the considerable time investment it requires. If you outline your needs, I can point you the right direction to SEO firms I know and trust (www.wilsonweb.com/ recommendations/seo-services.htm).

10. Promote Your Local Business on the Internet. These days many people search for local businesses on the Internet. To make sure they find you include on every page of your website the street address, zip code, phone number, and the five or 10 other local community place names your business serves. ‘

If you can, include place names in the title tag, too. When you seek links to your site, a local business should get links from local businesses with place names in the communities you serve and complementary businesses in your industry nationwide.

Linking Strategies. Links to your site from other sites bring additional traffic. But since Google and other major search engines consider the number of incoming links to your website (“link popularity”) as an important factor in ranking, more links will help you rank higher in the search engines, too. Google has introduced a 10-point scale called PageRank (10 is the highest rank) to indicate the quantity and quality of incoming links. Ail links, however, are not created equal.

Links from popular information hubs will help your site rank higher than those from low traffic sites. You’ll find links to articles on linking strategies in our Research Room (www.wilsonweb.com/cat cat.cfm?page=l &subcat=mp_ Linking).

11. Submit Your Site to Key Directories. Since a link from a directory will help your ranking –  and get you traffic. Be sure to list your site in the free Open Directory Project (www.dmoz.com), overseen by overworked volunteer human editors. This hierarchical directory provides content feeds to all the major search engines. Plus it provides a link to your site from an information hub that Google deems important. But don’t be impatient and resubmit or you’ll go to the end of the queue.

Yahoo! Directory is another important directory to be listed in, though their search results recently haven’t been featuring their own directory as prominently. Real humans will read (and too often, pare down) your 200- character sentence, so be very careful and follow their instructions (http:// docs.yahoo.com/info/suggest/).

Use somewhat less than the maximum number of characters allowable, so you don’t have wordy text that will tempt the Yahoo! editor to begin chopping. Business sites require a $299 annual recurring fee for Yahoo! Express to have your site considered for inclusion within seven business days (http:// docs.yahoo.com/info/suggest/busexpress.html). Other directories to consider might be About.com and Business.com.

12. Submit Your Site to Industry Sites and Specialized Directories. You may find some directories focused on particular industries, such as education or finance. You probably belong to various trade associations that feature member sites. Ask for a link. Even if you have to pay something for a link, it may help boost your PageRank. Beware of directories that solicit you for “upgraded listings.” Unless a directory is widely used in your field, your premium ad won’t help –  but the link itself will help boost your PageRank and hence your search engine ranking. Marginal directories come and go very quickly, making it hard to keep up. Don’t try to be exhaustive here.

13. Request Reciprocal Links. Find complementary websites and request a reciprocal link to your site (especially to your free service, if you offer one). Develop an out-of-the way page where you put links to other sites –  so you don’t send people out the back door as fast as you bring them in the front door. Your best results will be from sites that get a similar amount of traffic to your site. High-traffic site webmasters are too busy to answer your requests for a link and don’t have anything to gain. Look for smaller sites that may have linking pages.

Check out Ken Evoy’s free SiteSell Value Exchange. It (1) registers your site as one that is willing to exchange links with other sites that have a similar theme/topic content and (2) searches for sites with similar topical content (http://sales.sitesell.com/value-exchange/); Additionally, two automated link building software programs stand out –  Zeus and Arelis. These search for complementary sites, help you maintain a link directory, and manage reciprocal links.

However, use these programs to identify the complementary sites, not to send impersonal automated e-mail spam to site owners. When you locate sites, send a personal e-mail to the administrative contact found in the Whois Directory (www.networksolutions.com/whois/). If e-mail doesn’t get a response, try a phone call.

Be sure to only link to complementary sites, no matter how often you are bombarded with requests to exchanger links with a mortgage site that has nothing to do with yours. One way Google determines what your site is about is who you link to and who links to you. It’s not just links, but quality links you seek.

14. Write Articles for Others to Use in their Newsletters. You can dramatically increase your visibility when you write articles in your area of expertise and distribute them to editors as free content for their e-mail newsletters or their websites. Just ask that a link to your website and a one-
line description of what you offer be included with the article. This is an effective “viral” approach that can produce hundreds of links to your site over time.

15. Begin a Business Blog. Want links to your site? Begin a business blog on your website, hosted on your own domain. If you offer excellent content and regular industry comment, people are likely to link to it, increasing your site’s PageRank. If you have a blog on a third-party blog site, occasionally find reasons to talk about and link to your own domain.

16. Issue News Release. Find newsworthy events and send news releases to print and Web periodicals in your industry. The links to your site in online news databases may remain for years and have some clout with link popularity. However, opening or redesigning a website is seldom newsworthy these days. You may want to use a Web news release service such as PR Web (http:// wilsonweb.prwebdirect.com). Placing your website URL in online copies of your press release may increase link popularity some. More info on PR is available in our Research Room, (www.wilsonweb.com/cat.cat.cfm? page=l&subcat=mp_PR) Issuing press releases is a traditional promotional strategy, but there are other traditional approaches that can help you as well.

Traditional Strategies: Just because “old media” strategies aren’t on the Internet doesn’t mean they aren’t effective. A mixed media approach can be very effective.

17. Include Your URL on Stationery, Cards, and Literature. This is a no-brainer that is sometimes overlooked. Make sure that all reprints of cards, stationery, brochures, and literature contain your company’s URL. And see that your printer gets the URL syntax correct. In print, 1 recommend leaving off the http:// part and including only the www.domain.com portion.

18. Promote using traditional media. Don’t discontinue print advertising that you’ve found effective. But be sure to include your URL in any display or classified ads you purchase in trade journals, newspapers, yellow pages, etc. View your website as an information adjunct to the ad. Use a two-step approach: (1) capture readers’ attention with the ad, (2) then refer them to a URL where they can obtain more information and perhaps place an order. Look carefully at small display or classified ads in the back of narrowly-targeted magazines or trade periodicals. Sometimes these ads are more targeted, more effective, and less expensive than online advertising. Consider other traditional media to drive people to your site, such as direct mail, classifieds, post cards, etc. TV can be used to promote websites, especially in a local market.

19. Develop a Free Service. It’s boring to invite people, “Come to our site and learn about our business.” It’s quite another to say “Use the free kitchen remodeling calculator available exclusively on our site.” Make no mistake, it’s expensive in time and energy to develop free resources, such as our Research Room (www.wiIsonweb.com/cat/), but it is very rewarding in increased traffic to your site. Make sure that your free service is closely related to what you are selling so the visitors you attract will be good prospects for your business. Give visitors multiple opportunities and links to cross over to the sales part of your site.

E-Mail Strategies. Don’t neglect e-mail as an important way to bring people to your website. Just don’t spam. That is, don’t send bulk unsolicited e-mails without permission to people with whom you have no relationship.

20. Install a “Signature” in your E-Mail Program to help potential customers get in touch with you. Most e-mail programs such as AOL, Netscape, and Outlook allow you to designate a “signature” to appear at the end of each message you send. Limit it to 6 to 8 lines: Company name, address, phone number, URL, e-mail address, and a one-phrase description of your unique business offering. Look for examples on e-mail messages sent to you.

21. Publish an E-Mail Newsletter. While it’s a big commitment in time, publishing a monthly e-mail newsletter (“ezine”) is one of the very best ways to keep in touch with your prospects, generate trust, develop brand awareness, and build future business. It also helps you collect e-mail addresses from those who visit your site but aren’t yet ready to make a purchase. Ask for an e-mail address and first name so you can personalize the newsletter. You can distribute your newsletter using listservers such as:

Constant Contact (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/roving.htm)
Got Marketing Campaigner (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/got/marketing.htm)
AWeber (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/aweber.htm)
Topica Email Publisher (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/topica.htm)
Gammadyne Mailer (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/gammadyne.htm)

If you’re just getting started you can use a free advertising-supported newsletter from Yahoo! Groups (www.yahoogroups.com). See articles on newsletter marketing in our Research Room (www.wilsonweb.com/cat/ cat.cfm?page= 1 &subcat=me_Newsletter).

22. Send Offers to Your Visitors and Customers. Your own list of customers and site visitors who have given you permission to contact them will be your most productive list. Send offers, coupon specials, product updates, etc. Personalizing the subject line and the message may increase the results.

23. Rent targeted e-mail lists. We abhor “spam,” bulk untargeted, unsolicited e-mail, and you’ll pay a very stiff price in a ruined reputation and cancelled services if you yield to temptation here. But the direct marketing industry has developed targeted e-mail lists you can rent — lists consisting of people who have agreed to receive commercial e-mail messages. These lists cost $40 to $400 per thousand or 40 to 400 per name. Do a smaller test first to determine the quality of the list. Your best bet is to find an e-mail list broker to help you with this project ^— you’ll save money and get experienced help for no additional cost.

24. Promote Your Site in Online Forums and Blogs. The Internet offers thousands of very targeted e-mail based discussion lists, online forums, blogs, and Usenet news groups made up of people with very specialized interests. Use Google Groups to find appropriate sources (groups.google.com). Don’t bother with news groups consisting of pure “spam.” Instead, find groups where a serious dialog is taking place. Don’t use aggressive marketing and overtly plug your product or service. Rather, add to the discussion in a helpful way and let the “signature” at the end of your e-mail message do your marketing for you. People will gradually get to know and trust you, visit your site, and do business with you.

25. Announce a Contest. People like getting something free. If you publicize a contest or drawing available on your site, you’ll generate more traffic than normal. Make sure your sweepstakes rules are legal in all states and countries you are targeting. Prizes should be designed to attract individuals who fit a demographic profile describing your best customers.

26. Ask Visitors to Bookmark Your Site. It seems so simple, but make sure you ask visitors to bookmark your site or save it in their Favorites list.

27. Exchange Ads with Complementary Businesses. Banner exchange programs don’t work well these days. But consider exchanging e-mail newsletter ads with complementary businesses to reach new audiences. Just be sure that your partners are careful where they get their mailing list or you could be in trouble with the CAbUSPAM Act.

28. Devise Viral Marketing Promotion Techniques. So-called viral marketing uses the communication networks (and preferably the resources) of your site visitors or customers to spread the word about your site exponentially. Word-of-mouth, PR, creating “buzz,” and network marketing are offline models. #14 above, “Write Articles for Others to Use in their Newsletters,” is a viral approach. The classic example is the free e-mail service, hotmail.com, that includes a tagline about their service at the end of every message sent out, so friends tell friends, who tell friends.
Paid Advertising Strategies. None of the approaches described above is “free,” since each takes time and energy.

But if you want to grow your business more rapidly, there comes a point when you need to pay for increased traffic. Advertising is sold in one of three ways: (1) traditional CPM (cost per thousand views), (2) pay per click (PPC), and (3) pay per action, otherwise known as an affiliate program or lead generation program. Do some small tests first to determine response. Then calculate your return on investment (ROI) before spending large amounts. Here are some methods:

29. Buy a Text Ad in an E-Mail Newsletter. Some of the best buys are small text ads in e-mail newsletters targeted at audiences likely to be interested in your products or services. Many small publishers aren’t sophisticated about advertising and offer attractive rates. For example, we offer low-priced 2- Line Ads in Web Marketing Today each week (www.wilsonweb.com/ads/2- line-ad.htm). Banner ads get such a low click-through rate (0.2%) these days that I don’t recommend paying much for them. Banner ads typically cost about 500 to $1 per thousand page views.

30. Begin an Affiliate Program. Essentially, a retailer’s affiliate program pays a commission to other sites whose links to the retailer result in an actual sale. The goal is to build a network of affiliates who have a financial stake in promoting your site. If you’re a merchant you. need to (1) determine the
commission you are willing to pay (consider it your advertising cost), (2) select a company to set up the technical details of your program, and (3) promote your program to get the right kind of affiliates who will link to your site. Consider affiliate management software.

31. Purchase Pay Per Click (PPC) ads with Yahoo Search Marketing (formerly Overture) (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/overture.htm) and Google AdWords (https://adwords.google.com/select/). The top ads appear as featured (inks to the right of “natural” search engine results for your keywords. Your linking is determined by how much you’ve bid for a particular search word compared to other businesses. This can be a cost-effective way to get targeted traffic, since you only pay when someone actually clicks on the link. An excellent e-book on PPC strategies is Andrew Goodman’s 21 Ways to Maximize Profits on Google AdWords (www.wilsonweb.com/afd/pagezero.htm).

32. List Your Products with Shopping Comparison Bots and Auction Sites. Shopping bots compare your products and prices to others. Google’s Froogle (www.froogle.com) is free, so be sure to list your products there. A Froogle listing also helps your product page’s ranking on Google. Some work on a PPC basis: mySimon (www.mysimon.com), BizRate (www.bizrate.com), PriceGrabber (www.pricegrabber.com), and Shopping.com (www.shopping. com). Others expect a commission on the sale and sometimes a listing fee, especially sales systems that host the merchant. These include eBay (www.ebay.com), Yahoo! Shopping Auctions (http://auctions. shopping.yahoo.com), Amazon zShops, Marketplace, and Auctions (http:// zshops.amazon.com). and Yahoo! Shopping (http://shopping.yahoo.com).

We certainly haven’t exhausted ways to promote your site, but these will get you started. To effectively market your site, you need to spend some time adapting these strategies to your own market and capacity. Right now, why don’t you make an appointment to go over this checklist with someone in your organization, and make it the basis for your new Internet marketing strategy?

Question 5.
Write a short note on Product and Service digitisation.
Answer:
At a time when information and data are becoming an integral part of every organization, people have realized that paper records, books, and. journals are not as handy or so safe as CD-ROMs. Information must be stored in such media that the storage is safe and the retrieval is quick. The age of Service Digitisation has begun.
Digitisation is the process by which physical or manual records such as text, images, video, and audio are converted into digital forms. This is or paramount importance when projects need directions based on already established facilities and the implementing agency needs to find the scope for expansion. Digitized data offers the following benefits: Long term preservation of documents, orderly archiving of documents, easy & customized access to information, easy dissemination through images & text, CD-ROMs, internet,’ intranets, and extranets.

Product (Data) and Service Digitisation. Digitisation refers to the conversion of non-digital material to digital form (i.e. a form which uses a binary numerical code to represent variables). A wide variety of materials as diverse as maps, manuscripts, moving images and sound may be digitized. While digitisation offers great advantages for access, allowing users to find, retrieve, study and manipulate material, reliance on digitisation as a preservation strategy could place much material at risk.

Rapid obsolescence of digital technologies and media instability render the digitized object vulnerable to loss. While digitization has sometimes been proposed as having a preservation advantage in terms of deflecting use from originals, it has been asserted that enhanced awareness of a resource will result in greater demand for the originals.

Application Areas. The digitizing applications are rapidly evolving around the world, as computers are becoming an essential office and home equipment. Libraries, Corporate, Government, Armed Forces, Museums and Educational and Research organizations are looking at various efficient storage and distribution applications.

By linking local markets through digitisation, technology has created the global market. It has flattened the hierarchy of business by cutting out inefficient layers and middleman, so that the producer can reach the consumer directly. If has also “empowered” the individual consumer and producer by increasing his access to information, his capacity to process’ that information and his capacity to reach out directly to other consumers and producers almost without restraint.
Some application areas of the digital technology are as follows—

  • Books
  • Research Journals and Conference Papers
  • Annual reports and price list
  • Database archiving
  • Movies, Sounds and High Quality image preservation
  • Electronic Catalogues & Brochures
  • Product/Service Training Manuals
  • Geographical information System.

Steps in Product and Service Digitisation. The digitization process goes through many steps, as following-

  • The first step, of course, is the identification of customer needs, understanding the existing system of the customer, and recognizing the intended use of the digitized records.
  • Secondly, customer needs are translated to digitizing objectives by means of requirement specifications, system analysis, and designing the system for the planned product.
  • A pilot application of technology for approval and testing is then developed. On its approval by the customer, a data source chart for the source material is developed. The source material may include printed forms, images, sounds, and video. The printed format requires maximum processing, as other formats can be easily converted into digital form.
  • The documents are now printed so that their accuracy can be checked manually. These are scanned using special Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software and the historical documents are keyed in. the output is checked manually by proofreaders before being converted to the desired format (ASCII, HTML, PDF, MS-Word).
  • The images are scanned; old and faded images are recovered using advanced digital correction software. The sound and video data captured through a data capturing software and hardware and converted into digital form; the quality of the digital version may be enhanced by filtering through editing software.
  • The digitized data are integrated into an easily accessible form by
    incorporating indexes and tables of contents. These are now authored on CD-ROMs or other suitable media depending on the intended use of the data.

The above data is converted into digital formats and sifted for integration of the data into searchable indexes and table of contents. These digitized sources of information are integrated and authored on a CD-ROM or any other media. The choice of media is dependent on the intended use of the data. For example, if data digitisation is carried out for applications such as GIS (Geographical Information System), it would need to be a real time interactive application.

Advantages Of Product And Service Digitisation:

Information and Data are becoming the lifeblood of the organization in the 90s. the organizations must learn how to use information effectively as competition will keep increasing and profit margins will be under pressure. Information should be stored in a manner that the retrieval is quick and storage safe and permanent.

Paper, records, books, journals, and reports are not very handy as compared „ to CD-ROM when it comes to looking for particular piece of information. This is all the more important when a projects need to be given direction on the basis of already established facilities and the implementing agency needs to determine the potential scope of expansion.

There are many benefits of digitisation. Marked benefits are-

  • Long term preservation of the documents.
  • Archiving of important documents at one place.
  • Easy to use and customization access to the information.
  • Quick and focused search of relevant information in terms of images and text.
  • Easy dissemination of information in terms of images and text.
  • Easy dissemination of information through CD-ROM, internet, Intranets and extranets.

Gain and Loss by Product Digitisation. In contemplating a digital conversion project, an institution must ask itself what can be gained from digitisation, and whether the value added is worth the price. Many institutions have begun the difficult task of developing criteria for selecting for digitisation and have published their criteria on the Internet. They define the added value of digital capture as

  • Enhanced intellectual control through creation of new finding aids, finks to bibliographic records, and development of indices and other tools;
  • Increased and enriched use through the ability to search widely, manipulating images and text, and to study disparate images in new contexts;
  • Encouragement of new scholarly use through the provision of enhanced resources in the form of widespread dissemination of local or unique collections;
  • Enhanced use through improved quality’ of image, for example, improved legibility of faded or stained documents; and

Creation of a “virtual collection” through the flexible integration and synthesis of a variety of formats, or of related materials scattered among locations.

Kinds of product (Data) Digitisation: The Product Digitisation can be divided into the following kinds:

Manual Digitisation: Manual digitization is carried out on a digitization table, which looks like a drafting table containing a mouse-like device with crosshairs called a ‘puck’. The digitization table works in a sophisticated manner similar to a tracing device electronically recording the positions of points and lines. It is embedded with a mesh of fine wires forming a grid like surface and this is draped or covered with some smooth surface. On this surface in mounted the map or the imagery, which is to be digitized. The map is then taped to the surface, which prevents the map from any types of movement. The puck is placed on the map and the electronics of the system working on electrostatic system in conjunction with the fire grid picks the signals from the puck and converts the position of the puck into a digital signal.

This signal is processed by a software in the computer converting the signal gets into x,y co-ordinates depicting the position of the puck. Thus the features on the map or imagery are literally traced out by the puck. A very important aspect in this regard is the correct choice of the co-ordinate system referred to as projection system, so that the features present on the curved surface of the earth is projected property on to flat map. Many new Digitization software support a variety of projection systems but while working with a paper map, the projection used by the base map should be known and the software should be set accordingly.

Heads-Up Digitisation. Another very commonly used method of Digitisation is the on-screen Digitisation or ‘heads-up Digitisation’ This method of Digitisation is very similar to manual Digitisation except that the base map or image is already in a digital raster form i.e in the form of a digital. It is known as ‘heads-up Digitisation, because the attention of the user is focused up on the computer screen and not on a Digitisation tablet.

The main idea in this type of Digitisation is to convert this digital image into a form usable in the GIS environment i.e in a such that each feature on the map has a geographic co-ordinate associated with it. In this method, the first step is to Convert the paper maps or imageries into a digital image. This is accomplished using a scanner. A scanner automatically captures map features, text, and symbols in the map as individual cells, or pixels, and produces and automated digital image in raster format.

But this raster image lacks any geographic information, which has to be inputted manually. For this, the digital image is displayed on the screen and zoomed to a comfortable level such that all the features on the digital images can be easily traced out on the screen itself to create new layers or themes. For this method also choosing the proper projection is necessary.

In a similar manner, control points with known geographic locations are identified and marked based on which the geographic co-ordinates of all the features in the map is known. Another improvement in on-screen Digitisation is the interactive tracing method which automates the line tracing method in such a way that it traces one line at a time automatically under the guidance of the operator.

Accuracy is the Key. A very important aspect of digitization is the accuracy of the digitized product. Spatial accuracy of the features depicted .on the map is very important for a good digitized output (it may be any form). But accuracy of the digitized output depends on a number of different types of errors. The most important of which are geodetic, machine cartographic, manuscript and random errors.

Geodetic error Crops out of the improper choice of a projection system, This is because maps present the three-dimerfsional face of the surface into a two-dimensional paper according to a projection system. Digitisation in a different projection system results in inaccurate placement of features such that the map and the digitized image do not overlap each other.

Machine error is an inherent error, which cannot be removed but can ony be minimized. It depends on the accuracy of the digitization table and maybe introduced while conversion from analogue to digital form of the map. Cartographic errors are errors that are present in the source map itself and which get transferred into the digital form of the map/image.

Manuscript errors are introduced based on the quality of the source maps. Paper maps and images are known to shrink with time. Any warping, stretching, folding or wrinkling of the original map/image will affect the digitization process, as proper co-ordinates of such/image cannot be placed.

Apart from this, the quality of digitization also depends upon the operator who is digitizing the maps/images. An experienced digitiser can digitise the maps/images with more accuracy and speed as compared to a newly appointment.

Question 6.
What do you understand by Remote Servicing and Procurement?
Answer:
Remote servicing means giving online and offline services to their end user. It includes E-banking whereby the e-book provides offers various online mechanism whereby the customers can avail the electronic services using electronic equipment. Using PCs, Cell phone, Pager, Game, Machines, PDA devices- LAPTOP computer etc. It means how to access the Govt, services by using electronic media or also known as smart Governance.

The E-Govemance is IP driven e-interface between govt, and citizen. For example, It is a step towards making Govt, services available to people and time any where at no cost. The remote servicing are basically hidden services for obtaining following information-

  1. 1. Yellow pages
  2. 2. Bus timing, Railway, Airport timing
  3. 3. Public Holidays
  4. 4. Password Inquiry Services
  5. 5. House Tax Survey
  6. 6. Whether Forecasting
  7. 7. Scientific Information
  8. 8. Birth/Death Certificate
  9. 9. Electricity, Telephone, Water Supply charges
  10. 10. Old age pension
  11. Employment exchange
  12. Certificate of Domicile
  13. Sale Tax/Income Tax structure
  14. Village information system
  15. Online education (E-Learning, E-mailing)

Remote servicing through online means: To access the various remote servicing the citizen just have to visit the sites to avail the digital government application in the respective region.
Some Case Study of India is as follows—

  1. htt://Giodirectory.nic.in
  2. Gyondot.net
  3. Giodirectory.nic.in: – It is official website of India
  4. Official website of coutt. Of MP to connect the rural cyber cafe to giving education services.
  5. Panchayat Org.Managing the affair of Panchayat and coordnate it.

The various characteristics of remote Servicing are as—

  1. Fast Access ‘
  2. Prompt Services
  3. Govt, cane make substantial saving
  4. The custom can participate in govt, function.
  5. Global Communication

Question 7.
Describe On-Line Marketing and Advertisement with reference to E-commerce.
Answer:
The tremendous growth of the Internet has created opportunities for consumers and firms to participate in an online global marketplace. It is conceivable that in the future every person with access to a computer will interact with firms marketing on the Internet, The Internet has provided a rare opportunity especially for small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It moves organizations beyond the physical constraints of their traditional distribution channels and creates a world wide virtual community in which SMEs can compete with large enterprises.

The potential of the Internet as commercial medium and market has been widely documented in a variety of publications. However, the literature to date on electronic commerce is by and large anecdotal. Both successful and unsuccessful cases of Internet marketing have been reported. There are no proven successful models that can help the management to determine how beneficial the Internet marketing could provide for their business.

A Web site gives direct contact between the organization and the consumer. The rapid developments of on-line computing technology, some especially targeted at SMEs, make it inevitable for businesses not to seriously consider the Internet as an alternative distribution channel to avoid losing competitive advantage. Since 1993, the Internet has been used to support conventional sales and marketing activities; it matches buyers and sellers in a more cost- effective manner compared with traditional advertising and marketing.

While transactions are taking place on the Internet, The’current level of Commerce is small relative to overall commerce in the United States. The phenomenal growth of the Internet community has begun to alter the way buyers and sellers exchange information and the structure of distribution. It breaks through the physical barriers traditionally placed on commerce and moves firms to a new commercial marketplace.

In addition, the opportunity for buyers to examine or test the product or service and interact with the seller to receive additional information or support can be provided through the online service. While many successful cases of the on-line marketing approach have been recorded in electronic commerce literature, a handful of failed cases have also been reported. The industries that have benefited most from on-line marketing such as on-line brokerage services, travel agencies, and real estate services, are also the ones that were predicted to be most threatened by the new Internet marketing. Although the history of electronic commerce is not long, especially the use of the Internet as a virtual storefront.

We believe lessons can be learned from previous cases Previous research has identified common problems of e-marketing strategies include: failure to classify product characteristics, inappropriate channel selection, pricing, and promotion strategies. Here we focus on the use of the Internet as virtual storefront where products are offered directly to customers. We contend that product characteristics play a major role in the successful marketing of a product on the Internet.

If we can identify the factors that impact the use of on-line marketing approach, we can build a model to help evaluate the chance for a particular kind of product to succeed in online marketing.
Marketing Techniques. The following marketing tools can be used for marketing of your products or web site.

Search Engine. A software program that locate the document from the WWW on user request. Search engine provides best marketing techniques. Where by user can register once & then software automatically pushes the contents on your personal computer. For example, Google, Yahoo, Refiffmail etc.

Director’s Registration. A directory is containing your schedule in concern with home or office work raw time. For example, MS Word. Once register in the dictionary the software system automatically updated the schedule routine and forward different messages and your visitors. For example, Outlook express.

E-Mail. E-mail marketing has been becoming popular media because of low cost and its ability dynamic control on the WWW. It is pull in nature. But the customer has to hyperlink the tent in order to view it. That’s why it is called soft pull.

Interactive sites. Some sites exhibit special property of WWW where different web pages hyperlink with each other and they form the active model of marketing. For example, Site E-Business.com is interactive in nature. When we open it, it automatically reloaded the various web pages with specified URL and helps the customer to pull the different documentation on their request.

Banners. On line banners is a kind of service by various marketing firms to advertise their product. This service is relatively expensive. Because the banner appears every time whenever we open with web page. The major advantage is that it is more effective in terms of alter acting visitor.

Chain Letters. Travel Zoo.com and emit.com often the chain mechanism to attract the customer through out the world. Since it is type of email marketing mean therefore most of the org. are using this mechanism. It markets their product Best mean is Email and search engine.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of E-Marketing:

Channel selection is a complex task for both researchers and practitioners in marketing. Although Internet marketing has boomed in recent years, most companies have used it mainly for advertising or promoting corporate images. Not many companies have fully utilized the power of Internet marketing as a new channel for making transactions on the Internet. Besides the various technical obstacles, issues such as security of online trading, authentication, tax policies, etc., have yet., have yet to be overcome, the main reason that has prevented companies going online is the uncertainty involved as the Internet is an entirely new transaction channel.

The existing research in channel design and selection has only considered the traditional channels, including direct and indirect marketing approaches. There is no documented results or research that provide a systematic method to guide evolution, planning, and execution of the channel choice decision when it comes to Internet marketing. Although the Internet is an entirely new channel, it has many of the same characteristics as those of conventional channels. We believe studying the factors considered significant in conventional channel selection can also help in analyzing the behaviors of Internet marketing.

In the following, we identify the key advantage of Internet marketing recognized by companies participating in Internet marketing. The Advantages of Internet Marketing are as follows-
Marketing activity occurs through three types of channels: communication, transaction, and distribution channels.

Although this study focuses on using the Internet as new transaction and/ or distribution channel, there are substantial interaction and overlapping among the activities performed by the three types of channels. Therefore, we need to consider the effect of Internet marketing on all aspects of marketing activities „ to be able to recognize the true benefits of Internet marketing.

The extant literature in Electronic Commerce has documented various advantages for companies to shell directly on the Internet. These advantages can be classified into three channels based on the functions performed: communication, transaction, or distribution.

Communication channels: Exchange information between sellers and buyers. The Internet is an extremely effective medium for accessing, organizing, and communication information.
We have identified several unique characteristics of the Internet regarding communication –

  • 1. The ability to store vast amounts of information that can be searched and disseminated in a cost-effective manner which is accessible by virtually everyone on the Net,
  • 2. Interactivity and the ability to provide information on demand, and
  • 3. Provide perceptual experience that are superior to a printed catalog.

The Internet can provide timely information to customer because of its ability for instant communication and its availability 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This means more interaction, better customer services and quicker responses.

The Internet can be used for both internal and external communications. For external communication, it can be used to communicate with both suppliers and customers. The ways of communication on the Internet range from the most basic form of electronic mail(e-mail) service, mailing list and newsgroups, to participating in chat-room activities. It also allows for easy follow-up on customers’ need and for expanding and adjusting marketing strategy accordingly. As a plus, greater reliance on the Internet communication usually results in lower long-distance phone and fax costs. Another potential benefit of using the Internet is the ability to gather information about your customers via surveys and contests.

The information can be used to assist new product development and introduction. Companies can design and personalize advertising for each customer through “push” technology. The communication also helps with identifying prospect, sales and relationship building and deepening customer loyalty’. Another factor that may consider advantageous to certain types of product but disadvantageous to others is the fact that there is no actual face- to-face contact involved in the Internet communication.

For the types of products that relies heavily on building personal relationship between buyers and sellers such as the selling of life insurance, and the type of products that requires physical examination, internet marketing maybe less appropriate. On the other hand, the type of products that people feel embarrassed to purchase at traditional retail stores such as pornography tend to sell well online.

Question 8.
Describe E-Commerce resources and Infrastructure.
Answer:
The term ‘infrastructure’ means the new technologies and business strategies required to build a strong e-commerce platform comprises computer technologies and electronics and telecommunications. The demand for more bandwidth force an enterprise to adopt infrastructure strategies for electronics business.

E-commerce Infrastructure resources can help you determine which computer system or E-commerce solution may be best for your business or personal use. Find information on bandwidth, intranet, hosting, servers and more.

Following are the some commonly used E-commerce resources and Infrastructures-

  1. Hardware Resources
  2. Software resources-websites, Databases, Applications (web technology)
  3. Standards/Protocols

Given below is the list of some Infrastructure resources to explain the concept-

  1. Bandwidth: Information on Internet traffic volumes and how to optimize your website through bandwidth conservation.
  2. Catalog Technology: Information on current uses and technologies involved with electronic catalogs.
  3. Electronics Fund Transfer EFT: Electronic Fund Transfer for electronic accounting.
  4. E-pay: Resources on payment over the Internet
  5. Extranet: Links to extranet articles, journals, and software solutions.
  6. Hosting: Host evaluation services that will help you determine the best choice for hosting your website.
  7. Intranet: Intranet journals, discussion groups, arid other online resources
  8. Servers: Server resources on the Internet.
  9. Transaction Processing: Many resources on transaction processing and digital right management.
  10. Virtual Private Network: Highly secure private date networks over the Internet.

How to use infrastructure/resources—

  • Initial investigation/eliminating serving.
  • Different technologies to design web documents.
  • Selection of best web technologies.
  • Design the web page.
  • Implementation of the website (use it)
  • Post implementation (Planning for infrastructure)

Planning for infrastructure. Planning can be done using the three phases as written below— ,

  • Write your own code design the software according to the requirement.
  • Uses CSP/ISP system Renting for one months.
  • Use B2B Or B2C market the planning is a useful framework for building E-com. site.

The common element of planning pipeline

  1. Merchant Information
  2. Shopper Information
  3. Product Information
  4. Service Information
  5. Pricing Information
  6. Order Information
  7. Shipping Information
  8. Handling Information
  9. Taxation Information
  10. Inventory manganese

The selection of a particular infrastructure largely depends upon –

  1. Size of the organizations in terms of employee’s wealth
  2. Size of the enterprise in terms of customer database.
  3. Level of Security.
  4. The selection of enterprise applications and services.
  5. Selection of connectivity – with in the organizations.
  6. Market trends.

While considering the above various factors, there should be the fine balance between various infrastructure strategies to archive the target result and meet customer expectations.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year E-Commerce Notes 

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