Data Communication and Networking Handwritten Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Data Communication and Networking Handwritten Notes: Data communication is the transmission of data over computers. This communication is possible over computer or data networks which allow an exchange of data. The most common example of a computer network is the Internet. In this modern age, everything is available on the internet. It is possible only due to the advances in networks and data transmission. Students, when going through the notes, will find extensive material over all the topics of the course. Students can refer to the Big Data Lecture Notes For CSE as per the latest and updated syllabus from this article.

Data communication and networking is a vast field. Data and networks run everything. Think about how many times we transfer data, share data and use data over our devices. How many times we search for anything on our browser. It is all possible because of data. This article talks about data communication and the network is possible because of data transmission over different networks. For further details click on any of the links below.

Data communication and Networking Handwritten Notes PDF

To help you in your preparations, we are providing you with reliable notes free of cost. These are handwritten notes prepared according to the exam guidelines and are the most up to date available notes online. You can use these notes as a reference or a primary study material during your preparations. These notes will serve all of your purposes, given experts verify them. Many students have used these handwritten notes pdf before you, and it’s been a positive response all around.

You can download these notes for free. Students prefer handwritten notes overprinted notes due to the ease of understanding and because of the language that is used. The main aim is to solidify the concepts revolving around the topic and to do so, each topic is extensively covered, and every bit of information is added. These also include links to more study material like question papers available for download to help you in your preparations. Here are the download links for your handwritten notes.

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  • Data communication and networking sample question papers
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Data Communication and Networking Syllabus

To know is half the battle. To help you plan your preparations better, students need to have complete knowledge of the course syllabus. The subject is vast and will need regular practice, but with the help of the notes and constant effort, students can score well. Also, this is a very interesting subject. It goes as deep as you want to. The data communication and networking are ever-changing. To give students a broad idea of what the subject is, the course is divided into different categories.

The course is divided into ten units. Each unit is divided into subtopics to help differentiate and build a strong foundation for students. The course outline is as follows:

Unit 1- Introduction to data communication and networking Why study data communication?, Data Communication, Networks, Protocols and Standards, Standards Organizations. Line Configuration, Topology, Transmission Modes, Categories of Networks Internet works. 
Unit 2- Study of OSI, and TCP/IP protocol suite The Model, Functions of the layers, TCP/IP Protocol Suites.
Unit 3 – Study of Signals Analog and Digital, Periodic and Aperiodic Signals, Analog Signals, Time and Frequency Domains, Composite Signals, Digital Signals. 
Unit 4- Study of Digital transmission Digital to Digital Conversion, Analog to Digital Conversion.
Unit 5 – Study of Analog transmission Digital to Analog Conversion, Analog to Analog Conversion. 
Unit 6 – Study of Multiplexing Many to one/one to Many, Frequency division Multiplexing, Wage division Multiplexing, Time-division Multiplexing, Multiplexing applications. 
Unit 7 – Types of transmission media Guided Media, Unguided Media, Transmission Impairments, Performance Wavelength, Shannon Capacity, Media Comparison, PSTN, Switching.
Unit 8 – Error Detection and Correction Types of Errors, Detection, Parity Check, Vertical Redundancy Check Longitudinal Redundancy Check, Cyclic Redundancy Check, Checksum, Error Correction.
Unit 9 – Study of DTE DCE in brief: Digital data transmission, DTE-DCE Interface, Modems, 56K Modems, Cable Modems.
Unit 10 – Introduction to networks and devices Network classes, Repeaters, Hub, Bridges, Switches, Routers, Gateways Brouters Routing Algorithms, Distance Vector Routing, Link State Routing

Reference books for Data Communication and Networking

Choosing the right book for your preparations is very important. Books are a great tool to build an in-depth understanding of the chapter and clearing all your doubts. Given below is a list of data communication and networking books recommended by teachers and students. Experts write all of these books of the industry who have been working and teaching for decades. These books have been in place for quite some time now, and newer editions are also available.

Students should go through newer editions as they will cater to their problems better. Accordingly, they will also be updated to the changes to the course if any. The list of the suggested reading is given below in no particular order.

  • Data communications and networking, Behrouz A. Forouzan-2000
  • Data communications and computer networks, Prakash C. Gupta-2006
  • Computer networks, Firouz Mosharraf – 2011
  • Computer networking- A top-down approach, Jim Kurose-2000
  • Data communication and networking: A practical approach, Massoud Mousavi
  • Introduction to data communication and networking, Wayne Tomassi- 2005
  • Fundamentals of Networking and data communications by Curt M. White
  • A textbook of data communication and networks – Dr Sanjay Sharma
  • Data communication and networks – Bhushan Trivedi

Theoretical problems for Data Communication And Networking

Given below is a list of commonly asked theoretical problems from an exam point of view. These questions can also come in handy if you are sitting for an interview. These are very basic entry-level questions, and students should probably know about. These questions can help you in learning the basics of your course.

  1. What are the components of Data communications?
  2. Explain different data flow directions.
  3. What is a network?
  4. Explain the characteristics of a network.
  5. Explain different types of topologies.
  6. Explain TCP/IP model.
  7. Explain the fundamentals of data and signals.
  8. What are the different connecting devices?
  9. Explain the benefits of wireless connections.
  10. What is a node?
  11. Differentiate between a switch, router and hub?
  12. What is HTTP?
  13. What is a firewall?
  14. What is the difference between a Domain and workgroup?
  15. What are the different types of network?
  16. Differentiate between communication and transmission.
  17. Explain different types of internet connections.
  18. What are the different types of modes that are used while transferring data through networks?

Frequently Asked Questions on Introduction to Data Communication and Networking Notes

Question 1.
Differentiate between the Internet, Intranet and Extranet.

Internet, intranet and extranet are computer networks used for communication and data exchange purposes. All the three follow TCP/IP model but only differ based on the access granted as to who can use these networks.

  1. Internet: It is the largest computer network in the world. It is a public network that can be accessed by anyone. One of the features of the internet that is widely used is the World wide web which is a collection of interconnected documents and other links.
  2. Intranet – Intranet is a private network commonly used by a private organization. Only certain people with clearance can access this network. The main purpose is to share company information. Depending upon the area, a LAN ( local area network ) or a WAN ( wide area network) is used.
  3. Extranet: Extranet is an intranet network that can be accessed by certain people of the public networks. For example,- vendors, joint ventures can access the company’s network.

Question 2.
Explain the TCP/IP model.

TCP/IP is a set of protocols that needs to be followed while on a computer network. Transmission control protocol and internet protocol explains how data is to be transmitted across the network, how the data is to be broken into packets, packaged, routed and received over a network.

TCP is involved with creating channels of communication. Also, it governs how the data is to be packaged into smaller packets before sending it over the internet and how it is to be received and assembled at the destination.

An IP address is what is used to send the information at a correct address correctly. The data is packed and routed to this IP address so that it reaches and the computer knows where it is to be sent.

Question 3.
Explain the functioning of a firewall.

Firewall is a network security system to protect the computer network. It is to protect the computer network from unauthorized access. A firewall is also used to allow some users to access the networks and restrict others from using the network. It is made up of a hardware device or a software or a combination of both. All the data that flows through the internet into your computer gets examined by the firewall to protect your computer from malicious data. The messages are examined, and only the ones which meet the criteria are allowed through the network, or else the firewall blocks them.

Our Windows computer has an inbuilt Firewall software called Windows firewall which protects us when we are working over the internet. Firewall can also be downloaded very much like any other computer software. The option to customize your firewall is also available to allow certain users to use the network and block others. Firewall can also be manually turned off, but it is advised not to do so unless you are on a safe network.

Question 4.
What is a VPN?

VPN stands for Virtual private networks. These are built as a private wide area network. They are commonly used to connect remote offices. VPNs are comparatively cheaper than WAN. They are used to surf privately and for secure transactions between parties. Any confidential data is also shared over a VPN. VPN gives protection to users from the internet network.

Primarily VPNs are of 3 types. These are:-

  1. Access VPNs: These provide connectivity to mobile users. It provides wide-area connectivity at low cost and can be used to dial-up connections.
  2. Intranet VPNs: Remote offices can be connected using a VPN. These are cheaper than installing a WAN. It works on the same principle as the private network. It provides safety and confidentiality to the network so that information and secure transactions can be made.
  3. Extranet VPN – It works very much like an extranet network. It is used to give outsiders access to certain sections of the networks. For example, – partners, suppliers can be connected using these connections.


Data communication and networking is an information-rich field. The same is expected from the students. Students should be aware of the basic concepts of networking, communication and data. Also, it is advisable to regularly follow the industry and keep up with industry standards and trends. You can go through the handwritten notes pdf by downloading them for free and start your preparations.