C Programming Lecture Notes PDF Free Download – Computer Science Engineering

C Programming Lecture Notes: Get your C Programming lecture Notes free pdf here. You can go through C programming lecture notes and start your preparations now. These lecture notes have helped so many before you. Now it’s your turn to put these carefully prepared notes to use. Go through these lecture notes and you will definitely find yourself improving. These are designed for both in-depth understanding and quick revision before your exams.

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Introduction to C Programming Language Lecture Notes

C language was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie as a general-purpose programming language. It is now one of the most and if not the most used programming language. The UNIX operating system was developed in the C language. Programming in the C language is easy to learn and it can be used to write efficient programs.

If you are willing to learn the language, download the C programming lecture notes given below. This pdf is designed to take you through the step by step process of writing a program in the C language. Programming is something that does require time and effort to learn but it’s not to discourage you from trying to learn the language but rather prepare you for this exciting journey of programming.

C Programming Lecture Notes PDF Download

These notes are prepared according to the examination guidelines for you to score maximum marks. C programming lecture notes pdf is free to download and use, while still assuring premium quality study material to the students. Click on the download links below to get your copy of the free pdf now and begin your preparations. Success is within your grasp.

C Programming Reference Books

Given below is the list of books that are highly recommended to the engineering students to help them in their preparations and to resolve any doubts they might face.  These books are suggested by experts with years of experience in the field of teaching. Most of the books included in this list are available online in the form of pdf.

    1. The C programming language, 2nd edition by Brian kernighan.
    2. C, the complete reference, Herbert Schildt.


  1. Expert C Programming: Deep C Secrets by Peter Van den linden.
  2. Headfirst C, David Griffiths.
  3. C programming, A modern approach, 2nd edition.
  4. Computer fundamentals and programming in C by  Reema Thareja.
  5. C in a nutshell, the definitive reference by Peter Prinz and Tony Crawford.
  6. Data structures using C, 2nd edition.
  7. Programming in ANSI C by E. Balagurusamy, 8th edition.
  8. Let us C by Yashavant Kanetkar, 16th edition.

Importance of C language

C language is often termed as the mother of all the languages. It is widely used in programming because it lets you control all the low level details, and learning C language is very imperative as it makes a base for learning any other high level language. It’s just like learning alphabets before you go and learn words and sentences.

C language is a comparatively easy language to learn but a beginner still might look like an uphill task. To help you in this you should take help from the C programming lectures pdf to help you maneuver through the language and so that you know the language inside out. C language is of utmost importance in your programming journey and that is the reason why it is specified in your syllabus.

Syllabus of C Language Programming

Introduction to programming –Program and Programming

–Programming Languages

–Types of software’s, OS

–Dos commands

–Compiler, Interpreter, Loader and Linker

Fundamentals in C –History of ‘C’

–A Simple C Program

–Program execution phases

–Backslash character constants

–Character set


–Number systems

–Format specifiers




–Data Types

–Declaration of Variable

–Assigning Values to Variables



–Const Qualifier

–Basic Structure of a ‘C’ program

Operators and Expressions –Dealing with all 45 operators

–Arithmetic operators

–Increment and decrement operators

–Relational operators

–Logical operators

–The bitwise operators

–The assignment operators

–The conditional operator

–The size of operator

–The comma operator

–Type casting operator

–Other operators

–Precedence and order of evaluation

–Programming Examples

Data Types –Modifiers

–Format specifiers

–Dealing with each data types

–Memory representation of each type

–Programming Examples

Input Output Library functions –Unformatted I-O Functions

–Single Character Input-Output

–String Input-Output

–Formatted I-O Functions

–printf() Width Specifier

–scanf() Width Specifier

–Programming Examples

Control Statements –Conditional Control Statements

–if, if-else

–nested if-else

–else-if ladder

–Multiple Branching Control Statement


–Loop Control Statements

–while, do-while


–Nested Loops

–Jump Control statements

–break, continue, goto, exit, return

Function –What is a function?

–Why function?

–Advantages of using functions

–Function Prototype

–Defining a function

–Calling a function

–Return statement

–Types of functions


–Nested functions

–main() function

–Library Function

–Local and global variables

–Programming Examples

Storage Class –Types of storage class

–Scoping rules

–Dealing with all storage classes

–Programming Examples

Pointer –Def of Pointer

–Declaration of Pointer Variables

–Assigning Address to Pointer


–De-referencing Pointer Variables

–Pointer to Pointer

–Pointer Arithmetic

–Pointer comparisons

–Dereference and increment pointer

–pointer to const data

–const pointer

–const pointer to const data

–Void pointer or Generic Pointer

–Null pointer

–wild pointer

–Programming Examples

Pointer and function –Parameter Passing Techniques – call by

value, call by address

–Using Pointers as Arguments

–Function Returning value

–Returning More than one value From A


–Functions Returning Address

–Function Returning Pointers

–Dangling pointer

–Pointer to a Function

–Calling A function through function pointer

–passing A function’s address as an

Argument to other function

–Functions with variable number of


Array –One dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 1D arrays

–Initialization of 1D arrays

–Accessing element of 1D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Two dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 2D arrays

–Initialization of 2D arrays

–Accessing element of 2D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Programming Examples

Dynamic memory allocation –One dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 1D arrays

–Initialization of 1D arrays

–Accessing element of 1D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Two dimensional arrays

–Declaration of 2D arrays

–Initialization of 2D arrays

–Accessing element of 2D arrays

–Reading and displaying elements

–Programming Examples

Strings –strings versus character arrays

–Initializing strings

–Reading string

–Displaying string

–The %s format specifier

–The gets() and puts() functions

–string handling functions

–string pointers

–Two-dimensional character arrays or

array of string

–array of pointers to strings

Structure –Why is a structure used?

–What is the structure?

–Advantages of structures

–Defining a Structure

–Declaration of Structure Variables

–Initialization of Structure Variables

–Accessing Structure Members

–Storage of Structures in Memory

–Size of Structures

–Reading and Displaying Structure


–Assignment of Structure Variables

–Pointers to structures

–Array of structures

–Arrays within structures

–Nested structures

–Self-referential structures

–memory link(linked list)

–Bit fields

C language Programming theoretical Problems

C language programming is a vast subject in the world of programming. Some of the sample questions around C language programming –

  • Explain Computer programming.
  • What is C language programming?
  • What are the 5 basic elements of programming?
  • What are the salient features of the C language?
  • What is a pointer on pointer?
  • Which language is called the mother language?
  • Explain the process of programming.
  • Why is C language called function driven language?
  • Who designed the C programming language?
  • What are the additional features of C++ over C language?
  • Can a pointer access the array?
  • Explain recursion.

Frequently Asked Questions on C Programming Lecture Notes

Question 1.
What is the difference between C language and C++ language?

C language is a procedural programming language. C++ language is a combination of both procedural and object oriented programming language which supports classes and objects. So even though both are programming languages C language is called function driven language while C++ is called object oriented language. Both languages are used for app development but these are some significant differences in both languages.

C++ was created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979. C++ is called a superset of the C language due to some additional features over the C language.

  • C++ has 52 keywords as opposed to 32 in the C language.
  • Reference variables, namespace, inheritance, except handling, function and operator overloading is supported by C++ language only.
  • Cin and cout are used for input/output in C++ as opposed to scanf() and printf() in C language.

Question 2.
Comment on Computer Programming.

Computer programming is defined as the process of writing a computer program commonly known as code for automating tasks of the computer. This includes analyzing and writing algorithms to perform specific functions that require sound knowledge of the algorithms, the language you are writing the code in , logic and application domain.

This term comes under the broad term of software development which includes programming, implementing and writing the actual code. The code can be written in one or more languages to allow the software or application to perform the specific task and solve the given problem.

Question 3.
What are the key features of the C language?

C language is a procedural programming language developed in 1972. It is a structured language that allows you to control some low level features. It is a general purpose language that can be used to write some important programs. With its rich library of functions and a rich set of built in operators, it makes it one of the widely used programming languages.

The programs written in C language are easy to extend which allows you to add features into your programs easily. C language is also a really fast and efficient programming language. It is also a machine independent language which means it works similarly across different machines with some minor changes.

Question 4.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of C programming?


  1. C language is like a building block in learning other languages. It is therefore called the mother language.
  2. C language is a powerful language which lets you control low level activities as well.
  3. It has various built in functions and with its rich library it makes it useful to be used in writing programs and software,
  4. It has the quality to extend itself which allows it to easily add more features to its program.
  5. The computations of algorithms and data structures is fast and efficient.


  1. There is no run time checking for errors. It shows syntax errors after writing the entire program and in the case of large programs it becomes very difficult to check errors
  2. Lack of exception handling
  3. There are features like OOPs which are missing in the C language.
  4. Lack of objects.

C Programming Lecture Notes Conclusion

Regular use of these notes is advised for a better overall understanding of the C language programming. It is also advised to go through any of the prescribed reference books for additional queries and more sample problems. C programming language does seem theoretical upon reading but it’s a practical based subject so it is in your best interest to put it to use. This will surely help you to understand the theoretical concepts more clearly.

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