DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 11 Performance Appraisal Or Merit-Rating

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 11 Performance Appraisal Or Merit-Rating

Question 1.
What is performance appraisal or Merit-Rating ? Distinguish between job-evaluation and merit-rating.
Performance Appraisal – Meaning:
Performance appraisal, personnel rating, merit-rating or performance evaluation is one of the most important functions of personnel management. People differ in their abilities and aptitudes. The personnel management should know these differences to develop various development programmes in the organisation to have an efficient work force. Merit-rating technique has been evolved to know the relative worth of the employee quantitatively and qualitatively – on the job, in comparison to other fellow workers.

Merit-rating is used for measuring the merit or performance of an employee and comparing it with that of others in the same group. According to Flippo, “Merit-rating is a systematic, periodic and, so far as humanly possible, an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and to his potentialities for a job. ”

According to Denyer, “Merit-rating is an assessment according to individual ability which may be rewarded by additional payments to the ordinary rates of pay for the different job.’’ According to Y Oder, “Performance appraisal refers to all formal procedures used in working organisations to evaluate personalities and contributions and potential of group members. ” Thus, merit-rating is a systematic evaluation by the supervisor or some qualified person of an individual worker’s performance. The process of merit-rating starts at the time of recruitment and continues throughout the life of an employee in an organisation.

The purpose of merit-rating is to determine an employee’s worth to the organisation. It is a continuous process and made at regular intervals. For the purpose of rating, workers in an office, the following factors or qualities are generally considered :

  1. Ability and capacity to do the assigned work.
  2. Skill and capabilities, i.e., knowledge of various jobs and various operations.
  3. Personal qualities of the employee and his work habits like dependability, cooperation etc.
  4. Quantity and quality of output.
  5. Supervisory qualities.

Distinction Between Merit-Rating And Job-Evaluation :

  1. Merit-rating rates the man and not the job as it is concerned with assessing of the abilities to the individuals. But the job-evaluation rates the jobs in order to determine their worth.
  2. Job-evaluations is used as a basis of wage structure while merit rating is used as the basis of sound personnel policy in relation to transfer, promotion, etc.
  3. The purpose of job-evaluation is very limited i.e., to determine the worth of the job in terms of money while the purpose of merit-ratfng is to appraise the performance of individuals for the purposes of better placement through promotion, transfer, training, dismissal, etc.
  4. Job-evaluation tries to define the place of the job in the organisation or in the occupation level. Merit-rating on the other hand, appraises the relative performance of the employee’s qualities or traits so as to know the differences in personal abilities. „

Question 2.
What are the objectives of a merit-rating programme ?
Discuss the importance of merit-rating to an organisation. Also explain the limitations of merit-rating.
Performance Appraisal – Advantages Or Objective, Limitation :
The appraisal of performance is expected to provide answers to many of the questions in management of people in the organisation. The people who make up a working organisation are evaluated for many reasons. Individual managements may give different priorities to the purposes of performance appraisal may serve the following objectives in the organisation;

1. Systematic performance appraisal provides information of great assistance in making and enforcing decisions about such subjects as promotions, pay increases, lay-offs, and transfers. Performance appraisal provides information in advance of time when it may be needed, thereby avoiding spot judgements when a decision must be made. Moreover, the systematic approach provides the information in a form that permits the making of comparisons.

2. A systematic performance appraisal serves to guide employee development. Most people like to. know how they are doing. Appraisal programme provides this information which can be communicated to employees. Weaknesses of the employees revealed through the appraisal process can be removed through organising training and development programmes. Thus, this provides opportunities of assessing employee’s training needs in the organisation.

3. Performance appraisal puts a psychological pressure on people to improve performance on the job. If the people are conscious that they are being appraised in respect of certain factors and their future largely depends on such appraisal, they tend to have positive and acceptable behaviour in this respect. Thus, the appraisal automatically works as a control device.

4. Appraisal also serves to maintain fair relationships in groups. Thus, it is necessary for tactical and strategic planning, motivation, communication, and equity. -. –

5. The existence of a regular appraisal system tends to make the supervisors and the executives more observant of their subordinates because they know that they will be expected periodically to fill out rating forms and would be called upon to justify their estimates. This improves supervision.

6. Performance appraisal serves as a means for evaluating the effectiveness of devices used for the selection and classification of workers. A knowledge of the characteristics of superior and inferior workers can be helpful in selection and placement of workers.

7. Wage increase to some people in the organisation may be justified on the basis of performance appraisal.

8. The performance appraisal pinpoints the deficiencies and short comings of the employees and organisation doing the course of appraisal. The employef may take corrective measures to improve upon their performance.

9. The employee comes to know his performance on the job and his potential for the higher job. It helps the employee in introspection.

In this way, performance appraisal aims at improving the administrative deficiences and improving the performance of the personnel.

Limitations Of Merit Rating :
Following are the main limitations of merit rating:

1. If merit rater is influenced by ratee’s one or two outstandingly good or bad performances accordingly or sometimes the rater’s judgement is influenced by work team or informal group with which the subordinate associates. If the group is not liked or very much liked by the rater, it will affect the rating of the subordinate.

2. The Manager sets the standard against which he compares the subordinates because standards are difficult to define in measurable or objective terms. Ambiguity, vagueness and generality of criteria are difficult hurdles to overcome.

3. Employees who are rated better or inefficient, are not rewarded accordingly and therefore, they feel frustrated and their morale goes down.

4. Merit-rating will be inaccurate and difficult to appraise the personnel in the right perspective if-the rater is biased or he does not have adequate information about job and employees and full cooperation of management and subordinates.

Question 3.
Describe the essentials of a good appraisal system.
Essentials Of A Good Appraisal Ssytem:

Following are the essentials of a good appraisal system:
1. It must.be easily understandable. If the system is too complex or too time consuming, it will not be successful.

2. It must have the support of all line people who administer it. If the line people think it is too theoretical, too ambitious, too unrealistic, or that it has been foisted on them by ivory-tower staff consultants who have no comprehepsion of the deamands on the time of the line operators, they will resent it. A similar goodwill and understanding must exist between the rater and the ratees.

3. The system should fit the organisation’s operations and structure. A system that may work extremely well at a company whose activities are compact and whose executives have ready access to one another may have no success at all at a plant whose activities are scattered and whose officers are often widely separated. Similarly, where the operations are interdependent and interlinked performance dat& pertaining to any one individual cannot be regarded as sufficiently discrete or reliable for appraising his performance.

4. The system should be both valid and reliable. The validity of ratings is the degree to which they are truly indicative of the intrinsic merit of employees. The reliability of ratings is the consistency with which the ratings are made, either by different raters, or by one rater at different times. Both validity and reliability result from objectivity.

5. The system should have built-in incentive, that is a reward should follow satisfactory performance. Many authors, however, advocate against a direct linkage between appraisal, and rewards. In their opinion, such a connection throttles downward communication of performance appraisal because surperiors do not like being questioned by disgruntled subordinate in the event of an adverse appraisal. ,

6. The system should be periodically evaluated to be sure that it is continuing to meet its goals. Not only there is the danger that subj ective critria may become more salient than the objective standards originally established, there is the further danger that the system may become rigid in a tangle of rules and procedures, many of which are no longer useful.

7. The restilts of the appraisal, particularly, when they are negative should be communicated to the employees concerned so that they may try to improve their performance.

Question 4.
What are the various methods of performance appraisal ?
Methods Of Performance Appraisal:
The performance of employees may be appraised by a number of > ways and methods. Two basic types of performance appraisal methods are –

  1. Traditional Methods
  2. Modem Appraisal Methods

(a) Traditional Appraisal Method. These methods are very old techniques and based on personnel traits of the rate.
There are several methods of appraisal under trait or traditional approach –

1. Ranking – The oldest and simplest method of formal gating is to compare one man with all other men and place him in a simple rank order. Ghiselli and Brown have described the technical features of ranking method, i Their idea of ranking is to distribute the individuals being rated along an order of merit from best to poorest, or from most to least, on one or more characteristics.-This method is quite simple in a small group, but is difficult in a large one. Since differences in rank do not indicate absolute or equal differences of ability between individuals, the system is of limited value.

A variation on the ranking system designed to increase its value for use in large groups is the method of ‘paired comparison’. In this method each man is compared with every other man, one at the time. The results of these comparisons can be tabulated, a rank created from the number of times each person is considered to be superior. This is an improvement over the previous method; however, this requires a large number’of comparisons. For a 50-men group, there would be 1,225 comparisons, based on the following formula:

Number of comparisons = \(\frac{N(N-1)}{2}\)
In this formula, N equals the number of persons to be compared.

2. Man-to-man comparison – This system was used first by US army during World War-I. In this method, certain personality factors such as leadership, initiative, dependability, and so on, are selected for purposes of analysis. A scale is developed for each factor. Instead of comparing a man
to another, personnel are compared to key men, one factor at a time. Thus; a scale of men is created for each selected factor. This system of measurement is utilised today in job evaluation being known as the ‘factor comparison’ system. Though, it is highly useful in measuring job, it has very limited use in measuring people.

3. Grading – In the grading system, certain categories of worth (as excellent, very good, good, average, poor, very poor etc.) are established in advance. These are carefully defined, and personnel are placed in a particular group depending upon their worth. For example, the grades may be defined – as outstanding, satisfactory, and unsatisfactory. Sometimes, grading system is modified into a forced distribution system in which certain percentages are fixed for each grade. The basic idea behind this is to put limit for, generalisation on the part of the rater. However, in a small group, forced – distribution system is not useful.

4. Graphic Rating Scales – It is an approach similar to that of the man- to-man system, except that the degree on a factor scale are represented by definitions rather than by key men. The central idea behind this scaling is to provide the rater with a continuum representing varying degrees of a particular .characteristic. The rater can estimate the degree to which each trait is present in his subordinates by observing their behaviour on the job.

There are two types of factors which are measures on graphic scales. These are (i) personal characteristics, such as leadership, initiative, dependability, etc. and (ii) contributions, such as quality and quantity of work. Since, certain areas of job performance cannot be measured objectively, it is‘likely that graphic scales will continue to use a mixture of characteristics and contributions, with emphasis upon the latter. In India, most organisations following systematic appraisal process use this method to appraise personal characteristics. Graphic rating scales have undergone substantial changes to make the system more reliable and valid. Among the design innovations are the adoption ofthe discontinuous scales, reversed scales, numerical weighting systems and more accurate definitions of the traits and the degrees of traits.

5. Forced-choice Rating – Forced-choice method appraisal was developed by psychologists for the U.S. army in World War II, and was subsequently adopted ‘widely in industry. This method combines ratings with scoring system. The rater has a form on each item consisting of group of a .statements pertaining to subordinates. The rater checks two of the four statements, one which he feels is the most characteristic and the other least « characteristic of the person he is rating. For example, a pair such as the following will be presented to the rater :

  1. He is hard working. ,
  2. He gives clear instructions to his subordinates.

The rater is forced to select any one of these which is more characteristic of the rater. Though he may claim that both are equally applicable or inapplicable, he has to select the one that is closer to describing the person in question. The rater is also forced to choose between statements that are equally unfavourable such as following:

  1. He cannot be depended upon for good working.
  2. He shows favouritism towards some employees.

Only one of the statements in each pair is correct in identifying the : better performance, and this scoring key must be kept secret from the rater.

In this manner, bias is removed from the appraisal process. In a research 1 study, it was found that the use of force-choice scale effectively eliminated the leniency error while the use of a graphic scale format enabled bias to be introduced. There are certain disadvantages of the force-choice scaling, and because of these disadvantages, its use is not widespread. Cozan feels that , this method appears to have greater objectivity, four basic requirements are hard to meet: trained technicians to develop the scales, a different collection of items for each job group, a fair agreement on the criteria for success and failure and acceptance by supervisors who must rate their subordinates without knowing the relative rating they are giving.

Besides the above methods of appraisal, some other methods are also used, such as checklist method, selection of- critical incident method, and descriptive method. All these methods are used as supplementary to above mentioned methods.

6. Check-list – Under this method the rater does not evaluate the performance of the employees. He simply reports about it and final rating is done by the personnel department. Under this system, a check-list questionnaire is prepared containing questions concerning the employees and their behaviour, The rater then, checks to indicate if the answer to a question about an employee is positive or negative. Each question will be allotted weight in the light of which the performance is evaluated. Generally, the questions are on Yes/No pattern.

The system is subject to bias on the part of the rater because he can distinguish between positive and negative questions. It is expensive and time consuming because a separate checklist is to be prepared for each class of job.

7. Field Review Method. Underthis method, supervisors are interviewed by a expert from the Human Resource Department. The expert questions the supervisors to obtain all the pertinent information on each employee and
takes note in his note book. Thus, there no rating form with any degree or rating, but overall ratings are obtained. The workers are usually classified into three categories – outstanding, satisfactory and unsatisfactory.

The interviewer questions the supervisors about the requirement of each job in his unit and about the performance of each employee in his job. He probes not only on how a man is doing on a job but also why he does that way or how can he be improved. The supervisor gives his opinion about the process, shortcomings, outstanding ability etc. of each employee.

The success of the method depends upon the competence of the interviewer. Superficial judgements should be eliminated if the appraiser ; probes deeply.

8. Critical Incidents Method – The method is based on the principle that there are certain critical events that occur in the life of the employee on the job. These events make all the difference between success and failure on the job. The supervisor keeps the record of such events and recalls at the time of the rating. Likewise various behaviours like the type, of job, judgement, learning ability, productivity, responsibility etc. are recorded. The incidents and the behaviours are studied and ranked in order of frequency and importance. There is much scope of biased decision.

Evaluation of Trait-approach Methods :
The trait-approach methods are commonly used in industry because of convenience and simplicity. To some extent, the appraisal through these methods can serve useful purpose in taking decisions, if the raters are not biased in the appraisal process. In this approach, the manager tries to obtain an impartial, objective, factual and acceptable score. However, in recent years this approach has been severely criticised. According to various experts like Paton and Whisler trait approach presents following problems, making its use gradually limited:

  1. disillusionment about solving technical and semantic difficulties;
  2. the failure to improve the way the raters use the systems;
  3. pressure to adopt new systems; and
  4. low statistical validity.
  5. Systems are subjective and based on personnel judgement.

(B) Modern Appraisal Methods. The following are the important modern appraisal techniques –

  1. Appraisal by results or management by objective.
  2. Assessment centre appraisal.
  3. Human Asset Accounting method.’
  4. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
  5. 360 degree appraisal.

1. Appraisal by Results on Management by Objectives (MBO) :
In recent years, the appraisal has been extended to management groups also which has encouraged added attention to evaluation of performance. Managers now feel that performance is in itself the most reliable indicator of potential and quality. This feeling has led to the development of appraisal by results, that is against the setting and accomplishing of verifiable objective. The essential feature of the appraisal is the manager’s observation of the subordinate’s performance measured against specific pre-determined goals with the subordinate’ s actions, attitudes, and general job behaviour examined in this context. Conclusions are based on observation and evidence of performance rather than the superior’s opinions of the subordinates.

It was Peter F. Drucker who proposed goal setting approach to performance appraisal which he called ‘Management by objectives and self control. This approaches was further strengthened by Duglas McGregor.
Though there are variations, six basic elements are common to most result-oriented appraisal plans:

  1. The superior and each of his subordinates jointly plan the subordinate’s tasks and responsibilities.
  2. The subordinate prepares a plan for specified period, say, six months, or a year. Through mutual consultation, the final target to be achieved is fixed.
  3. Through mutual consultation, they also fix up and clarify superior’s supporting and evaluative role.
  4. At the end of the specified period, the superior makes a performance
    evaluation of subordinate on the basis of mutually agreed criteria.
  5. Superior discusses the results and his evaluation with the subordinate, corrective actions, if necessary, are suggested, and mutually agreed upon targets are fixed for future.
  6. The method emphasises traits and other characteristics, focussing on performance results.

The process of appraisal poses several questions and problems. The two most common problems relating to appraisal are – (a) fixation of goals and (b) measuring accomplishment of goals. The fixation of goals is carried on through mutual consultation between superior and his subordinate and it depends upon their judgement and experience. In assessing goal accomplishment, the evaluator must take into account such considerations as whether goals were reasonably attainable, whether the factors beyond the control of subordinate have helped or hindered him in accomplishing his goals, and finally what the reasons for accomplishment or non-accomplishment were. As such, the success of this system depends upon: (i) good job descriptions specifying areas in which goals are to developed; (ii) trust in subordinate to establish responsible goals; (iii) specification of specific rather than general goals; and (iv) problem solving, rather than critical, discussion of ensuring performance.

Evaluation of Appraisal by Results Method or Management by Objectives (MBO) – This method of appraisal springs from forces that have generated a popular philosophy of management known as ‘management by objective’ or ‘management by result’. Thus, this method is less a technique and more a way of life for managers. If the prevailing style of management is harmonious with the objectives approach, appraisal by results appears to be an improvement over trait approach methods of appraisal.

One study indicates that the very nature of trait approach tends to immediately stimulate the rater to adopt a role stereotype of a supervisor – critical evaluative, and often defensive. The result-oriented approach alters this stereotype and rates reporting greater satisfaction, more agreement, greater comfort, and less tension and hostility.

Appraisal by result has the same strength as management by objectives or results. This has a great advantage of being operational because appraisals are not apart from the job a manager does, but a review of what actualy he does as a manager. Moreover, the person appraised is more likely to see positive steps to improvement than he would if he were faced with the need to remould his inner psychological make-up to satisfy his superior. Self-generated change works better than imposed change which generates resistance, hostility, and defensiveness on the part of subordinates.

MBO has the following merits :

  1. It involves setting of goals by active participated of both superiors and subordinates.
  2. When goals for each individual are reset, there is considerable change in the job description of various positions.
  3. MBO serves as a self control device.
  4. There is an improvement in productivity as management concentrates on important task of reducing costs and harnessing opportunities.
  5. By defining the results expected, the performance can be evaluated by results expected. Thus, an individual can evaluate his own performance by results expected.
  6. MBO is a tool for the development of executive.

The result-oriented approach, however, is not without its limitations.
This approach has all the weaknesses of management by objectives. In particular, this appraisal method has following weaknesses:

1. One of the major weaknesses of the method is to emphasise results alone, and it is entirely possible for a man to meet or miss goals through no fault of his own. External factors often play important part in perfomance. Most evaluators claim that they always take uncontrolable or unexpected factors into account in assessing goals performance. But it is extremely difficult.

2. It requires the job being performed to be such that goal establishment is possible by others than the managers. It is doubtful if such a procedure is practicable for the job whose output is qualitative. The more restricted and regimented the job the less usable is this particular approach.

3. The result approach necessarily involves considerable time, thought and contact between superior and subordinate. If the span of management is large, this system may be inappropriate and trait approach appraisal may be selected.

4. This approach puts entire emphasis on training and development, since management by objectives gives better and more accurate visibility to managerial needs,and development programmes can be better pinpointed. Yet, management has to make various decisions on a comparative basis – who gets the pay increase or who is to be promoted. This approach provides some data for justifying the correctness of decision, but their comparability among competing subordinates is limited.

5. This programme appraises operating performance only. There are also other factors to appraise, notably an individual’s managerial ability. Thus, an individual, failing to achieve particular target in one direction at present, may be an asset to the organisation in future. Therefore, an adequate appraisal system must appraise performance as a manager as well as performance in setting and meeting goals.

2. Assessment Centre Method:

1. Assessment Centre Method – The purpose of this method is to test candidates in a social situation, using a number of assessors and variety of procedures. The feature of the assessment centre method is job related simulations. These simulations involve characteristics that managers feel are the important to the job success. The evaluators observe and evaluate participants as they perform activities commonly found in these higher level jobs.

Under this method, many evaluators join together to judge employee performance in several situations with the use of variety of creiteria. It is used mostly to help select employees for the first level (the lowest) supervisory positions. Assessments are made to determine employee potential for purposes of promotion. The assessment is generally done with the help of a couple of employees and envolves a paper-and-pencil test, interviews and situational exercises. Some of the other features of this system are:

  • The method uses simulation exercises (such as an in-basket exercise, business game, a role-playing incident and leaderless group discussion);
  • Evaluators are drawn form experienced managers with proven ability at different levels of management;
  • They evaluate all employees, both individually and collectively, and each candidate is given one of the four categories; more than acceptable, less than acceptable and unacceptable;
  • A summary report is prepared by the members, and a feedback on a face-to-face basis is administered total to the candidates who ask for it.

Purpose Of Assessment Centres :
Assessment centres technique serves the following pursposes:

  1. To measure potential for first level supervision, sales and upper management positions; and also for higher levels of management for development purposes.
  2. To determining individual training and development needs of employees.
  3. To select recent college students for entry level positions.
  4. To provide more accurate human resource planning information
  5. To make an early determination of potential.
  6. To assist in implementing afirmative action goals.

To make this method successful, it is necessary that heavy emphasis must be placed on clear statement of goals, the obtaining of top managemt commitment, job analysis, assessor training etc.

3. Human Asset Accounting Method :
The human asset accounting method refers to activity devoted to attaching money estimates to the value of a firm’s internal human organisation and its external customer goodwill. If able, well-trained personnel leave a firm, the human organisation is worthless; if they join it, its human assets are increased. If distrust and conflict prevail, the human enterprise is devalued. If teamwork and high moral prevail, the human organisation is a very valuable asset.

The current value of a firm’s human organisation can be appraised by developed procedures, by undertaking periodic measurements of “key casual” and “intervening enterprise” variables. The key casual variables include the structure of an organisation’s management policies, decisions, business leadership, strategies, skills and behaviour. The intervening variables reflect the internal state and health of an organisation.

They include loyalties, attitudes, motivations, and collective capacity for effective interaction, communication and decision-making. These two types of variable measurements must be made over several years to provide the needed data for the computation of the human asset accounting.
This method is not yet very popular.

4. Behaviouraly Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) :
This is a new appraisal technique which has recently been developed. Its supporters claim that it provides better, more equitable appraisals as compared to other techniques. BARS approach combines elements of traditional rating scales and critical incidents method. Using BARS job behaviours from critical incidents effective and ineffective behaviours are described more objectively. This method employs individuals who are familiar with a particular job to identify its major components. They are asked to rank and validate specific behaviours for each of the components.. This approach gets away from measuring subjective personal parts and instead measures observable, critical behaviours that are related to specific job dimensions. The procedure for BARS is usually five stepped.

(i) Generate Critical Incidents – Persons with knowledge of the job to be appraised (job holders/ supervisors) are asked to describe specific illustrations (critical incidents) of effective and ineffective performance.

(ii) Develop Performance Dimensions – These people cluster the incidents into a smaller set of performance dimensions. Each cluster is then defined.

(iii) Reallocate Incidents – Any group of people who also know the job then reallocate the original critical incidents. They are given the cluster’s definitions, and critical accidents, and asked to redesign each incident to the dimension it best describes. Typically a critical incident is retained if some percentage (usually 50 to 80%) of this group assigns it to the same cluster as the previous group did.

(iv) Scale of Incidents – This second group is generally asked to rate (7 or 9 point scales are typical) the behaviour described in the incident as to how effectively or ineffectively it represents performance on the appropriate dimension.

(v) Develop Final Instrument – A subset of incidents (usually 6 or 7 per cluster) are used as “behaviour anchors” for the performance dimensions.

Though BARS technique is more time-consuming and expensive to another appraisal tools, yet it has got certain advantages, such as:

  • A more accurate gauge, since BARS is done by persons expert in the technique, the results are sufficiently accurate.
  • Clear Standards. The critical incidents along the scale help to clarify what is meant by “extremely good” performance, “average” perffomance and so forth.
  • Feedback. The use of critical incidents may be more useful in providing feedback to the people being appraised.
  • Independent dimensions. Systematically clustering the critical incidents into 5 or 6 performance dimensions, helps in making the dimensions more independent of one another.
  • Rater-Independence. The technique is not biased by the experience and evaluation of the rater.

5. 360 Degree Appraisal :
A 360 degree appraisal was developed by the General Electric Company of the USA in 1992 and soon got popularity throughout the globe. In India, several companies follow this technique. These companies include Wipro Corporation, Reliance Industries, Thomas Cook, Godrej soaps, InfosysTechnologies etc.

Under this technique, employee or manager rating is done by gathering data on a person’s skills, abilities and behaviours from everyone above, alongside and below him inside and outside the company e.g. the manager, peers, subordinates, customers and even client etc. Thus, appraisal of an employee under this technique is done by his superiors his peers his subordinates, and clients or outsiders with whom he interacts regularly in the course of his job performance. In 360 degree appraisal, besides appraising the performance of the assessee his other attributes like latents, behaviours, values and technical capabilities are also appraised.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 10 Executive Development

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 10 Executive Development

Question 1.
What is meant by executive or management development ? State the importance of executive development.
Executive Development – Meaning And Importance:
The rapid advancement in technology, social development, the effect of new political policies, the pressure of competition etc. demand a shift to new techniques which are the over riding elements in growth and survival. There is a strong need of those leader managers of the organisation who can demonstrate the necessary managerial skill and imagination in coping with the enormous changes around them. The development of managerial talent has become one of the most important and complex tasks.

Management development is a planned, systematic and continuous process of learning and growth designed to induce behavioural change in individuals by cultivating their mental abilities and inherent qualities for more effective performance of the work of managing.

A manager cannot be developed only by taking a course attending lectures and conferences. Management development implies development of people of different attitudes, talents, aspirations, needs and motivation. The management development is necessary to help managers to keep up with technological developments to build high morale at different levels and to help them to create all ideal inter personnel relations in the organisations.

According to Management Development Institute of India – “Management development is the development of management over and above its science and theory, of its practice and application in organisations, corporations and institutions, alike in relations to the organisation and manager, so as continuously to re-equip both to fulfil their purposes more effectively and in harmony with each other and both with the environment in which they function and have their being and hope to thrive upon arid grow…”

In the words of Michael J. Jucius, “Executive development is the programme by which executive capacities to achieve desired objectives are increased”. In explaining the terms used in the above definition. Mr. Jucius has written that ‘Programme’ must be related to development of various interrelated matters, factors and needs. Executive capacities involves different individuals abilities of present and prospective managers at different levels of management. The desired objectives include the objectives of the concern, its executives and the persons to be’managed.

Though it is believed that it is the responsibility of all the line managers to train their immediate subordinate in the organisation and guide them in their own self-development, yet, the ‘drive’ and ‘spark’ must come from within the individual because he and he alone knows where the shoe pinches. He should realise his weak points and try to remove his blind spots and to improve his performance in managing the people.

Nature of Executive Development. The specific features of economic development are as follows –

  • Executive development is more a kin of education than specific training in skills. It is not lectures or specific courses to develop but it is a process of learning on an executives part to be accepted as a disciplined of self-education.
  • Executive development is planned process of learning and growth designed to bring behavioural change among the executives. The executive should be able to perform his presents assignment better and will improve his potentials for future assignments.
  • It is a self development programme where he learns new skills by participating in training programme. They make use of his actual job experience in learning new behaviours. The organisation merely provides facilities for development.
  • It is a continuous and never ending process and not a one shot affair. It continues throughout the career of the executive.

Need Or Importance Of Management Development :

The success of an organisation depends to a great extend on the quality of leadership provided by the managers. The common belief that managers are born and not made, has been replaced by the view that managers can be made by giving them proper opportunities for development. An employee cannot be a good manager by his experience for a long time as a worker only. A manager’s job requires certain abilities to lead and motivate the people in the organisation. Therefore, it is necessary for the organisation to develop the talented employees by giving them the best training and education. The importance of management development may be gathered from the following quotations –

According to Michael Haider, “In the life of a corporation, today’s success is largely a production of three types of executive actions taken yesterday selecting the right people,, placing them, in the right job; and seeing to it that they are able to grow to meet both their own needs and those of the organisation”’. J.R.D. Tata observed, “Trained managers are vital to the economic development ofthe country. The business of executive management has been one of the most crucial, essential and at the same time one of the most difficult elements in providing continuity and efficient management.”

The importance of management development may be discussed in the following points :

1. Shortage of Trained Managers – There is a shortage of trained managers and it is very difficult to recruit and select the qualified managerial personnel to man the various managerial jobs from the labour market. Therefore, it becomes necessary for the organisation to develop the talented and able employees through a systematic development programme and maintain an inventory of executive skills to meet the future demands.

2. Competition. There is a tough competition in the market today and the consumers have become more conscious of their rights. It is, therefore, not easy to misguide the consumers. Executive development can be of great help in understanding the needs of the consumer.

3. Motivation of Workers. Today’s worker is educated ans socially aware. The workers ask for their rights such as workers participation in management, better wages and working conditions for the betterment of the organisation. In order to satisfy them or motivate them to contribute to the achievement of organisational objectives, development of executors.

4. To Resolve Peace. Frequent labour management conflicts need trained managers to handle the situation and resolve the matter amicably. Only a trained manager can bring peace by resolving the conflict amicably.

5. Complexity of Job. Managerial position is a complex one today which claimed separation of managerial skill from the ownership has widely recognised the peculiarity of managerial skill. It has contributed the belief that management is a complex job calling for certain skill, knowledge and aptitude which can be learned only by systematic development programmes.

6. Technological and Social Changes – Rapid growth of technological and social changes in the modem society has made it imperative to develop the executive talent to cope with these developments. These changes have been brought by various factors like automation, computers, intense market competition, Government controls, awakening of labour, change in the concept of labour etc.

7. Social Responsibility of Management – Social responsibility of management has widely recognised by the business leaders because of the changing social philosophy. The increased management task and leadership responsibilities arising out of social and technological changes has made the executive development absolute necessary.

8. Unending Process – Executive development is an unending process. It is not a ‘one-shot’ affair. It must continue throughout the management career, otherwise an acceptable management of yesterday will not be acceptable today and an executive of today will not be good enough for future. In order to be dynamic and to meet the future challenges, a manager should continually educate himself.

It may be concluded that management development programme is absolutely necessary for the success of any organisation. The better management, better are the results or the organisation. It is a continuous process to develop the skill of the person and maintain the desired managerial manpower to meet the new challanges.

Question 2.
What are the steps inolved in the process of executive development?
Process Of Executive Development:
The planning of an executive development programme should be conducted by the chief executive officer of the organisation. The essential components or steps of a comprehensive programme are discussed below:

  1. Looking at organisational objectives.
  2. Ascertaining development needs.
  3. Appraisal of present management talents
  4. Preparation of manpower inventory
  5. Planning of individual development programmes
  6. Establishment of training and development programmes
  7. Programme evaluation

1. Looking at Organisational Objectives – The first step in management development programme is to Identify the organisation’s objectives. The objectives tell “Where we are going” and will develop a framework from which the executive needs can be determined.

2. Ascertaining Development Needs – Next step is ascertaining development needs which requires forecast of its needs for present and future growth. This is based upon a comprehensive job analysis with particular reference to the kind of management work performed. The kind of executive needed and the kind of education, experience, training, special knowledge, skills, personal traits etc., required for such work.

3. Appraisal of Present Management Talents – Appraisal of present management talent is made with a view to determining qualitatively the type of personnel available within an organisation itself. The performance of a management individual is compared with the standard expected of him”. His personal traits are also analysed so that a value judgement may be made of his potential for advancement.

4. Management Manpower Inventory – Now, a management manpower inventory is prepared for the purpose of getting complete information about each management individual’s bio-data and educational qualifications, the results of tests and performance appraisal. From these it can be known that several capable executives are available for training for higher positions. An analysis of the information will bring to the attention of the management the potential obsolescence of some of the present executives, the inexperience or shortage of managers in certain functions and skill deficiencies relative to the future needs of the organisation.

5. Individual Development Programme – The planning of individual development programme is undertaken to meet the needs of different individuals, keeping in view the differences in the attitudes and behaviour, and in their physical intellectual and emotional qualities. The weak and strong points of an individual are known from his peformance appraisal reports and on this basis, training programmes are framed and launched.

6.  Establishment of Training and Development Programmes – This job is done by the personnel department. A comprehensive and well conceived programme is prepared, containing concentrated brief courses in different fields viz. human relations, decision making, leadership time and motion study, creative thinking etc. depending on organisational needs and the time and cost involved.

7. Evaluating Development Programmes – Evaluation of training is any attempt to obtain information (feed back) on the effects of a training programme and assess the value of training. The most important means of evaluating development programmes are observation, ratings, trainee surveys, trainee interview etc.

Question 3.
Discuss the objectives of Executive development. Describe the effective methods of developing managers.
Objectives Of Executive Development:
The primary’ and continuing objectives of executive development, programme are are :

  • To impart basic knowledge and decision making skills to the new entrants
  • To assist the employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing these to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills required in their respective fields ;
  • To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them as a part of their carrier progression to occupy more responsible positions as and when required.
  • To broaden the minds of the senior managers by providing them opportunities for interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from overspecialisation;
  • To impart customer education for effective dealing with the customer
  • To assign competent men in all management positions to achieve the common objectives of the organisation ; and
  • To develop and implement the latest management systems in place of traditional systems in order to increase productivity.
  • To indianise the management of units managed by foreign executives.

Question 4.
What are various methods of executive developments?
Various Methods Of Executive Development:
A great variety of management development techniques are used by different organisations to develop their executive manpower. The selection of technique rests on one philosophy of development. There are two principal methods of executive development which are generally used by the firms. One is on the job development and the other is off the job development. We shall discuss hereunder the various on the job and off-the job executive development techniques –

1. On-the-job Methods. These may include the following techniques:

(a) Coaching
(b) Understudy
(c) Job rotations
(d) Committee assignments
(e) Multiple Management

2. Off-the-job Methods :

(a) Special curses
(b) Role playing
(c) Case-study
(d) Conference
(e) Special projects
(f) Management games
(g) Syndicate method
(h) Sensitivity training
(i) Programmed instructions
(j) In-basket Training

The different methods outlined above are not mutually exclusive in nature. An executive development programme may include a number of methods in both categories because no single method suits all the organisations at all places.

(a) On-the-Job Methods. It is most popular method of developing the executive talent. The main techniques are :

(a) Coaching. Under this technique, the superior coaches the job knowledge and skill to his subordinates. He briefs the trainees what is expected of them and guides them how to get it. He also watches their

performance and directs them to correct the mistakes. The main objectives of this training is to provide them diversified knowledge. Coaching is recognised as one of the managerial responsibilities and the manager has an obligation to train and develop the subordinates working under him. He delegates his authority to the subordinates to prepare them to handle the non- c routine complex situations.

(b) Understudy. Under this system, a person is specially designated as the heir-apparent who is called the understudy. The understudy’s future depends on what happens to his superior. Such understudy is likely to assume the full duties and responsiblities, currently held by his superior when he leaves his post due to promotion, retirement or transfer.

The department manager picks up one individual from the department to become his understudy. He guides him to learn his job and tackle the problems that confront the manager. The problem may be discussed with the understudy to get his views on the problem and to give him an experience of decision making. The understudy may be asked to supervise and guide a number of people at work in order to develop the leadership skill in him.

(c) Job Rotation. Under this system, an individual is transferred from one job to another or from one department to another in the coordinated and planned manner with a view to broaden the general background of the trainee in the business. The trainee is rotated from one job to another and thus he acquires a general background of all jobs in the business. A new entrant at junior executive level requires a considerable degree of specialised knowledge and skill but a man can never acquire the diversified skill needed for promotion unless he is deliberately put in different types of situations.

(d) Committee Assignments. Under this system an ad-hoc committee is constituted and is assigned a subject related to the business to discuss and make recommendations. The committee studies and discusses the problem assigned to it and submits the report containing various suggestions and recommendations. With a view to avoid the unnecessary hardship in studying the problems, the number of persons should be selected from different departments having specialised knowledge in different fields but connecting to the problem. The committee submits its report to the departmental head.

Committee assignment provides a trainee the necessary general background and the trainee becomes acquainted with the different view points and acquires a wider perspective.

(e) Multiple Management. Under this system, a permanent advisory Board or committee of executives is constituted by the shareholders to study problems of the organisation and make recommendation to top management and’ top management takes the final decisions. The another device is the establishment of a junior Board of Directors for the training of the executives.. The Junior Board is empowered to discuss any problem with the senior Board. The utility of Junior Boardisto train the juniors executive. Membership of the Junior Board is a prerequisites to the membership of the senior Board. The Junior Board may discuss a variety of subjects which a senior board can discuss. All recommendations forwarded to the senior Board must be unanimous. The recommendations of the junior Board are of advisory nature.

The method has the following advantages –

  1. It is inexpensive.
  2. It gives Boards members an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in various aspects of business.
  3. It identifies those who have good executive talents.

2. Off-the-job Methods. The main techniques under this method are: –

(a) Special courses. The method of special courses requires the trainee to leave the work place and to devote his entire time to developmental objectives. The prime object of such special courses is to provide an opportunity to the trainee to acquire knowledge with devotion. Development is primary and work is secondary. These courses may be conducted in a number of ways – First, the organisation establishes such courses to be taught to the trainees by the numbers of the firm or by the regular instructor appointed by the firm or by the specialists (Professors and lecturers) from other outside institutions. The second approach to this technique is to send the personnel to programmes established by the colleges or universities.

The organisation sponsors some of its members to the courses and bears the expenses. The third approach to the technique is to work with a college or other institutions in establishing a course or a series of courses to be taught by faculty members. A big organisation may start its own training school. In India, almost all the leading banks .have their own training colleges and the college experts devise the courses in consultation with the top executives.
The lecture method is generally employed in such cases for all courses which may be supplemented by other techniques as group discussion, film, case study etc.

(b) Role-playing. Under this method, two or more trainees are assigned different roles to play creating an artificial conflict situation. No dialogue is given before hand. The role-players are provided with the written or oral description of the situtation and the role to play. Sufficient time is given to the role players to plan their actions and they must have acted on their parts before the class.

For instance, role-playing situation may be a supervisor discussing grievances with his subordinate. This technique is generally used for human relations and leadership training so as the trainee may, learn the human relation skills through practice. The dialogues between role players may be recorded so that the role-players may listen performance and know their strengths and weakness. Role-playing is a laboratory method which can he used rather easily as a supplement to other conventional training methods.

(c) Case study. Case study technique is extensively used in teaching law, business management, human relations etc. to let the trainee understand that there may be different solutions to a particular problem. Under this method, the trainees are given a realistic prohlem to discuss, which is more or less related to the principles already taught. This method provides an opportunity to the trainee to apply his skill to the solution of realistic problems. Cases may be used in either of the two ways – (i) They can be used after exposing the formal theory under which the trainee applies their skill to specific situation, or (ii) They may be assigned to the trainees for written analysis or oral discussion without any prior discussion of the theory.

(d) Conference. A conference is a group meeting conducted according to an organised plan in which members participate in oral discussion of a particular problem and thus develop their knowledge and understanding. It is an effective training device for conference members and conference leaders. Both learn a lot from others viewpoint, and compare their opinions with others. The conference leaders may also learn how to develop their skill to motivate people through direction of discussion. Conferences may be of three types – (i) The directed or guided conference, (ii) Consultative conference, and (iii) Problem-solving conference. However, guided conference is generally used for training purposes.

(e) Special Projects. Under this device, a trainee is assigned a project that is closely related to his job. He studies the problem in depth collect and analyse the data and make recommendations upon it. The project will help in educating the trainee the various aspects of the problem and to understand the organisational relationship of the problem with different angles. Sometimes a task force is made consisting of a number of trainees representing different functions in the organisation. Each individual works as a member of the group. It is a temporary nature of assignment.

(f) Management games. It is classroom exercise, in which teams of students compete against each other to achieve common objecfive. The game is designed to be a close representations of real life conditions. The trainees are asked to make decisions about production. Cost, research and development etc. for a stimulated organisation. Since they are often divided into teams as competing companies, experience is obtained in team work. Under this method, the trainees learn by analysing problems by using some intention and by making trial and error type of decisions. Any wrong is corrected by the trainer or sometimes a second chance is given to do something all over again.

(g) Syndicate Method. Under this method, 5 or 6 groups consisting of about 10 members are formed. Each group (Syndicate) is composed of carefully selected men who, on the one hand, represents fair cross-section of the executive life of the country, i.e., men from public sector and private sector undertakings, civil and defence services, banking, insurance etc, and, on the other hand, a good well balanced team of management from different fields, i.e., production, marketing, personnel, finance etc.

The groups are given assignments made up before hand to be submit within a specified date and time. Each man in the group is appointed leader of the group for the performance of the given task by rotation and so for the secretary for the subdivision of the course. Each task is assigned in the form of a ‘Brief, a document prepared by the experts on the faculty with meticulous care. It indicates the nature and scope of the subject matter, a list of selected readings and background materials in the form of papers, exefcises and cases.

It also fixes the time by which the study is to be completed. Lectures by experts are also arranged to supplement the study. The report, prepared and submitted by a group, is .circulated among the members of the other groups for comparative study and critical evaluation. The leader or chairman of the group is required to present the views of his group in the joint session and justify his group’s view in case of criticism or questions.

This technique is particularly suitable for the development of executive who are already in positions of responsibility and marked out for assuming the top position or near the top position in business or public services.

(h) Sensitivity training or T-group. In sensitivity training, the executive spends about two work-hours attending’the lectures on the subject such as leadership and communication. The members, under this method, sit around a table and discuss. The trainer, usually a psychologist, neither leads the discussion nor suggests what should be discussed but only guides the discussion. The members freely discuss and criticise the behaviour of each other thereby giving a feedback positive or negative.

The technique of T-group is an important tool in the hands of management to view the cooperation of his fellow members. The aim of sensitivity training. – is to improve the trainees skills in dealing with the people.

(i) Programmed instruction. Programmed instruction has gained a lot of importance but in training and in industry in modern times. It includes teaching-machines, auto-instruction, automatic instructions and prbgrammed learning. It is an application of learning to the task of training and education. The core feature of programmed instructions is participation by the trainee and immediate feedback by him. Programmed instructions include films, tapes, programmed books, illustrations, printed materials, diagrams etc. It performs two functions – (i) provides information to the learner, and (ii) provides feedback whether the response is correct or wrong.

We have discussed here various methods of executive development but there is no ideal method or a combination of the methods of executive development which may suit the needs of the organisation. Each organisation must design its own particular programme taking the climate of the firm, the organisation level for which training is required, the particular characteristics of the personnel, to be developed, the recognised specific development needs and the availability of economic resources into consideration. The above methods may be studied as a guide to a specific training programme.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 9 Training of Operative Personnel

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 9 Training of Operative Personnel

Question 1.
What do you mean by training ? How is training different from development and education ?
Meaning Of Training:
After the new employee is selected and joins the organisations, the next step of the personnel programme is to impart necessary training to work them fit for the job which has been assigned to him and he is supposed to handle. According to Flippo, “Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. ” According to Dale Yoder, “Training is the process by which man-power is filled for the particular jobs it is to perform.” According to Beach, “Training is the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. ”

The purpose of training is to achieve a change in the behaviour of those trained and to enable them to do their jobs in a better way. The trainees will aquire new manipulative skills, technical knowledge, problem solving ability or attitudes etc. Training is not a one-step process but it is a continuous or never-ending process. Training makes newly recruited workers fully productive in the minimum of time. Even for old workers, training is necessary to refresh them and enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques. In short, training is the act of improving or updating the knowledge and skill of an employee for performing a particular job.

Training is important not only to the organisation but also to the employee. Training is valuable to the employee as he learns new skills and method to do new jobs. It gives employee greater job security and an opportunity for. advancement.

Training and Education. Training is different from education. Education is concerned with improving the general knowledge and understanding of the employee’s total environment. For example, a mechanic who repairs an automobile better than an engineer is only trained and not educated for he does not have engineering education and its principles. Thus education is broader in scope, its purpose is to develop individual Education is generally imparted by our formal school system. The difference between training and education is not precise. In some cases, training and ecducation occur at the same time.

Education means a formal instruction m a school or college whereas training is vocationally oriented and is imparted to do a particular job in a better way.

Training And Development Are Two different Concepts:

Development is concerned with the growth of an employee in all respects. It is the process by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competency in their present jobs, but also capabilities for future managerial tasks. Training programmes are directed toward maintaining and improving current job performance while development programmes seek to. develop skills and competence for future jobs. Stated briefly, training is job- centred whereas development is career oriented.

A person thus can receive training to improve skills on a new word processing machine whereas development may come from a management course on effective leadership. Both managers and non-managers may derive benefits from training and development programmes but the content of the programmes are likely to vary. Non-managers are more likely to be trained in the technical skills required for their current jobs while managers frequently receive assistance in developing their capabilities for future job responsibilities.

Question 2.
What are the objectives of employee training? Explain the need for training in modern industry.
Objectives Of Training Programme:
The overall objective of training programme is to’ fill in the gap between the existing and the desired level of knowledge, skills and aptitudes. Objectives of training express the gap between the present and the desired performance. levels. A well designed training programme improves the personnel qualitatively. A good training programme needs involvement of top management to integrate the training objectives with the organisational objectives. The main objectives of training may.be defined as follows –

1. To impart Basic Knowledge. One of the objectives of training is to impart entrants'” the basic knowledge and skills required for efficient performances of definite tasks. It increases the skill, knowledge and operative competence of the employee which help to increase the level of performance.

2. To Function more effectively in their Present Position – Due to technological changes, present ways of doing the job have changed. Training assists the employee to function more effectively in their present position by exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and developing the skills required to perform their job in a better way. It increases the level of performance on their present assignment.

3. To build up second line of competent Officers – Training aims at building up a second line of competent officers’. Whenever, there is a change in job position, the new incumbent from within can occupy the position more confidently.

4. To broaden the minds of senior Managers – One of the objectives
of Training is to broaden the minds of the senior managers through interchange of experience within and outside so as to correct the narrow outlook caused due to over specialisation. ‘

5. To Reduce Supervision – Training increases the basic knowledge and skills required for the job. It helps to increase production, productivity, and profitability of the concern. It reduces the degree of supervision and makes the workers more independent and more responsible. It thus reduces cost of production and cost of supervision.

6. To Improve the organisational Environment – Environment of the organisation attracts the prospective employees to join the organisation. Thepurpose of training is to generate an improved organisational environment. Proper training helps in preventing industrial accidents. Proper and safer living and working environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of the employees. It reduces the rate of absenteeism and labour turnover.

Need For Training:

Need for training is unquestionable. There is no choice with the organisation whether to train or not to train workers. If no systematic training programme is designed in an organisation the worker will learn by trial and error method which will prove more costly. The choice with the organisations is that of method.

Training is required on account of the following reasons –

1. Job requirements – Some jobs require specialised knowledge, Employees selected for a job might reasonably be lacking in specialised skill required on the job to perform the job effectively. New and totally inexperienced workers need detailed instructions for effective performance on the job. Such employees need orientation training. In some cases, an experienced person may be quite unfit to the new job or to the new organisation due to change in the job pattern or environment. Remedial training may be given to such person to match the needs of the organisation.

2. Technological Changes – There are fast technological changes in the industrial world. Automation, mechanisation, computerisation etc. are being applied almost in every offices. These changes require a specialised training in the new technologies. No office or organisation can take advantages of the new technology unlesss there is a trained work force. When a company introduces new technology, new and old personnel are required to be trained.

3. Organisational Viability – In order to survive and grow an organisation must continually adapt to itself to the changing environment with the increasing liberalisation and globalisation in India, business firms are experiencing expansion, growth and diversification. In order to meet the global competition, firms must upgrade their capabilities by imparting training to their existing employees in new production and marketing techniques, to keep them abreast of new knowledge. It prevents obsolescence skills. An organisation can build’second time of command through training in order to meet their future needs.

4. Internal Mobility – When an employee is promoted to a higher job or transferred to a new job, he needs training so that he may be able to perform the new responsibilities in a better way. Training is widely used to prepare employees for higher level jobs.

Thus, there is ever present heed for training people so that organisations may take advantages of new techniques. Training is required to old and new employees. Need for training has increased in modem times due to growing complexity of jobs, increasing professionalisation of management, growing uncertainties in the environment, global competition, vast untapped human potential etc.

Question 3.
Explain the importance of worker training.
Explain the advantages of training to the employees and the organisation. Are there any limitations of training ?
Importance Of Training:
Training enables the employees to get acquainted with jobs and increase their aptitudes, skills and knowledge. It helps newely recruited employees to be productive in minimum amount of time. Even for experienced workers, it is necessary to refresh and enable them to keep up with new methods, machines, techniques and equipments for doing the work. According to Dale S. Beach “Training is vital and necessary activity in all organisations. It plays a large part in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the establishment.” Training is advantageous not only to the organisation but also to the employees.

(A) Advantages to the Organisation –

1. Follow up of Selection Procedure. Training is a follow up of selection procedure. It helps in choosing the most appropriate individuals for different jobs. Training can be used in spotting out promising men and in removing defects in selection process.

2. Better Performance. Training brings about an improvement of the quality and quantity of output by increasing the skill of the employees. Training makes the fresh and old employees more skilled and accurate in performance of their work. The management can make anassessment of those who might be well suited for new jobs and responsibilities.

3. Reduction in Cost of Production. Trained personnel will be able to make better and economical use of materials and equipments wastage will also below. In addition, the rate of accidents and damage to machinery and equipment will be kept to the minimum by the well trained employees. These will lead to lesser cost of production per unit.

4. Reduced Supervision. If the employees are given proper training the need of supervision is lessened. Training does not eliminate the need for supervision but it reduces the need for detailed and constant supervision. A well trained employee is self-reliant in his work because he knows what to do and how to do it. Under such situations close supervision is not required, the management can well afford to focus its attention on other basic functions.

5. Increased Morale. The morale of the employees is increased if they are given proper training. As a common objective of the organisation training programme will mould its employees’ attitudes to achieve support for organisation activities and to obtain better cooperation and greater loyalty. With the help of train ing dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism and turnover can also be reduced among the employees. Thus training helps in building an efficient and cooperative work force.

6. Organisational Stability and Flexibility. Training increases the stability and flexibility of the organisation. Creation of a reservoir of trained replacements will increase the stability of the organisation in the sense that organisation will be able to sustain its effectiveness despite the loss of key personnel. Training can also be used to help the employees to gain multiple skills to enable their transfers to jobs where the demand is highest. It will bring about flexibility in the sense that organisation will be in a position to adjust to short run variations in the volume of work. Moreover, a manager can delegate his authority and responsibility to a well trained subordinate who will not be reluctant to accept new assignment.

(B) Advantages to the Employees –

  • Increase in Wage Earning Capacity – Training helps the employees in acquiring new knowledge and job skills. In this way, training increases their market value and wage earning power. This increases their pay and status and their career.
  • Job-security – Continued training can help an. employee to develop his ability to learn – adapting himself to new work methods, learning to use new kinds of equipment and adjusting to major changes in job contents and work relationship. The possession of useful skill enhances their value to their employer and thereby increases their job security. :
  • Chances for Promotion – Training also qualifies the employees for promotion to more responsible jobs.
  • Increased Mobility. A trained employee can shift from one job to another or even from one organisation to an other in order to get advancement in his career. ,

Limitations Of Training :

There are some limitations of training. They are as follows:

  1. Training is a costly affair and expensive process.
  2. Training may result dislocation of work and loss of output because regular office work is likely to be interrupted or delayed because of the time spent in training.
  3. Sometimes, it is difficult to obtain good training instructors and leaders to impart training to workers.
  4. Self reliance and capacity for new ideas might be stiffed.

Question 4.
Explain different types of training programmes. .
Types Of Training :
Depending upon the needs training programmes may be of different types as follows –

1. Orientation or Induction Training. Orientation and induction training is meant for newly appointed employees to make them familiar with work environment of the organisation. When an employee is inducted to the job, it is necessaty to make him familiar with his job, his superiors, subordinates and his fellow employees and with rules and regulations of the company. It is a pre job training and is brief and informative. This types of training is nothing but introduction of the organisation and its environment to the newly inducted worker.

2. On the Job Training. It refers to the training which is provided while working on the job with a view to increase knowledge and skills of an employee for improving performance on the job. The employee is taught how to handle equipment and machinery or how to carry out the job more efficiently or effectively. Such training help in reducing wastage accidents and inefficiency in the performance of the job. Job training is also meant for new employees to acquaint them with the job they are expected to performs.

3. Safety Training. This type of training is required on the jobs which are accident prone, this training involves instructions how to use safety device so as to minimise accidents on the machine and also damage to the machines

4. Remedial Training. This type of training is arranged to overcome the shortcomings in the behaviour and performance of old employees. Some of the experienced employees might not have picked up appropriate methods and style of working. Such employees are identified and correct methods, and procedures are taught to them. Such training is generally imparted by psychological experts.

5. Internship Training. Under this type of training, educational and vocational institutes enters into an arrangement with an industrial employers to provide the students of that institute the practical training in that field. It is meant for such vocations where advance theoretical knowledge is to be backed up by practical experiences on the job. For instance, medical or engineering students are sent to some hospitals/industries for practical training after they have gained theoretical knowledge. The period of such training varies from six months to two years. The trainees are not the employees of that business enterprises. However, it is usual that enterprises absorb them.

6. Promotional Training. This type of training is meant for existing employees who are to be promoted to make them enable to perform responsibilities of higher positions. Employees with potential are selected and given training before they are promoted so that they do not find any difficulty in handling the new job to which they are being promoted. ‘

7. Refresher Training. When existing techniques become obsolete due to new developed techniques employees who are already doing work ‘ with old methods are trained in the use of new methods and techniques. With the passage of time, employees forget some of the methods of doing work. Refresher training is designed to revive and refresh the knowledge and to update the skills of the existing employees. Short term refresher courses have gained propularity due to rapid changes in technology and methods. It avoids obsolescence of knowledge. ,

8. Graft training or Apprenticeship Training. Apprenticeship training involves preparation not for a single job/craft but for the many types of related jobs which can be assigned to competent craftsman. The extent and intensity of training differs from craft to craft.

The Governments of various countries have passed the laws which make it obligatory on the part of certain type of employers to impart apprenticeship training to young people who are interest in that craft/job. The usual apprenticeship training programme combine on the job training and classroom instructions in particular subjects.

The trainee receives wages while working. Under this type of training the trainee is put under the supervision of an experienced person who teaches him necessary skill and observe his performance. It becomes a source of labour for the employers. Apprenticeship training is advantages to the trainee as he acquires valuable skill in a particular trade which command a high wage – in the labour market. This type of training is desirable in industries which require a constant flow of new employees become all around craftsman.

Question 5.
Evaluate the various methods of training to the industrial workers.
Describe in brief the different methods of training.
Methods Of Training :
A great variety of employee training and development are used by different organisations to develop their manpower. The selection of technique of training depends on the philosophy of management. There are three principal methods of employeestraining which are used by the firms –

(a) On the job methods training
(b) Off the job method training
(c) Vestibule training

(A) on thejob training methods :

On-the-job training methods are by far the most commonly used in training for all levels of personnel. The object of on-the-job training is to bring the employees to at least a minimum acceptable standard of performance in the shortest possible time. Under the same working conditions and with the same process, materials and equipment that they will be using ultimately.
The worker by these methods learns to master the operations involved on the actual job situation under the supervision of his immediate boss who has to carry the primary burden of conducting this training. Various methods of on- the-job training are as follows:

(a) Experience – This is the oldest method of on-the-job training. But as a sole approach, it is wasteful, time consuming and inefficient. It has been observed that it should be followed by other training methods to make it more effective. In a survey, it was found that they kept upto date through a variety
of activities which were largely unrelated to formal continuing education = courses. On-the-job, problem-solving and colleague interactions were prompted as being most important for professional growth.

(b) Coaching – On-the-job coaching by a superior is an important and potentially effective approach if superior is properly trained and oriented.
The technique involves direct personnel instruction and guidance, usually, with extensive demonstration and continuous critical evaluation and correction.
The advantage is increased motivation for the trainee and the minimisation of the problem of learning transfer from theory to practice. The danger in this method lies in the possible neglect of coaching by superior.

(c) Understudy – The understudy method is considered a somewhat different approach from those described above, that a certain person is specifically designated as the heir-apparent. The understudy method makes the trainee an assistant to the current job holder. The trainee learns by experience, observation and imitation. The advantage of this method is that training is conducted in a practical and realistic situation.

It prepares the subordinate to assume the responsibilities of the superiors job in case the superior leaves the organisation or to fill the vacancy caused by death, retirement, promotion or transfer of the superior. However disadvantages are many. The method tends to perpetuate mistakes and deficiencies of existing managerial practices. Moreover, the understudies are frequently neglected by those who assist.

(d) Position Rotation – The major objective of job rotation training is the broadening of the background of trainee in the organisation, ff trainee is rotated periodically from one job to another job, he acquires a general background. The main advantages are: it provides a general background to the trainee, training takes place in actual situation; competition can be stimulated among the rotating trainees, and it stimulates a more co-operative attitude by exposing a man to other fetlow’s problems and view points.

There are certain disadvantages of this method. The productive work can suffer because of the obvious disruption caused by such changes. Rotations becomes less useful as specialisation proceeds, few people have the breadth oftechnical knowledge and skills to move from one functional area.

Advantages. The main advantages ofonthejob training are as follows –

  1. It is considered to be the most effective method of imparting training to operative personnel.
  2. It strongly motivate the trainee to learn.
  3. It permits the trainee to leam on the equipment and in the work environment.
  4. This method is the cheapest and less time consuming.

Disadvantages. On the job training suffers from the following drawbacks –

  1. It takes long time for the employee to learn the required skill.
  2. Expert guidance may not be available to the employee. The supervisor or the worker under whom he is an understudy generally pass on their weakness to the trainee.
  3. There is disturbance in work schedule. The supervisor is more interested in production rather than in teaching the skills.

3. Special projects – This is a very flexible training device. Such special project assignments grow ordinarily out of an individal analysis of weaknesses. The trainee may be asked to perform special assignment, thereby he learns the work procedure. Sometime a task force is created consisting of a number of trainees representing different functions in the organisation. Trainees not only acquire knowledge about the assigned activities, but also learn how to work with others.

(B) Off-The-Job Training Methods:

In these methods, trainees have to leave their work-place and devote their entire time to the development objective. In these methods development of trainees is primary and work produced during training is secondary. Following training techniques are used off-the-job:

1. Special Cou rsfe and Lectures. Lecturing is the most traditional form of formal training method. Special courses and lectures can be established by business organisations in numerous ways as a part of their development programmes. First, there are courses which the organisations themselves establish to be taught by members of the organisation. Some organisations have regular instructors assigned to their training and development departments such as Tata and Hindustan Lever in private sector, Life Insurance Corporation, State Bank of India and other nationalised commercial banks, Reserve Bank, Hindustan Steel, Fertilizer Corporation and many others in public, sector.

A second approach to special courses and lectures is for organisations to work with universities or institutes in establishing a course or series of courses to be taught by instructors of these institutions. A third approach is for the organisations to send personnel to programmes established by the universities, institutes and other bodies. Such courses are organised for a short period ranging from 2-3 days to a few weeks. Orientation programmes about organisation and safety training can be accomplished more effectively in the classroom.

Lecture method can be used for providing instructions to large groups and the cost per trainee is low. Lecture method can easily be combined with other techniques such as group discussion. Formal reaching assignments may be given. Demonstration may be presented and video films may be shown along with lecturer.

2. Conferences. This is also an old method, but still a favourite training method. In order to escape the limitations of straight lecturing many organisations have adopted guided-discussion type of conferences in their training programmes. In this method, the participants pool their ideas and experience in attempting to arrive at improved methods of dealing with the problems which are common subject of discussion.

Conferences may include buzz sessions that divide conferences into small groups of four or five for intensive discussion. These small groups then report back to the whole conference with their conclusions or questions. Conference method allows the trainees to look at the problem from a broader angle. These conferences, however, have certain limitations. Unless the discussion is directed to the felt needs of the participants that may well feel that the whole session is useless.

3. Case Study. This technique, which has been developed and popularised by the Harvard Business School, USA is one of the most common form of training. A case is a written account of a trained reporter or analyst seeking to describle an actual situation. Some cases are merely illustrative, others are detailed and comprehensive demanding extensive and intensive analytical ability.

Cases are widely used in a variety of programmes. This method increases the trainee’s power of/observation, helping him to ask better questions and to look for a broader range of problems. A well chosen case may promote objective discussion, but the lack of emotional involvement may make it difficult to effect any basic change in the behaviour and attitude of trainees.

4. Brainstorming. This is the method of stimulating trainees to creative thinking. This approach developed by Alex Osborn seeks to reduce inhibiting forces by providing for a maximum of group participation and a minimum of criticism. A problem is posed and ideas are invited. Quantity rather than quality is the primary objective. Ideas are encouraged and criticism of any idea is discouraged.

Chain reactions from idea to idea often develop. Later, these ideas are critically examined. There is no trainer in brainstorming and it has been found that the introduction of known experts into it will reduce the originality and practicability of the group contributions. Brainstorming frankly favours divergence, and this fact may be sufficient to explain why brainstorming is so little used as yet in developing countries where new solutions ought to carry the highest premium, ft is virtually untried even though its immediate use is limited to new ideas only, not change in behaviour.

5. Laboratory Training. Laboratory training adds to conventional training by providing situations in which the trainees themselves experience through their own interaction some of the conditions they are talking about. In this way, they more or less experiment on themselves. Laboratory training is more concerned about changing individual behaviour and attitude. It is generally more successful in changing job performance than conventional training methods. There are two methods of laboratory training – simulation and sensitivity training.

(a) Simulation. An increasingly popular technique of management development is simulation of performance. In this method, instead of taking participants into the field can be simulated in the training session itself. Simulation is the presentation of real situation of orgnisations in the training session. It covers situations of varying complexities and roles for the participants, ft creates a whole field organisation, relates participants through key roles in it, and has them deal with specific situations of a kind they encounter in real life. There are two common simulation methods of training’: role-playing is one and business game is the other.

(i) Role-Playing. Role-playing is laboratory method which can be used rather easily as a supplement to conventional training methods. Its purpose is to increase the trainee’s skill in dealing with other people. One of its greatest uses is in connection with human relations training but it is also used in sales training as well. It is spontaneous acting of a realistic situation involving two or more persons under classroom situations. Dialogue spontaneously grows out of the situation, as it is developed by the trainees assigned to it.

Other trainees in the group serve as obsevers or critics. Since people take roles every day, they are somewhat experienced in the art, and with a certain amount of imagination they can project themselves into roles other than their own. Since a manager is regularly acting roles in his relationship with others, it is essential for him to have role awareness and to do role thinking so that he can size up each relationship and develop the most effective interaction possible. Role-playing has many advantages.

By this method, a trainee can broaden his experience by trying different approaches, while in actual situation, he often has only One chance. In evaluation of role¬playing in six firms, it was found that such sessions resulted in an increase in sensitivity and improved quality of actions of a work sample involving a human relations difficulty. Role-playing also has weaknesses which partly offset its values. It is time consuming and expensive. It requires experienced trainers because it can easily turn sour without effective direction.

(ii) Gaming. Gaming has been devised to simulate the problems of running a company or even a particular department. It has been used for a variety of training objectives, from investment strategy, collective bargaining techniques, to the morale of clerical personnel. It has been used at all levels, from the top executives to the production supervisors.

Gaming is a laboratory method in which role-playing exists but its difference is that it focusses attention on administrative problems, while role-playing tends to emphasise mostly feeling and tone between people in interaction. Gaming involves several teams, each of which is given a firm to operate for a number of periods. Usually the period is a short one, one year or so. In each period, each team makes decisions on various matters such as fixation of price, level of production, inventory level, and so forth.

Since each team is competing with others, each firm’s decisions will affect the results of all others. All the firm’s decisions are fed into a computer which is programmed to behave somewhat like a real market. The computer provides the results and the winner is the team which has accumulated largest profit. In the light of such results, strengths and weaknesses of decisions are analysed.

(b) Sensitivity Training. Sensitivity training is the most controversial laboratory training method. Many of its advocates have an almost religious zeal in their enhancement with the training group experience. Some of its critics match this fervour in their attacks on the technique. As a result of Criticism and experience, a somewhat revised approach, often described as ‘team development’ training, has appeared. It was first used by National Training Laboratories at Bethel, USA. The training groups themselves called ‘T-Group’. Since then its use has been extended to other organisations, universities, and institutes.

Sensitivity training is a small-group interaction under stress in an unstructured encounter group which requires people to become sensitive to one another’s feelings in order to develop reasonable group activity. T-group has several characteristic features:

  • the T-group is generally small, from ten to twenty members;
  • the group begins its activity with no formal agenda;
  • the role of trainer is primarily to call attention from time to time to the on going process’ within the group;

the procedure tends to develop C introspection and self-examination, with emotional levels of involvement and behaviour and the possibility of colleagues and some breakdown of established insulation and self-defence on the part of individuals. The objectives of such training are increased openness with others, more concern for others, – increased tolerance for individual differences, less ethnic prejudice, understanding of a group process, enhanced listening skills, and increased trust and support.

(B) Vestibule Training :

In this method a training centre called Vestibule school is set up. In such schools, working conditions are provided that are similar to those available at the actual shop. Vestibiile schools are adapted to the same general type of training programme that is faced at the actual place of work.

Expert trainer is employed to provide training with the help of equipment and machines which are identical with these used in the shop/place of work. This type of training is suitable for clerical/office jobs. Such training is usually shorter and less comply. Vestibule training is relatively expensive but these costs are justified if volume of training is large or uniform higher standard results are important.

Question 6.
Point out essential features of a good training programme.
Discuss the principles of training.
Principles Of Training
A sound training programme must be based on the following characteristics –

  1. The training programme Should be designed so as to achieve pre-determined objectives and needs of the organisation.
  2. Training programme should be less expensive.
  3. Training programme should be developed for all in the organisation and not for a particular group.
  4. Training programme should be pre-planned and well organised, taking in view the objectives of training programme.
  5. Training programme should be designed according to size, nature and Financial position of the concern.
  6. The programme should be flexible enough so that it may be adjusted to the changing circumstances.
  7. The programme should be conducted by a senior and experienced ” supervisor or executive of the concern or by the training director who is incharge of the training section under personnel department.
  8. Theoretical and practical aspects of training should be given due consideration while preparing a training programme.
  9. Training programme should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees.
  10. It is not essential to follow a single method of training for all the employees. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups taking individual differences into consideration.
  11. Training should be followed by a reward. A reward should be provided at the conclusion of the training such as promotion or a better job so that employees may be motivated.
  12. Sufficient time should be provided to practice what has been learned by the employees.

Question 7.
How will you organise a training programme in a large industry?
Organising Training Programme In An Industry:
It is not possible to suggest a training programme equally good for each and every organisation. Training programmes differ on the basis of many individual characteristics of the organisations and the employees usually in the organisation of training programmes. The following steps are taken to organise the training programme :

  1. Discovering or identifying the training needs
  2. Getting ready for the job ‘ ‘
  3. Preparation of the learner
  4. Presentation of operations and knowledge
  5. Performance try-out
  6. Follow up and evaluation of the programme.

1. Identifying the Training Needs. Training programme should be set up only after having decided the clear-cut objective in mind. A training programme should be established only when it is felt that it would assist in the solution of specific operational problems. The most important step is to make a thorough analysis of the entire organisation, its operations and manpower resources available in order to find out “the trouble spots”.where training may be needed.

Training is not the ultimate cure for all troubles. For example, if the employees’ output is low this may be corrected by better skill training. But this problem may be because of faulty material, process equipment or engineering design. If it appears that general calibre of the employe is low, this problem may be solved by training. But in other cases, the training will not be of much use. Following are the steps for discovering training needs.

  • Analysing Jobs and Men. If the men are less capable to perform the particular jobs they can be given training to increase their skills. Jobs and worth of the men should be analysed through job analysis and performance appraisal.
  • Identifying Production Problems. Production problems like low productivity, poor quality, high cost, high rate of absenteeism, labour turnover etc. should be identified to indicate the need for training.
  • Collecting Opinions. Opinions should be obtained from the management and the working people through interviews or through questionnaire regarding necessary and desirable training programmes.
  • Anticipating Requirements. The line managers can forecast beforehand the manpower requirement on the basis of long-term plans regarding business expansion, new plants, new designs and new technology. Training may be given.to the existing ernployees to enable them to meet the requirements of the new jobs in the future.

2. Getting Ready for the Job – Following steps are taken in this regard:

(a) Identifying the Trainee. Under this step it is to be decided who is to be trained. Who is to be trained – The new comer or the older employee or the supervisory staff or all of them selected from different departments. The proper selection of trainees is very important to obtain permanent and gainful results of training. A trainee should be trained for the kind of job he likes and is suitable to perform.

Careful screening of candidates for training raises the effectiveness of the training work. Trainee should be given the proper background information before he starts learning new job skills and knowledge. Trainer should explain the trainee the importance of the job, its relationship with the work flow and the importance of training.

(b) Selection of Training Method. Now it is advisable to lay down which method is to be adopted for the training. Different methods of training may be suggested for the different levels of personnel. Unskilled workers may be trained on the job. On-the-job and apprenticeship training may be awarded, to skilled and semi-skilled workers. For supervisory and executive personnel on-the-job and off-the-job methods such as role-playing, lectures and seminars etc. may be recommended. Thus, a decision regarding the method of imparting training should be taken cautiously bearing the objectives of training in mind.

(c) Preparation of Trainer or Instructor. The success of the training programme much depends upon the instructor. Instructor must be well- qualified and may be obtained from within or outside the organisation. It should be decided beforehand what is to be taught and how. He should be able to divide the job into logical parts so that he may teach one part at a time without losing his perspective of the whole.

As because training must be based upon the needs of the organisation therefore, the trainer must have a clear-cut picture of the objectives of training in mind. It should’not be in a vacuum. Trainer needs professional expertise in order to fulfil his responsibility. If he is ill-informed about the training process or knows little about possible connection between training and management, he deserves the casual treatment. The trainer should explain, and where necessary, demonstrate the operations step by step and should allow the trainees to repeat these operations. He should also encourage the question from the trainees.

(d) Training Material. There should always be the training material with the instructor. Training materials may include some text or written materials as a basis for instruction, review and reference. This may be prepared in the training section with the help of supervisors. The written materials should be distributed among the trainees so that they may come prepared in the lecture class and may be able to understand the operation quickly and remove their doubts, if any.

(e) Training Period. The length of training period depends upon the skill of the trainees, purpose of the training, trainee’s learning capacity and the training media used. Generally no single session should last longer than two hours. The time of training whether before or after or during working hours should be decided by the personnel manager taking in view the loss of production and benefits to be achieved by training.

3. Preparation of the Learner – This step consists:

  1. the putting the learner at ease so that he does not feel nervous because of the fact that he is on a new job,
  2. in stating the importance and ingredients of the job and its relationship to work flow
  3. in explaining why he is being taught,
  4. in creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner already knows about his job or other jobs,
  5. in explaining why of the whole job and relating it to some job the worker already knows,
  6. in planning the learner as close to his normal working position as possible, and
  7. in familiarising him with the equipment, materials tools and trade terms.

4. Presentation of Operations and Knowledge. This is the most important step in a training programme. The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the new knowledge and operations. The learner should be told of the sequence of the entire job and why each step in its peformance is necessary instructions should be given clearly, completely and patiently. Trainer should demonstrate or make use of audio-visual aids and should ask the trainee to repeat the operations.

5. Performance Try-out. Under this, the trainee is asked to go through the job several times slowly, explaining him each step. Mistakes are corrected and if necessary some complicated steps are taken for the trainee for the first time. Then the trainee is asked to do the job, gradually building up skill and speed. The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated.

6. Follow up. On the completion of training programme trainees should be placed to the job. The supervisor should have a constant vigil on the person still facing any difficulty on the job, he must be given full guidance by the immediate supervisor and should be initiated to ask questions to remove the doubts.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 16 Employee Health

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 16 Employee Health

Question 1.
Explain the term “industrial health”. What is the importance of industrial health ?
Meaning And Importance Of Industrial Health:
The term “health” is a positive and dynamic concept and implies more than an absence of illness. W.H.O. has defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence , of disease or infirmity.” Industrial health refers to a system of public health and preventive medicine which is applicable to industrial concerns.

Industrial health, accordance to the joint ILO/W.H.O. committee on Organisational Health, is

  • the prevention and maintenance of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations;
  • prevention among workers of ill-health caused by the working conditions;
  • protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to
    health; and
  • placing and maintenance of the worker in the occupational . environment adapted to his physical and psychological equipment. Industrial health depends not only on the individual but also on the environment in which he lives and works.

The basic objective of industrial health is the prevention of disease and injury rather than the cure of disease. It involves a programme of health conservation and prevention of occupational disease.

Importance Of Industrial Health:
Since a large number of workers spend a great deal of their time in an industrial setting, their environment is not usually conducive to a healthy life. Moreover, malnutrition, insanitary and psychological conditions, and the strains and stresses under which they live impair their health.

On the one hand, efficiency in work is possible only when an employee is healthy; on the other, the industry exposes him to certain hazards which he would not meet elsewhere and which may affect his health. It is with the intention of reducing these hazards and improving the worker’s health that the discipline of industrial health came into being as a branch of public health in its own right. Bad health results in a high rate of. absenteeism and turnover, industrial discontent and indiscipline, poor performance and low productivity.

That is why when industrial health programmes are introduced, both employers and workers benefit. A reduction in the rate of labour turnover, absenteeism, accidents and occupational diseases has been the natural consequence of industrial health programmes. The other benefits include reduced spoilage, improved morale, increased productivity per employee and a longer working period of an individual.

Question 2.
Describe the state of industrial health in India. What are the causes of bad health ? What suggestions will you offer to improve the health of workers ?
Industrial Health In India:
The problem of health of industrial workers may be viewed from two angles: First, the health hazards which are common to all citizens and secondly, the occupational health risks, to which industrial worker, being a citizen, shares the common health risks with all other members of the community and his needs are met by the general health services. But as far as occupational risks are concerned, these should be met by a properly constituted health services which can deal with the science and art of persuading and improving the comfort of workers through the recognition, evaluation and control of the environmental factors which adversely affect the health of industrial workers.

The Problem of health is gaining importance because the loss of working days in industries due to illness is many times more than that caused by accidents. The Royal Commission on Labour in India recognised the fact that ill health and sickness are the most widespread causes of absenteeism, lower morale and bad time-keeping leading to decreased production, spoiled work and bad labour management relations.

Present State of Health in India:
In India, the health conditions are not satisfactory. The poor state of health can be seen from the low expectation of life, which was estimated to be 54.1 years for males and 54.7 years for females during 1971-81 but it is much lower than that of other countries.

Data regarding general health conditions in India may be found in a number of publications, but data regarding the health of the industrial workers in this country are however scanty. The machinery for providing health information about the industrial workers is also not complete. Statistics relating to absenteeism due to sickness show that the percentage is fairly high.

According to the data collected by Prof. B.P. Adarkar the maximum rate of sickness cause to 1 -6 days per annum per worker.

Causes of Bad Health:
The main causes of bad health may be enumerated below:
1. Prevalence of insanitary conditions in industries is the main . cause of bad industrial health. Basic facilities such as facilities of drinking water, latrines and urinals etc. are not provided by most of the employers in India. It adversely affects the health of the workers.

2. Defective nutrition – The industrial worker does not get the required calories of food to maintain his health because he is low-paid and cannot arrange for better nutritive values from the available means.

3. Existing medical and preventive health organisations are inadequate. The employers are indifferent to the problem.

4. Workers in India are uneducated and poor and therefore they do not care much for their health.
5. Other causes – There are several other causes of bad health. They

  1. Long hours of work and low wages;
  2. Migratory character of workers. They daily come from and go their villages.
  3. Bad climate conditions under which work is performed. They are not provided workable conditions in factories.

Measures To Improve Health Conditions:
The Government of India since Independence has taken following steps to protect the health of the workers:

1. Legislative Measures – The Government of India has enacted several labour legislations protecting the health of the workers. For example, ; Factories Act 1948, Mines Act 1952, Coal Mines Act 1952, Employees State Insurance Act. Under these Acts several provisions are made to protect the health of workers. The measures in these Acts are both curative and preventive.

2. Special Advisory Committee – A Special Advisory Committee on industrial health has been set up to conduct research on health problems and to investigate the following:

  1. effect of noise on workers;
  2. sickness and absenteeism due to accidents;
  3. incidence of bad intoxication;
  4. assessment of toxicity of industrial dusts.

3. Education and Training in Industrial Health – An Industrial Health and Safety Bulletin is being published regularly to educate the workers. A special course in Industrial Hygiene has been introduced at All India Institute of Hygiene and public Health to train medical personnel connected with the industries. Medical Inspectors are being appointed in various states. The U,P. Government has established an Industrial Health Organisation.

A number of training organisation have been set up by the controllers of the state Governments in the country and the services of several foreign organisation are made available to undertake surveys in industrial health, safety and welfare programmes.

The various -efforts made by the Government of India and the Governments of various states to. improve the hygiene conditions of industrial workers are really to be appreciated but this all is not sufficient. Prevention of disease and health depend to a large extent upon the environment in which people are born, grow, go to school, eat, drink, travel, Work and relax. Therefore, the health of industrial workers cannot be improved unless their standard of living is improved and better working conditions are provided. A few suggestions in this regard may be forwarded as below:

1. Malnutritions and the insanitary conditions of living are the main causes of bad health and therefore efforts should be made towards improving the diet and-housing conditions first, rather than concentrating mainly on the improvement of the medical facilities.

2. As suggested by National Commission on Labour, there should be a regular medical check-up of all new employees and regular periodical check-up of all employees from time to time.
This will help to:

  1. Eliminate those whose health is not fit for job and those who suffer from communicable diseases
  2. Detect and provide for remediable disease; and
  3. Maintain the health of those who are healthy.

3. It should be the duty of every employer to study the effects of environmental factors on the health of the workers and devise the preventive measures.

Question 3.
Discuss the provisions relating to employee health as prescribed under the Factories Act.
Industrial Health Under-Factories Act:
Factories Act 1948 lays down certain provisions concerning employee health of workers working in a factory. These provisions impose upon the occupiers or managers certain obligations to protect the health of the workers.

These provisions require occupiers or managers to maintain the inspecting staff so that provisions of the Act may be really made effective. The provisions of the Act as regards maintenance of health are explained below:

1. Cleanliness [Sec. 11]. Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in particular –

(a) accumulation of direct and refuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or by any other effective method from the floors and benches of workrooms, and from staircase and passages and disposed of in a suitable manner.

(b) The floor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in a week washing, using disinfectant where necessary or by some other effective method.

(c) Where a floor is liable’ to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process to such an extent as is capable of being drained, effective means, of drainage shall be provided and maintained.

(d) All inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and all walls, side and tops of passages and stair cases shall.

  • Where they are painted otherwise than with washable water paint or varnish, be repainted or reVamished at least once in every period of five years.
  • Where they are painted with washable water-paint, be repainted with at least one coat of such paint at least once in every period of three years and washed at least once in every period of six months.
  • Where they are painted or varnished or where they have smooth impervious surfaces be cleaned at least once every period of fourteen months by such methods as may be prescribed.
  • In any other case, be kept whitewashed, or colour washed and the white washing or colour washing shall be carried out at least once in every period of fourteen months.

(e) All doors and window frames and other wooden or metallic framework and shutters shall be kept painted or varnished and painting or varnishing shall be carried out at least once in every’ period of five years.

(f) The dates on which the process required by clause (d) are carried out shall be entered in the prescribed register.
If in view of the nature of the operations carried on in a factory class or description of factories or any part of the factory or class or description of factories, it is not possible for the occupier to comply with all or any of the above provisions. The State Governments may be order exempt such factory qr class or description of factories or part from any of the above mentioned provisions and specify alternative method, for keeping the factory in a clean state.

2. Disposal of Wastes and Effluents [Sec. 12]. Effective arrangements shall be made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and’ effluents due to the manufacturing process carried on therein so as to render them innocuous, and for their disposal.

The state Government has the power to make rules in this regard or it may required that such arrangements shall be approved by a prescribed authority.

3. Ventilation and Temperature [Sec. 13].
Effective and suitable provision shall be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom.
(a) adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air and
(b) such a temperature as well secure to workers therein reasonable condition of comfort and prevent injury to health
(c) The walls and roofs of workroom must be of such materials and of such design as to keep the temperature low.
(d) Where the maintenance of high temperature is necessary for the process carried on in the factory, the workroom should be separated from the process either by insulating the hot part by some effective devices. The state Government may prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation and reasonable temperature and may also provide for the adoption of methods which will keep the temperature low. It may also make rules providing for the keeping of thermometers in specified places. Sec. 14 of the Act provides for precautions against the dangerous fumes.

Where the chief inspector is of the opinion that excessively high temperature of the factory can be reduced by adopting suitable measures, he may serve on the occupier a notice to the occupier specify the measures that should be adopted and such orders should be carried out before a specified date.

4. Dust and Fume [Sec, 14].
(i) In every factory in which, by reason of the manufacturing process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a nature and to such as extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers, employed therein, or any dust in substantial quantities, effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom, and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it shall be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or other impurity and such point shall be enclosed so far as possible.

(ii) In any factory no stationery internal combustion engine shall be operated unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air and no other internal combustion engine shall be operated in any room unless effective measures have been taken to prevent such accumulation of fumes therefrom as the likely to be injurious to workers employed in the room.

5. Artificial Humidification [Sec. 15].
(i) In respect of all factories in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the State Government may make rules

  1. prescribing standard of humidification,
  2. regulating the method used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air,
  3. directing prescribed tests for determining the humility of the air to be correctly carried out and recorded,
  4. prescribed methods to be adopted for securing adequate ventilation and cooling of the air and the workrooms.

(ii) In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the water used for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply or other source of drinking water, or shall be effectively purified before it is so used.

(iii) If it appears to an inspector that the water used in a factory for increasing humidity which is required to be effectively purified is not purified effectively, he may serve on the manager of the factory an order in writing, specifying the measure which should be adopted and requiring them to be carried out before specified date.

6. Overcrowding [Sec. 16].
(i) No room in any factory shall be overcrowded to an extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein.

(ii) Without prejudice to the generality of the above subsection, there shall be in every workroom of a factory in existence on the date of commencement of this Act at least 9.9 cubic metres and of a factory build after commencement of the Act at least 14.2 cubic metres of space for every worker employed therein. For this purpose, no account shall be taken of any space which is more than 4.2 metres above the level of the floor of the room.

(iii) If Chief Inspector so requires, there shall be pasted in each workroom a notice specifying the maximum number of person who may be employed in the room.
The Chief Inspector, if he thinks fit, may in writing exempt any workroom from compliance of the provisions of this section.

7. Lighting [Sec. 16].

  • In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting nathral or artificial or both.
  • In every factory all glazed windows and sky lights used for the lighting of the workroom shall be kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces.
  • In every factory, effective provision shall be made for the prevention of glare either directly or from a surface of light or by reflection from a smooth or polished surface and the formation of shadows to such an extent to cause eye strain or the risk of accident to workers.

The State Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and suitableiighting for factories or for any class or description of factories or for any manufacturing process.

8. Drinking Water [Sec. 18].
1. In every factory effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employed therein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.

2. All such points shall be legibly marked “drinking water” in a language understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory and no such place should be situated within 6 metres of any washing place, urinal or latrine Spittoons, open drain carrying sullages or effluent or any other source of contamination unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief Inspector.

3. In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, provisions shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather by effective means and for distribution thereof.

In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories, the State Government may make rules for securing compliance with the above provisions and for examination by the prescribed authorities of the supply and distribution of drinking water.

9. Latrine and Urinals [Sec. 19]. This section requires Sufficient latrine and urinal accommodation and there must be separate closed accommodation for male and female workers. This accommodation must be adequately lighted, ventilated and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.
These should be situated at suitable places accessible to the workers. Sufficient number of sweepers should be employed to keep urinals, latrines and washing places clean. Where more than 250 workers are ordinarily employed, all latrines and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types.

The State Government may prescribed the number of latrines and urinals to be provided in any factory in proportion to the number of male and female workers. The floors and internal walls up to height of 90 cms. of the latrines and-urinals and sanitary blocks shall be laid in glazed tiles or otherwise furnished to provide a smooth and polished impervious surface. – Without prejudice to the above mentioned provisions, the floor, portiop of the walls and blocks so laid or finished and the sanitary pass of latrines and urinals shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at least once in every seven days with suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.

10. Spittoons [Sec. 20].

  • There shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons at convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic conditions.
  • The State Government may make rules prescribing the type and number of spittoons to be provided and their location in any factory and provide for such further matters relating to their maintenance.
  • No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoons provided for the purpose and a notice containing this provision and the penalty for its violation shall be prominently displayed at suitable places in the premises.
  • Contravention of sub-section (3) shall be punishable with fine not exceeding five rupees.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 8 Placement, Induction (Or Orientation) and Socialisation

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 8 Placement, Induction (Or Orientation) and Socialisation

Question 1.
What do you mean by placement ? What are its principles ?
Placement – Meaning And Principles:
Once an offer of employment has been extended and accepted by the employee concerned there comes the last step in the procurement function i.e., placement of the individual on the job and orienting him to the organisation. ‘Once the employee is selected he should be placed on a suitable job. While doing so, the factor to be considered is not only the suitability of the individual to the job but also the suitability of the job to the individual.

First placement is always a problem because organisation has little knowledge about new employees. Therefore placement should be made after due consideration of the demands of the job and the social psychological needs of the individual. A company which has spent a lot of time and money in making a very careful selection may lose the purpose due to wrong placement.

According to Pigors and Myres, placement may be defined as “the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned, and his assignment to that job. It is matching of what the supervisor has reason to think he can do with the job demands (job requirements); it is matching of what he imposes (in strain, working conditions) and what he offers in the form of pay roll, companionship with other promotional possibilities etc.”

According to Billimoria, “Induction is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitated into the changed surroundings and introduced to the practices, policies and purposes of the organisation. ” In other words, induction is a welcoming process – the idea is to welcome a newcomer, make him feel at home and generate in him a feeling that his own job, however small, is a meaningful and has a significance as a part of the total organisation.

This provides an opportunity to clarify any misunderstanding or removing and misapprehension in him. But if an employee is found maladjusted even after that it may be a symptom of wrong selection or wrong placement. This should be corrected any way considered necessary.

Objectives And Importance Of Induction :

When a newcomer joins an organisation, he is an utter stranger to the people, work place and work environment. He may feel insecure, shy and nervous. Induction leads to reduction of these anxieties; dispels the irrational fears of present employees and hold colleagues responsible for assisting the newcomer so that he may feel confident. A systematic induction process achieves following objectives and benefits:

  1. It promotes a feeling of belongingness and loyalty to the organisation among newcomers so that they may not form false impression regarding the company because the first impression is the last impression.
  2. It brings an agreement between organisation goals and the personnel goals of the newcomers.
  3. It builds up the new employee’s confidence in the organisation and in himself so that he may become an efficient worker.
  4. It gives the new employee information regarding company viz. its structure, product, policies, rules and regulations, and facilities provided by the company such as cafetaria, locker room, time to break off, leave rules etc.
  5. It introduces new worker to the supervisor and fellow-workers with whom he has to work.
  6. It creates a sense of security for the worker in his job by impressing the idea that fairness to the worker is the inherent policy of the organisation.
  7. It lessens or avoids the cost of replacing the worker in the early impressionable period because of lack of information or incorrect business impression.

Billimoria has observed “induction has a greater significance in a developing country like India where the percentage of illiteracy is very high. The new worker finds himself completely at sea when by force of circumstances he has to shift form rural surroundings into an industrial unit. It is of no use trying to push a handbook of certified rules and regulations into his hands and expecting him to turn out into a loyal and efficient employee. He needs a short and simple induction conducted by someone who speaks his own language. This will go a long way in reducing turnover and, above all in preventing a worker from the likelihood of falling a prey to subversive elements which thrive and create labour unrest by misrepresenting employees to illiterate employees.”

Induction is a socialising process by which the organisation seeks to make an individual its agent for the achievement of objective and the individual seeks to make an agency principal relationship with the organisation for the achievement of personal goals. He is made aware of how his job fits into the overall operations of the organisation, his own duties and responsibilities and to whom he should look for when he has any problem or difficulty.

Elements Of Induction:

A good induction programme has following three elements:

1. Introductory in Information – A newcomer should be given informally or in group sessions the introductory information regarding the history of the company and company’s products, its organisational structure, personnel policies, rules and regulations of the company relating to leaves, attendance, pay etc.

2. On-the-job Information – A newcomer should also be given information by the department, supervisor where he is placed on the job. The information may be about departmental facilities and requirements such as nature of the job, the extent of his liability and employee’s activities such as recreational facilities, associations, safety measures, job routine etc.

3. Follow up Interview – A follow up interview should be arranged several weeks after the employee has been on the job, by the suervisor or a personnel manager to answer the problems faced by the employee on the job.

Question 3.
Describe the induction procedure. What are different induction practices ?
Induction Procedure And Practices:
Induction programme in an enterprise may be formal or informal depending upon the size of the organisation and the complexity of the individual’s new environment. There is no model induction procedure. Each industry develops its own procedures as per needs. The procedure basically follows the following steps :

  1. First of all, the new person needs time and a place to report to work.
  2. Secondly, the supervisor or immediate boss should meet and welcome the employee to the organisation.
  3. Thirdly, administrative work should be completed. Such items as vacations, probationary period, medical absences, suggestion systems should be covered.
  4. Fourthly, the departmental orientation can be conducted. This should include a get-acquainted talk, introduction to the department, explanation of the functions of the department and job instruction and to whom he should look for help when he has any problem.
  5. Lastly, verbal explanations should be supplemented by a variety of printed material, employee handbooks, flayers, employee manual, house journals, picture stories, comics, cartoons, pamphlets etc. along with short guided tour around the plant.

A formal orientation programme cover the following information

  1. History and growth of the organisation and its future potentialities.
  2. Products and services offered by the company to meet consumer needs.
  3. Companys organisation structure and relation of the department r with other department.
  4. Location of different departments such as canteen, store etc.
  5. Personnel policies regarding promotion, training, compensation, retirement etc.
  6. Rules and Regulations regarding attendance, leave, recreations unions etc.
  7. Safety measures taken by the company.
  8. Standing orders regarding discipline, grievance handling etc.
  9. Job requirement of the job offered.
  10. Special training. The induction programme should be carried out by persons who are fully conversant which the course contents.

Induction Practices :

Following are important induction practices which are generally used in any industry:

  • Induction Guide – Such guide book are prepared by the personnel department with information on what induction steps have been taken and what are still to be covered various steps to be taken and by whom and when the instructions are to be given are mentioned in the guide book.
  • Counselling – The supervisor may induct the new employees working under him by introducing and counselling them by reassuring and reinforcing the confidence and guarding against false impression.
  • Tour of Plant – A tour of the plant and department is arranged to acquaint the new employees with the overall operations of the company.
  • Follow-up Interview – By follow up interview personnel department can take action to readjust conditions, revealed, dispel fears and gain their confidence.

Question 4.
What is meant by socialisation of employees ? Briefly explain the stages in socialisation.
Write short note on‘stages in socialisation.
Socialisation Of Employees :
Meaning of Socialisation. In the context of an organisation, socialisation is an on going process through which an employee begins to understand and accept the roles, values, beliefs, norms held by others in the organisation. Thus, by socialisation means adopting by the new employees the culture of the organisation. Socialisation teaches the new employee about the organisation, culture and also coaches the newcomers to make adjustment necessary to cope with the organisational environment. An employee of the organisation learns about the beliefs and behaviour of the organisational from other members of the society/organisation. Thus, socialisation is the process of indoctrinating the new employees into the organisation.

Socialisation performs two functions –

  1. It creates uniform behaviour in members, increases understanding and reduces conflicts etc.
  2. It reduces the role ambiguity of employees as they come to know what is expected to them.

Stages in socialisation Process. There are three stages in socialisation process – Pre-arrival, encounter and transformation. These are briefly discussed below –

1. Pre-arrival stage. It denotes the period of learning in the socialisation process that occurs before the new employees joins the organisation. The new worker has some values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and expectations of his own which he would like to fulfil. The employment must take care of these factors at the time of selection. Only those type of people should be selected who might be able to fit into the organisation. The candidate must be made aware of the organisation’s culture.

2. Encounters stage. This stage starts wen the new employee joins the organisation. He comes to know what the organisation is really like and may feel divergence between his expectations and those of the organisation. If this is so, the new employee must undergo socialisation and will detach him from his previous notions and assumptions about the organisation and make him learn another set the organisation deemed desirable. The induction process is helpful in many of the cases. But, if the employee is not able to change his expectations and adapt to the requirements of the organisation, he might have to leave the organisation.

3. Transformation stage. Under this stage real transformation in the new employee takes place. He adjusts to his work group norms and values and becomes comfortable with the organisations. His acceptability among the members of the group creates confidence in him. He feels himself a con-tended employee and Ijkes the place of work and enjoys the company of his colleagues.

As a result, he will feel himself committed to the organisation and his job and the productivity will increase. His search for the jobs elsewhere out-side the company will also come to an end. On the reverse, if he fails to adapt himself with the organisation culture, it means lack of commitment and loyalty to the organisation. It will lead him to the exit from the organisation.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 7 Recruitment and Selection

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 7 Recruitment and Selection

Question 1.
What is meant by recuritment ? Discuss the various sources of recruitment.
Recruitment – Meaning And Source:
Once the manpower requirements have been determined, the next logical step in staffing process is the recruitment of personnel. Recruitment is the process of identifying the sources for prospective candidates and to attract them to apply for the job. According to Dale S. Beach, “Recruitment is the development and maintenance of adequate manpower resources. It involves the creation of a pool ofavailable labour upon whom the organisation can depend upon when it needs additional employees ”. According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Recruitment is the process ofsearchingfor prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organisation, ”

In short, recruitment is the process of discovering the potential applicants for actual or anticipated organisational vacancies. Recruitment is a “Linking activity” bringing together those with the jobs and those seeking jobs.

Recruitment is a positive process because it increases the selection ratio by attracting a large number of applicants for the jobs. Recruitment enables the management, to select suitable employees for different job. Recruitment has as its major objective developing and maintaining adequate manpower resources, with the required skill, upon which the organisation can depend when it needs personnel. The functions of recruitment is two fold:

  1. To discover sources of manpower and;
  2. To attract an adequate number of prospective employees.

Sources Of Recruitment:

The sources of recruitment may be grouped into two:
(A) Internal Sources, (B) External Sources

(A) Internal Sources – Internal sources include personnel already on the pay-roll of the organisation. Whenever any vacancy arises, somebody from within the organisation may be looked into. The following are the internal sources of recruitment. ,

1. Promotion – Promotion means shifting of an employee to a higher position carryinghigherresponsibilities, facilities, status and salaries. Various positions in an organisation are usually filled dp by promotion of existing employees on the basis of merit or seniority or a combination of these.

2. Transfer – Transfer refers to a change in job assignment. It may involve a promotion or demotion, or no change in terms of responsibility and status. A transfer may be either temporary or permanent, depending on the necessity of filling jobs. Promotion involves upward mobility while transfer refers to a horizontal mobility of employees. Transfers or job rotations are also used for training of employees in learning different job.

Advantages of Interna! Sources of Recruitment

(a) Familiarity – The organisation and its employees are familiar to each other. The organisation knows the ability and skills of the likely candidates since they are insiders – similarly, employees also know about the working conditions and job requirements of the vacancies.

(b) Better utilisation of internal talent – Reliance on internal recruitment enables the enterprise to make the best use of the capabilities of its employees. For example, some employees may be so talented that they deserve, promotion, or some may do better on transfer to other jobs.

(c) Economy – The cost of recruiting internal employees is minimal. The enterprise need not incur any expenditure on informing and inducing its employees to apply. .

(d) Motivational value – Internal recruitment is a source of encouragement and motivation for employees. The employees can look for promotion and transfer with hope and thereby do their jobs well so as to earn the desired promotion/transfer.

Limitations of Internal Recruitment:

(a) Restricted Choice – Internal recruitment restricts the options and freedom for the enterprise in choosing the most suitable candidates for the vacancies. It has a narrow base. The enterprise may have to compromise on quality of its choice of candidates.

(b) Inbreeding – If the enterprise depends too much on internal recruitment, it means that the enterprise denies itself fresh talent and ‘new blood’ available outside. Existing employees, even if promoted or transferred may continue to work and behave in the same habitual ways, without any dynamism.

(c) Absence of Competition – In the absence of competition from qualified candidates from outside, employees are likely to expect automatic promotion by seniority and sure prospect. Thus they may lose the drive for proving their worth. ‘

(d) Conflict – There may be chance of conflict and infighting among those employees who aspire for promotion to the available vacancies. Those who are not promoted are unhappy and their efficiency may decline.

Apart from the,above limitation, acutally an enterprise cannot fully rely on internal sources of recruitment. Suitable candidates may simply not to be available internally for some vacancies. In such cases, the enterprise has to look for external sources of recruitment. However these drawbacks may be minimised by job-analysis and skill inventory.

(B) External Sources. External sources of recruitment refer to prospective candidates outside the enterprise. They usually include new entrants to the labour force the unemployed and people employed in other organisations seeking a change.

Following are the most common external sources :

1. Advertising. Advertising in newspapers and periodicals is one of the most important methods of recruitment today. This is specially so in case of recruitment of management and technical personnel. The company needing manpower advertises details about the job requirements, salary, perquisites, duties and responsibilities etc. The advantage of advertising is that all details about the job can be given in advertisement to allow self-screening by the prospective candidates. Advertisement g ives the management a wider range of candidates from which to choose. Its disadvantage is that it brings large – numer of applications screening costs may be qui te heavy.

2. Employment Agencies. There are government as well as private employment agencies providing a nation-wide or area-wise service in matching personnel demand and supply. In India, there are employment exchanges and employment guidance bureau which provide a range of service. In some cases, compulsory notification of vacancies to the employment exchange is . required by law.

Employment seekers get themselves registered with these exchanges. The employment exchanges bring the job-givers in contact with job-seekers. Employment exchanges are well regarded particularly in the field of unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. However, in the technical and professional area, private consultancy firms provide recruitment facilities. In metropolitan cities, there are several such agencies prominent among them are Tata Consultancy Service, A.F. Ferguson and Company, ABC Consultants etc.

3. Gate Hiring. In a country like ours, where there is a large number of unemployed people, it is usual to find job-seekers thronging the factory gates. Whenever workers are required. The company places a notice on the notice board at the gate of the organisation specify the details of jobs available and recruit the required numbers of workers out of those who have assembled at the gate. This method can be used safely for unskilled workers. In some industries, a large number of workers work as badli or substituted workers. Whenever a permanent worker is absent, a substitute is employed in his place from among the people at the gate.

4. Educational Institution. Direct recruitment from colleges and universities is prevalent for the recruitment of higher staff in western countries but not in India. Many big organisations maintain a close liaison with educational institutions for recruitment to various jobs. Various recruiting groups develop systematic formal university recruiting programmes. They hold preliminary on-campus interviews and select some students for final interview mostly at their offices.

5. Management consultants or Head Hunter. There are management consultancy firms which help the organisation to recruit technical, professional and managerial personnel. The specialise in recruiting middle or top level executives. They maintain data bank of persons with different qualifications and skills and even advertise posts on behalf of their clients to recruit right type of personnel. A few example of head hunters are – A.F. Ferguson and Co., ABC consultants, Godman’s International etc.

6. Campus Recruitments or Educational Institutions. Direct recruitment from educational institutions for jobs which required technical or professional qualification,has become acommon practice. Big organsiations maintain a close liaison with the universities, professional on vocational institutes, management institute for recruitment various jobs. They select the candidates for recruitment on the basis of their performance. Company officials visit the institutions for picking up the talented candidates for continuing apprentices or necessary training.

7. Telecasting. The practice of telecasting the vacant jobs over the television (Doordarshan or other channels) with full details is gaving popularity these days. However, this source is used less as compared to other sources.

8. Employee recommendations. In order to encourage existing employees, some concern have made a policy to recruit further staff only from the applicants introduced and recommended by employees or employees’ union. Other conditions being equal, preference will be given to friends and relatives of existing employees.

9. Labour Unions. In many organisations»labour unions are regarded as a source from which to recruit manpower. This facilitates in creating the sense of cooperation and in developing the better industrial relations. But sometimes trade unions support a candidate who is not suitable for the job and not acceptable to management. This weakens the labour relations.

10. Leasing. To adjust short term fluctuations in personnel needs, .the possibilities of leasing personnel for some specified period may be considered. This’ system of leasing has been well adopted by the public sector organisations with the rapid growth of public sector, the acute shortage of managerial personnel has been solved by borrowing the personnel from the Government departments. At the lend of their term they are given option to choose either parent services or the present organisation.

11. Waiting Lists. Many organisations prepare waiting lists of candidates who have gone through the recruitment processes but who have not been employed for the time being. When the need arises, such candidates may be called for employment. Such a source can be developed through provisions of attractive employment.

12. Field Trips. At interviewing team makes trips to towns and cities which are known to contain the kinds of employees required by the enterprise. Arrival dates and the time and venue of interview are advertised in advance.

13. Unsolicited Applications. One of the important source of recruitment is unsolicited applicants who send their requests for appointment with the reputed concerns against a vacancy to be vacant in near fyture. It serves as valuable source of manpower. The company calls the candidates out of such unsolicited applications for interview as and when there is a vacancy in the organisation. By appointing such casual callers the employer saves the selection and training costs.

14. Labour Contractors. In many Indian industries, workers are recruited through contractors who are themselves the employees of these organisation. The main disadvantage of this system is if contractor leaves the organisations all the worforce employed by the contractor shall have to be left out.

15. Ex-employees. Ex-employee mean persons who have even worked in the enterprise and have left the organisation and now eager to return. Such employees haying good record may be preferred. They will require less initial training.

Advantages of External Sources of Recruitment :

  • Wide Options – External sources bring in a large number of applicants. This will permit the enterprise to have a free hand in making the selection.
  • Infusion of new blood – The enterprise can expect to get fresh, talented candidates from outside. This means infusions of new blood and new ideas, into the enterprise represented by outside candidates.
  • Element of Competition – Internal candidates have to complete with outside candidates for the vacancies. This is a healthy feature from the point of view of the enterprise.

Limitations of External Source of Recruitment –

  1. Frustration among existing employees – Recruitment from outside may cause dissatisfaction and frustration among the existing employees who aspire for the jobs by promotion or transfer. This is likely to strain the relations between management and the employees.
  2. High expense – The process of recruitment of candidates from outside involves considerable expense in the form of advertising for vacancies, screening’ and selection.
  3. Time consuming – External recruitment takes more time than the internal recruitment since the enterprise has to publicise about the vacancies, or otherwise contact the sources and wait or their response.
  4. Lack of certainty – The prospective candidates from outside may or may not be good for the enterprise. There is no guarantee that the enterprise will be able to attract suitable applicants even after advertisement, and other steps.

Evaluations Of Various Sources Of Recruitment :

It is very difficult to say which source is suitable to an enterprise or recruiting the personnel at various jobs. No single source can suit all the enterprise for filling up the posts of different nature and at different times. For example for recruiting the unskilled workers, direct recruitment at gate or friends and relatives of existing employees or casual workers may be the best sources of recruitment. For recruiting managers’ and high officials, consultants, professional bodies, universities and employment exchange may¬be the suitable sources. Thus suitability of the source of labour supply depends upon various factors –

  1. Size of the enterprise –
  2. Nature of job –
  3. Supply of qualified persons
  4. Time lag between requisition and placement
  5. Reactions of present employees to source of recruitment
  6. Relative merits of source on the basis of turnover
  7. Employment conditions in the community where the organisation is located.

Question 2.
Define selection of personnel. Describe the importance of selection of personnel in an organisation.
“Selection is one of the most important of all functions in the management of personnel.” Comment.
Selection Of Personnel – Meaning And Importance:
A planned recruitment programme provides the organisation with job-applicants from whom a required number of selections are made. Selections means a process by which the qualified personnel can be choosen from the applicants who have offered their services to the organisation for employment. Thus the selection process is a negative function because it attempts to eliminate applicants, leaving only the best to be selected . In the words of Dale Yoder, “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes – those who are to be offered employment and those who are not”. In short, selection is the process of choosing a person suitable for the job out of several persons.

Recruitment is different from selection. Recruitment precedes selection. Recruitment is positive as it identifies the sources of manpower and stimulates the persons to apply for the job in the organisation. Whereas the selection is negative as it rejects a large number of candidates in an endeavour to select the best out of a number of candidates applied for the jobs. Recruitment involves prospecting or searching whereas selection involves comparison and choice” of candidates. The purpose of selection is to pick up the right persons for every job to man various positions in the organisation.

Importance Of Selection:

Selection is an important function of the human resource department. Selection means to choose right person from among the prospective candidates to fill in the vacant posts in the organisation. The success of the organisation depends upon the quality of personnel selected for the job. Faulty selection may lead to wastage of time and money and spoils the environment of the organisation. Thus, selection is the most important function of the human resource management. The importance of selection may be judged from the following facts :

1. Procurement of Qualified and Skilled Workers – Scientific selection facilitates the procurement of well qualified and skilled workers in the organisation. It is in the interest of the organisation in order to maintain the supremacy over the other competitive firms. Selection of skilled personnel reduces the labour cost and increases the” production and also facilitate the expansion in the size of the business.

2. Reduced Cost of Training and Development – Proper selection of candidates reduces the cost of training because qualified personnel have better grasping power. They can understand the technique of the work better and in no time. Further, the organisation can develop different training programmes for different persons on the basis of their individual differences, thus reducing the time and cost of training considerably. The rate of accidents will be considerably low.

3. Absence of Personnel Problems – Proper selection of personnel reduces personnel problems in the organisation. Many problems like labour turnover, absenteeism and monotony shall not be experienced in their severity in the organisation. Labour relations will be better because workers will be fully satisfied by the work. Skilled workers help the management to expand the business and to earn more profits and in turn management compensates, the workers with high wages, benefits etc.

4. Job-Satisfaction. When people get jobs of their taste and choice, they get higher job satisfactions. This will build up a force of contended workers. A satisfied worker has a high morale. ’

Question 3.
Explain the process of selection of employees which is generally followed in a large scale business concern.
Selection Process:
Selection is the process of logically choosing individuals who possess the necessary skills, abilities and personality to successfully fill specific jobs in the organisation. The selection process is entirely dependent upon proper manpower planning and recruitment. Selection process divides the candidates for employment into two categories namely, those who will be offered employment and those who will not. For this reason, selection is frequently described as negative process as it rejects more candidates than employed. –

The success of an organisation significantly depends on the quality of personnel which in turn depends on the effectiveness of selection process. It is, therefore, necessary that a job should be done by a qualified person. This is the essence of a scientific and sound policy of personnel selection, to ensure the selection of the right type of persons for various jobs, the techniques of psychology may be adopted in a systematic manner.

When workers are selected for vocations or jobs in an industrial concern after a careful weighing of the requirements of the jobs on the one hand and assessment and evaluation of the abilities and aptitudes of men on the other, it is referred to as “scientific vocational selection”. Scientific selection involves two things: (a) knowledge regarding the qualities which a person in order to do a given job properly and (b) the measurement of qualities possessed by a candidate for the job. The first task requires the drawing up of “job specification” i.e., “job analysis” and “job grading”.

Procedure For Selection :

Techniques used by a particular organisation depend on a number of factors including its size, resourcesfulness and staff objectives. Selection techniques also differ according to the size of the business and the kind of the personnel that are to be selected. Various steps of the selection procedure may be described as under :

  1. Application Blank
  2. Preliminary Interview
  3. Screening Application Forms
  4. Employment Tests
  5. Interviewing
  6. Reference Checks
  7. Physical Examination
  8. Final Selection.

1. Application Blank – The application blank is invariably used as one of the selection tools. The applications is the starting point of the selection process. Where application forms i.e., applications blanks are used, the data become a part of the employee’s record. Further it provides factual information needed for evaluating the candidate’s suitability. Application blank contains written record of the following informations :

  • Identifying Information – Such a family background, date and place of birth, age, sex, height, citizenship, marital status etc.
  • Information regarding Education – It includes information regarding his academic career, subjects taken at various school certificate and degree levels, grade, division or place awarded in school and college, technical qualification etc.
  • Information regarding Experience – Giving full details of past jobs such as nature of work, job responsibilities, periods involved, designations, salaries with allowances, reasons for leaving the present assignment etc.
  • Expected salaries and allowances and other fringe benefits.
  • Information regarding Community Activities consisting of details regarding extra curricular activities, hobbies, positions. –

2. Preliminary Interview – Preliminary or initial interview is often held in case of “at the gate” candidates. This interview usually of a short duration and is aimed at obtaining certain basic information with a view to identifying the obvious misfits or unqualified. If the candidate seems to be possessing the basic minimum requirements for efficient job performance, he is given an application form for being filled out by him.

3. Screening Application Forms – Information given in the application form is used for selection purposes. The applicant who seems to be not fit for the job on the basis of informations given in the application blank is rejected outrightly at this stage by the screening committee. The candidates who are fit and may be called for interview may be short tested. The applicants who have not furnished the required information may also be rejected.

4. Employment Tests. An employment or a selection test is an instrument designed to measure selected qualities and abilities of a prospective incumbent in terms of job specifications. Such tests provide a sample behaviour that is used to draw inferences about the future behaviour or performance of an individual. The use of tests is widespread and hence there is a long lists of tests. A variety of tests are used as selection tools. They may be classified as intelligence tests, aptitude tests, achievement tests, interests tests and personality tests.

5. Interviewing. Interviewing is the most widely used selection technique by all kinds of organisations. It is relied upon to a great extent in accepting or rejecting a candidate. Despite the relative subjectivity and unreliability of interviewing as a selection technique, the fact remains that intangible personality variables left to be evaluated by the interviewer are important for job success and some evaluation is better than no evaluation. Interview enables the person responsible, for hiring to view the individual and to appraise the person-and his behaviour directly.

The basic objective of the interview is to measure the applicant against the specific requirements of the job. Interview must be conducted in a friendly atmosphere and the candidate must be made to feel at ease. The interviewer should not ask unwarranted questions which make the candidate nervous. Information given in the application blank may be confirmed or additional information may by asked for future record. It being a two way communication, the interviewee should also be given a chance to ask questions if he so likes, about the job and the organisation.

6. Reference checks – Reference checks serve as an important selection technique, if conducted properly. The applicant is asked to mention the names and addresses of his former employers and also of two or three persons known but not related to him. If references are checked in the correct manner, a great deal can be Teamed about a person that an interview or tests cannot elicit. Referees may be called upon to give detailed informations about candidate’s capabilities, relations with part employer, his reputation etc.

7. Physical Examination – Candidates who have crossed the above hurdles are required to go for the medical examination. This is very important because a person of poor health cannot work competently and the investment in him may go waste. Thus, a thorough medical examination is essential.

8. Selection – If a candidate successfully overcomes all the obstacles or tests given above he would be declared selected. An appointment letter may be given to him mentioning the terms of employment, pay scales, post , on which selected etc. On which selected etc. Initially, a candidate is selected on probation (oh trail) for sometime and after crossing that period successfully, he is made permanents in the organisations. If he is found unsuitable for the job during this period, he may be transferred to some other job for which he is considered suitables or he may be given training for a job for which he is considered suitable. If he is found quite unsuitable, he may. be sacked after this period.

The above steps in selection process are not rigid. They may vary from organisation to organisation or from jobs to job in the same organisation and from time to time. The arrangement of the steps may also be disregarded or steps may be reduced or some other steps may be added. All this depends upon the size of the enterprise, nature of the company, nature of the job, job description and the objectives of the organisations Following is the selection process chart:
DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 7 Recruitment and Selection 1

Question 4.
Describe the main principles of recruitment and the selection policies.
Recruitment And Selection Policies:
Recruitment and selection of personnel are the most important aspects of personnel management. For this reason many principles have been evolved to make them well planned and sound. Following are the important principles of recruitment and selection:

  • Recruitment of personnel for the whole organisation should be centralised with personnel department.
  • Organisation’s objectives – both in short term and long term – must be taken into consideration as a basic parameter of recruitment decisions and needs of the personnel-areawise and job-family-wise.
  • Internal and external sources of recruitment should be given due importance. It should be clearly spelt out in the recruitment policy whether existing employees would be given any preference in filling up the higher vacant posts and if so on what basis.
  • In formulating the recruitment policy for the organisation the recruitment policies followed in similar organisations and in government undertakings should be thoroughly considered. ,
  • Recruitment needs should be properly identified to take decisions regarding the balance of qualitative dimensions of the recruits i.e. the organisation’s personnel department should prepare the profiles for each category of workers and accordingly work out the main specifications decide the sections departments or business where they should be placed and identify the particular responsibilities which may be immediately assigned to them.
  • In establishing the recruitment policy statutory provisions regarding= recruitment of personnel should also be considered. ’
  • The recruitment policy should be elastic so that it may be amended suitably to achieve the organisational objectives.
  • Recruitment policy should be in conformity with its general personnel policies.
  • The qualifications of the applicants should commensurate with the job specifications.
  • Merit should be the basis of recruitment and other considerations like friendship relations etc. should be ignored.

Principles Of Selection Policy:

  • The responsibility for the selection of employees should be assigned to an efficient and qualified selection board so that only the right man can be selected.
  • “Job first, man next” should be basic and fundamental principle for selection.
  • Management should not rely much on one single source. Selection should be from internal as well as external sources.
  • There should be some standard or personnel with which a prospective employee may be compared i.e., there should be available, before hand, and comprehensive job description and job specifications as developed by a job analysis. If suitable candidate is not available the post should be allowed to remain vacant for the time being till such a time a right man is made available.
  • Selection policy should be within the framework of personnel policy and organisation policy.
  • The selection policy of the organisation should commensurate the employment policy of the Government.
  • There must be a sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees may be selected.
  • Selection policy should be flexible; not rigid so that necessary amendments may be made whenever necessary.
  • The selection policy should be unbiased and employment oriented.
  • The selection policy should provide the vocational guidance for prospective candidates.

Question 5.
Define tests and their characteristics.
Employment Tests:
Employment tests are widely used in selection process. However, these should be considered as a step in selection process and not a replace-ment of any other phases of the selection process. As organisations become complex and the number of jobs they offer increases managers have been in search of any device which would improve their selection decisions. Such decisions are usually arrived at with the help of psychological tests which are more objective and less biased than others. Tests are probably the most sophisticated tools of measuring human characteristics and individual differ-ences that form the very basis of industrial psychology.

A test has been man-ner. Broadly, it has been defined by Groonbach as a “Systematic procedure for comparing the behaviour of two or more persons. ” In a narrow sense, according to Milton, “Test is a sample of an aspect of an individual’s behaviour, performance of attitude.” We may define a test as a systematic procedure for sampling human behaviour.

Tests are used in many fields for various purposes. They are used for the purpose of guiding students, vocational guidance of adults, research into human behaviour and selection of candidates. According to Wendel, tests are used in business for three primary purposes: (a) For the selection and placement of new employees; (b) For appraising employees for promotional potentials; and (c) For counselling employees.

Characteristics Of Tests:

Tests usually possess the following characteristics:

  1. The use of tests is based on the assumption that no two persons are equal so far as intelligence, skills, aptitudes personality are concerned.
  2. A test measures a person’s ability as a criterion of job success.
  3. A test is reliable in the sense that it yields the same score throughout a series of measurements.
  4. A test is used as an additional factor in selection procedure and should not be used as the sole basis for selecting a candidate.

Question 6.
Discuss the importance of tests in the selection of suitable employees.
Describe in brief the various types of tests and their purpose.
Significance Of Tests:
When used appropriately under a well planned testing programme, tests can and do lead to a number of positive benefits to the company in the long run. These benefits are as under:

  1. It is easier to determine the value of a test as a selection device and not a replacement of the other phases of the selection process.
  2. Tests are subjected to minimum subjective bias. Tests are much more objective than any other device.
  3. Tests provide a uniform basis for comparing candidates from diverse background. They measure the extent of differences among people.
  4. Tests reduce to a considerable extent the labour turnover and which in turn, may reduce the cost of training because lessor workers will have to be trained as a result of reduced turnover.
  5. Tests help in increasing production because better workers are employed; and may result in increased satisfaction of employees because they are placed on the job for which they are most competent and interested. This may reduce absenteeism, rate of accidents and increase morale of the workers.
  6. Tests minimise the time of selection and can also be judiciously used in training the workers for appropriate position.
  7. Tests reduces the cost of selection and placement because a large number of applicants can be evaluated when a short period of time.
  8. Tests, are of great value in selecting people with promotional ability discovering the various causes of failure at the job analysing the personality .traits of the individuals.

Criticism Of Test:

  • Tests are criticised for measuring only a part of the total amount of information needed to make an accurate selection. This criticism would be justified if tests were the only selections method used. In practice, tests are rarely used as the only selection method.
  • Tests are sometimes criticised on the ground that they cannot make prediction of changes of success of an applicant because he was nervous. This is valid only when the test results for the entire group are not valid.
  • No test can measure with guarantee the complex combination of characteristics required in numerous positions. But it should remembered that tests have been devised which do not measure far more complex functions and facilities.

Inspite of these limitations employment tests have become widely accepted in the selection process. However tests should be used simply as a step and not as a replacement for the other phase of the selection process.

Types Of Tests :

Testing of a candidate is a recently developed technique in the selection ‘ process. Each individual differs from each other and these individual differences may be best judged by the different types of tests. We may classify the tests into two categories :

(A) Trade Tests;
(B) Psychological Tests.

(A) Trade Tests – Trade tests are those tests which are designed to measure proficiency and skills already acquired by the candidate through training experience; These are also known as Proficiency or performance tests. There are various jobs that require specialised skill such as driving, typing, stenography etc. In these jobs, the candidate is asked to demonstrate His abilities by undergoing trade test. A number of industrial organisations in India are using this test for the selection of clerical, supervisory, managerial and technical personnel.

(B) Psychological Tests- – Psychological tests are the best judge of the psychological behaviour in selecting an employee and is superior to the traditional interview procedure. It helps the management in selecting a candidate to a technical position. Psychological tests may be further classified in the following categories:

  1. Intelligence Tests
  2. Aptitude Tests
  3. Interest Tests
  4. Personality Tests
  5. Achievement Tests.

1. Intelligent Tests – These tests generally include verbal comprehension, word fluency, memory, inductive reasoning, number facility, speed of perception, spatial visualisation. Intelligence test is used to measure intelligence and mental ability quantitatively. In this type of test, simple questions are asked pertaining to reasoning, common sense, arithmetic, analogies, vocabulary, similarity, opposites etc. Such tests are used in selection and classification of workers for all types of jobs.

2. Aptitude Tests – Such tests are used for measuring basic human characteristics or abilities relating to the capacity’ to develop proficiency on specific jobs. Aptitude test measures the latent or potential ability to do something. This t^t is more valid when an applicant has had little or no experience along the lines of the job opening. It is generally applied in selecting a candidate for the clerical position. This type of test may also be used to train the workers when there is a technical change in machines and methods.

3. Interest Tests – A person who is interested in a job or task does much better than a person who is not interested in the job. Interest is a factor that contributes to success on the job. Interest test is an inventory of likes and dislikes ofpeoplein relation to occupations, hobbies and recreational activities. Generally two types of tests are applied in this case – strong vocational interest blank and Kudar Preference Record. These tests measure interests of outdoor, mechanical, computational, scientific, persuasive, artistic, literary, musical, social services etc. Such tests facilitate the employer to place a person at a suitable job satisfying him.

4. Personality Tests – Personality refers to those traits of an individual or those aspects of his/her behaviour that have emotional, motivational or moral connotations such as stability, extraversion, preservance and honesty. Personality comprises the totality of individual’s behaviour and emotional tendencies. Personality tests propose to discover an individual’s value system, emotional maturity, relation moods etc., which generally affect his working. The importance of personality to job success is Unquestionable and employers seek that the prospective candidate has a personality which completely matches with the job requirements. Such tests are conducted with the help of questionnaires. A typical questionnaire is prepared comprising a series of questions directly concerned with personality in its behavioural aspects.

5. Achievement Tests – Whereas aptitude tests are conducted to assess the ability of the candidate to learn in future; achievement test is concerned with what one has accomplished or learnt or achieved. These tests attempt to measure how well he/she knows it. For example, for a post of typist, a typing test may measure his/her speed, accuracy and efficiency. This test is also known as proficiency tests.

Question 7.
How will you develop a test programme ?
Developing A Test Programme:
There are several tests for measuring a particular quality in the candidates. As such selecting. a test requires careful planning, analysis, understanding and setting a battery of tests for a particualr selection situation.

For such a purpose, the incharge of test development section should be a qualified person. He can be either a fully qualified industrial psychologist or a personnel management specialist with proper background of industrial psychology, psychometrics, statistics and adequate testing experience. However, there are certain steps which are followed in developing a test programme. These are as follows :

1. Deciding Programme Objectives. Tests are utilised for a wide range of objectives as discussed earlier and it should be decided for which particular purpose or purposes tests would be utilised. If these are meant for selection, then coverage of various activities and positions should be specified to be tested.

2. Job Analysis. Job analysis, as discussed earlier, provides the basic and necessary information for determining the nature of responsibility involved in the job and qualities required in a person to discharge this responsibility efficiently. The job analysis should specifically prescribe these qualities in clear terms as tests are administered to appraise whether a candidate possesses these qualities or not.

3. Choosing Test for Tryout. After the qualities and attributes are prescribed,a particular test is chosen for the purpose. This test may either be developed by the organisation itself or several such tests have been developed by others and anyone of these may be used. However, while selecting a test proper weightage should be given to its validity, reliability, problems in its administration, cost involved etc. The choice is usually based on experience, previous research and guesses.

4. Validation of Test Procedure. While trying out a test, it is desirable to establish the empirical validity also. Experimental evidence is called for to show that test is in fact effective in discriminating those who are and those who are not in particular job.

5. Combination of tests into Battery. Most of the jobs call for different aptitude, factors of intellectual skills, interest and personal adjustments. All these factors cannot be assessed only with single test materials. Different types of tests techniques are required to assess the several traits making for success or failure. It is this fact that different tests are used in assessing different abilities.

6. Establishing Criteria of Employee Success – Suitable criteria should be fixed in regard to success. The fixation of these criteria is very difficult as to find out accurate, full and fair criteria is really hard. However, on the basis of quantity of output, quality of output, grades in training course, accident frequency, attendance, promotion rate in the organisation, professional achievement, such as awards received, published work etc., performance rating by supervisor, some criteria of success may be fixed.

7. Analysis and Decision-making – The scores of candidates on a test are analysed and compared in terms of criteria of employee success and a final decision regarding candidate’s selection is made. Any candidate who has scored above the prescribed standard may be selected. Sometimes, this standard is to be changed depending upon the number of candidates being tested and number of positions to be offered.

Question 8.
What is an employment interview ? What is the importance of interview in employee selection ?
Employment Interview Meaning And Importance:
Interview is probably the most widely used selection tool mainly in Indian industries. It is most complex selection technique because its scope includes measuring all the relevant characteristics and integrating and classifying all other information about the applicant. Interview is a selection technique which enables the employer to view the total indiviudal and directly appraise him and his behaviour. It is a method by which an idea about an applicant’s personality including his intelligence, breadth of interests, and general attitudes towards life, can be obtained.

By interviewing is meant deliberate, active listing with a purpose to draw the other person out, to discover what he really wants to say and’to give a chance to express himself freely. According to Scott Clothier and Spriegel, “an interview is a purposeful exchange of idea, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons.” According to Bingham, “an interview is a conversation with a purpose and the purpose may be to get information, to give information and to make a friend.” In other words, an interview is an attempt to secure maximum amount of information from the candidate concerning his suitability for the job under-consideration.

When used in personnel selection interview serves following objectives:

  1. To get an opportunity to judge an applicant’s qualifications and characteristics as a basis for sound selection and placement.
  2. To give an applicant essential facts about the job and the company viz, nature and .hours of work, medical requirements, opportunities for advancement, special hazards, employee benefits and services company policies etc.
  3. To establish a rapport or a feeling of mutual understanding and confidence between the personnel department and the applicant who is to be employed.
  4. To seek more information about the candidate which are not mentioned in Application Blank or not judged by various tests.

Importance OF Interview IN Selection Of Employees:

Selection interviews give a chanceto personally “size up” the candidate, and to pursue questioning in a way that tests cannot, they give an opportunity to make judgements on the candidate’s enthusiasm and intelligence and they give an opportunity to assess “subjective aspects” of the candidate – facial expression, appearance, nervousness etc. In other words interviews are a very patent screening tool. The importance of interview in the selection of an employee may be judged from the following facts:

  • Selection of a suitable candidate. Interview is considered to be the most satisfactory way if judging ,mental qualities. It decides whether the qualities possessed by him make him suitable, for the job.
  • Verification of Facts. The employer has the opportunity to verify the facts mentioned in the Application Blank by the candidate himself. The interviewermay seek clarification regarding informations given in Application Blank. .
  • Collection of Information. Interview is a tool to seek information about the candidate which is not mentioned in the Application Blank or tested by any test. Interviewer may collect various relevant information regarding the candidate.
  • Knowledge about enterprise. Interview makes the candidate know about the policies and objectives of the organisation. Interviewee is also given a chance to ask questions to be clear about the facts regarding the jobs and the organisation.
  • Advice and opinions. Interview can help the interviewer getting . advice from the opinions of the interviewees for the problem from different angles and thus their cooperation may be sought.

Question 9.
“Interview is not a valid tool for selection”. Comment.
“In the process of recruitment and selection, interview as the only tool is not sufficient to find the suitability of the candidates. It is to be supplemented by other techniques of selection” elaborate this statement.
Discuss the, limitations of interviewing as a tool of selection.
Limitations Of Interview:
Interview is the oldest and most widely used technique in the selection of an employee. But interview is not a valid tool for selection. It implies that the qualities and the capabilities of a candidate cannot be evaluated and judged properly only through interview without supplementing by other techniques of selection. As a tool for selection, the technique of interview has following limitations –

1. Interview cannot judge the skill and the ability of a candidate for the job. Interview can test only his personality.

2. Success of interview depends on the interviewer also. Interviewer is always not an expert of the situation or of the job to be offered and therefore he may not be in a position to extract maximum information from the candidate which is one of the purposes of the interview.

3. The technique of interview is not free from bias. The result of interview depends on the personal judgement of the interviewer. The result of interview is decided on the basis of personal judgement of the interviewer which is not always correct. Sometimes interviewer forms a particular view about the candidate which deviates from the objective of purposeful exchange of meanings.

4. Sometimes interviewer confuses the candidate. Sometimes, the interviewer has not been an expert of the situation and asks the questions of the candidate only to confuse him or to defeat him and not to get the maximum information from him. The questions are directed to the interviewee in such a fashion, as to allow him no time to answer.

5. Interview is a costly technique. An interview involves the time consuming and expensive technique.

6. Predetermined view. Generally it happens that answers of all possible question to be asked in the interview are predetermined. If the candidate’s answer tallies with that ofthe interviewer’s predetermined answer, he is declared successful. The other view is completely rejected. Notwithstanding the fact that it is supported by valid arguments. It results in the selection of an undesirable candidate.

On the basis of above limitations, interview may be regarded as unreliable technique of selection. But it is not correct. In spite of above limitations, it is a sound and effective’technique for employee selection. The above mentioned limitations may be removed by the management. The interviewer should be trained in the art of interviewing. Further interview should be supplemented by other techniques of selection such as trade tests, psychological tests etc. Interview is one of the techniques of selection and not the only valid tool in the process of selection.

Question 10.
Discuss the essentials of a good interview. Discuss briefly the various methods of interviewing for employment.
Essentials Of A Good Interview And Methods Of Interview:
Interview is an important device of our selection procedure but there are various limitations of interview as a technique of selection if it is not conducted properly. In order to make the interview more effective, the limitations of the interview should be overcome. The essentials of a good interview can be classified by the typical sequence of functions that occur within the interview:

  1. Preparation
  2. Setting
  3. Conduct
  4. Closing and
  5. Evaluation of the interview.

1. Preparation. There should be preparation of some type for all interviews. A considerable amount of planning is needed for interviews that are scheduled in advance. In preparation for interview, one has to determine the specific objective of the interview, the method of accomplishing the interviewing objectives and gathering as much information about the interviewee as possible.

2. Setting. There should be proper setting for interview. This setting is of two types – physical and mental. The physical setting for the interview should be both private and comfortable, free from any physical disturbance. The mental setting should be one of rapport between interviewer and interviewee.The interviewer should establish an atmosphere of ease.

3. Conduct of the Interview. This is the first step in the interview process where most of action takes place. In this process, the interviewer obtains the information desired and supplies the facts that interviewee wants to know. As such, the interview should be conducted properly. For this purpose, the interviewer should possess and demonstrate a basic liking and respect for people, he should ask questions in a manner that encourages the interviewee to talk, he must listen to attentively, and should satisfy the interviewee if there is any query from his side.

4. Closing of Interview. The interview should open and run smoothly
without awkwardness and embarrassment. There is a similar requirement for its close. In the interview process, the interviewer should make some overt sign to indicate the end of the interview and, if possible, the interviewee should be given some type of answer of indication of future action. .

5. Evaluation. The interviewer should undertake the task of evaluating the performance and characteristics of the interviewee immediately after the close of interview while the details are fresh in his mind. If he has taken brief notes at the time of interview he should record details now.
Conduct of the interview is the most important step in the process of interview where most of the actions take place. It is the stage where we get relevant informations from the candidates and supply the facts that the interviewee wants to know.

Following are some of the important principles for conducting the interview:

1. The interviewee should possess and demonstrate a basic liking and respect for people.

2. The question should be asked in a manner that encourages the interviewee to talk. Question that can be answered by “yes” or “no” should be allowed sufficient time to answer and should share the greater amount of talking so as to bring about materials and ideas.

3. In the interview, pleasant atmosphere should be created. The interviewer should have the full attention of the interviewee. The marginal listening of the interviewee not only prevents the inteviewer from obtaining the full information but is also insulting to the interviewee. The interviewee
must acquire the art of listening. The interviewer should be at ease himself dnd keep the Interviewer at ease.

4. To understand fully the interviewee, the projective listening is required to assess the hidden feelings or meaning of the ideas and reactions of the candidates. The interviewer must listen much faster than the interviewee can talk and utilise the time by attempting to project into the position of interviewee.

5. The interviewer should be familiar with the job specification and job descriptions so that he can reconcile the qualifications of the candidates with the job specifications and relevant informations may be gathered and facts supplied to the interviewee.

6. There should be two-way traffic in interviews. Not only the interviewers should ask the question but the interviewees should also be given opportunity to ask the questions, regarding the company and the job’ to be offered.

7. Interview is an art like other arts and the interviewer must be trained in the art of interviewing.

8. The time off the interview should not be consumed in collecting routine information which can be conveniently gathered from the application blank.

9. An interview should be made more reliable and more valid i.e., the* interviewer should guard against being unduly prejudiced or coloured by their own personality or theories. Their own feelings and standards should not be allowed to influence them nor should their feelings about religion or company, affect their judgement.

10. An interviewer should avoid too much talking. A good working ratio for an interviewer is to talk for not more than 25 per cent of the time and listen for 75 per cent of time. The best interview is one in which the interviewer talks the least.

11. Interviewer should be of a certain status, standing and experienced. He must have knowledge about the job and the organisation.

Methods Of Interviewing Or Types Of Interviews :

In selecting a candidate in an organisation employment interviews are the most important screening devices of the selection process. Interview evaluates the individual differences which helps the management in projecting the future development programmes. Interviews may be classified in many ways. Their main differences arise from the pattern of interaction by which the interviewer communicates with the interviewee, respond to his answers, asks questions and from the structure of the interview. Generally, interviews may be classified in following categories:

  1. Directed Interview
  2. Non-directed Interview
  3. Patterned Interview
  4. Stress Interview
  5. Group Interview
  6. Board Interview
  7. Exit Interview

1. Directed Interview. The directed interview is a straightforward, face-to-face question-and-answer situation. Questions are based on job duties and other facets, including a probe ofthe candidate’s background information. It measures job knowledge and also provides opportunity to observe personal characteristics, attitudes, and motivation. However, it is not the best method for personality assessment.

2. Non-directed Interview. Non-directed interview, also known as depth-interview, is applicant-centered, with the interviewer playing mainly a listening role. In this method, the interviewer poses a minimum of constraints on the applicant. The method is informal, conversational,with freedom of expression for interviewee. The main advantage of non-directed interview is that the applicant tends to be more at ease because he does not need to be so concerned about the right answer. As such, the” personality assessment tends to be better under this method.

3. Patterned Interview. Patterned interviews are limited by selecting the strategic parts of the applicant’s background and preparing in advance the questions that best illuminate this background. The advantages of this interview are that it helps in standardising the approach in diferent interviews’. The standardisation is achieved through a standard set of interpretation, and standard methods of recording observations. This combines with the direct method some of the characteristics of the non-directed interviewing approach.

4. Stress Interview. In the stress interview, the interviewer assumes a hostile role towards the applicant. He deliberately puts him on the defensive by trying to annoy, embarrass or frustrate him. Usually the interviewer in such circumstances, asks questions rapidly, criticises the interviewee’s answers, interrupts him frequently, keeps the candidate waiting indefinitely and then asks too.many questions. The purpose of stress interview is to find out how a candidate behave in a stress situation whether he looses his temper, gets confused or frightened. It assesses the emotional strain of a candidate.

According to Professor Harell, “The stress interview in which pressure is purposely puts on the applicant, may have some value for jobs, where emotional balances is a key requirement. It involves putting the candidate under relatively severe emotional strain in order to test his response. It, often, is characterised by the rapid firing questions by several seemingly unfriendly interviews.” ,

5. Group Interview. In this type of interviews, groups rather than individuals are interviewed. A problem for discussion is given to a group of candidates and interviewees are asked to reach a specific decision within a particular time limit. Interviewers watch the activities of the interviewees – those who take a lead in the discussion, those who try influencing others, those who summarise and clarify issues, and those who speak effectively.

The assumption underlying this type of interview is that “the behaviour displayed in the solution of the problem is related to potential success in the job. The object is to see how well individuals perform on a-particular task or a particular situation”. Group interview is conducted for a management position where leadership ability is an important factor. 5

6. Board Interview. Board or panel interview is opposite to the group interview. In it, candidate is screened by a group of interviewers who are specialist in their respective fields. They call upon the candidates one by one and assess his qualities. This technique is very common in India.

7. Exit Interview. This type of interview is generally conducted at the time when an employee is leaving the organisation. The main purpose of organising such an interview is to know the feelings of the outgoing employee regarding his job or the institution, as to extract the deficiencies of plan, programmes and policies of the organisation and to develop or improve such policies in the light of deficiency.

Question 11.
How will you develop an interview programme ?
Interview Procedure Or Developing On Interview Programme:
Following steps are generally involved in an interview procedure:

1. Reviewing Background Information. Pertinent information about the candidate should be collected and noted down before hand. This preparation saves time and mental effort during the interview and enables the interviewer to sketch in advance at least a general picture of the candidate.

2. Preparing a Question Plan. Every interview should have a question plan. It is useful for inexperienced interviewers to have this written down in front of them so that questions can be ticked off as they are dealt with. This plan may cover physical make up, attainments, general intelligence, specialised aptitudes, interest, dispositions and circumstances.

3. Creating a Helpful Setting. Most interviews have overtones of emotional stress for the applicant. Success in interviewing depends on reducing this stress. This can be achieved if the following conditions are present at the place of interview: privacy and comfort, atmosphere of leisure, freedom from interruptions, authentic feeling for and interest in the candidate,

4. Conducting the Interview. Interviewing is an art and the interviewer should be an expert of this art. In conducting the interview, the interviewer should establish a rapport with the candidate. He should ask the candidate to be at ease, listen carefully what he says, be alert noting down the candidate’s sentiments and attitudes etc. The interviewer may adopt any technique of interview which may bear fruits.

5. Concluding the Interview.’In the final few moments, the interviewer guides the interview to a close. After the candidate leaves, the interviewer looks over his notes, recalls his impressions, collects his observations and makes a provisional appraisal before seeing the next candidate. He fills up the interviewer’s Rating Sheet meant for this purpose. Rating sheet forces the interviewer to think carefully on various factors relevant to the job.

6. Evaluating. The final test of interviewing is whether or not it achieves established goals satisfactorily. Interviews should elicit data that validly predict job success for applicants if they are hired and the results of interviewing should be consistent.

1. Directed Interview. The directed interview is a straightforward, face-to-face question-and-answer situation. Questions are based on job duties and other facets, including a probe ofthe candidate’s background information. It measures job knowledge and also provides opportunity to observe personal characteristics, attitudes, and motivation. However, it is not the best method for personality assessment.

2. Non-directed Interview. Non-directed interview, also known as depth-interview, is applicant-centered, with the interviewer playing mainly a listening role. In this method, the interviewer poses a minimum of constraints on the applicant. The method is informal, conversational,with freedom of expression for interviewee. The main advantage of non-directed interview is that the applicant tends to be more at ease because he does not need to be so concerned about the right answer. As such, the’ personality assessment tends to be better under this method. ‘

3. Patterned Interview. Patterned interviews are limited by selecting the strategic parts of the applicant’s background and preparing in advance the questions that best illuminate this background. The advantages ofthis interview are that it helps in standardising the approach in diferent interviews’. The standardisation is achieved through a standard set of interpretation, and standard methods of recording observations. This combines with the direct method some of the characteristics of the non-directed interviewing approach.

4. Stress Interview. In the stress interview, the interviewer assumes a hostile role towards the applicant. He deliberately puts him on the defensive by trying to annoy, embarrass or frustrate him. Usually the interviewer in such circumstances, asks questions rapidly, criticises the interviewee’s answers, interrupts him frequently, keeps the candidate waiting indefinitely and then asks top many questions. The purpose of stress interview is to find out how a candidate behave in a stress situation whether he looses his temper, gets confused or frightened. It assesses tile emotional strain of a candidate.

According to Professor Harell, “The stress interview in which .pressure is purposely puts on the applicant, may have some value for jobs, where emotional balances is a key requirement. It involves putting the candidate under relatively severe emotional strain in order to test his response. It, often, is characterised by the rapid firing questions by several seemingly unfriendly interviews.” ,

5. Group Interview. In this type of interviews, groups rather than individuals are interviewed. A problem for discussion is given to a group of candidates and interviewees are asked to reach a specific decision within a particular time limit. Interviewers watch the activities of the interviewees – those who take a lead in the discussion, those who try influencing others, those who summarise and clarify issues, and those who speak effectively. The assumption underlying this type of interview is that “the behaviour displayed in the solution of the problem is related to potential success in the job. The object is to see how well individuals perform on a-particular task or a particular situation”. Group interview is conducted for a management position where leadership ability is an important factor.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 17 Employee/Labour Welfare

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 17 Employee/Labour Welfare

Question 1.
Define labour welfare and describe its scope, functions and advantages.
Meaning, Functions And Advantages Of Labour Welfare:
The term ‘labour welfare’ is one which tends itself to various interpretations and it has not always the same significance in various countries. As pointed out by the Royal Commission on Labour, the term ‘welfare’ is applied to the industrial workers “is one which must necessarily be elastic, bearing a somewhat different interpretation in one country from another, according to the different social custom, the degree of industrialisation and the educational development of workers.”

Therefore, it – is not easy to define the term precisely. Different interpretations are given to the term ‘welfare activities’ by different people. One definition confines it to voluntary efforts on the part of the employers to provide employees the best conditions of employment in their factories.

The other view is that it is anything for the comfort and improvement – intellectual or social – of the employees over and above the wages paid which is not a necessity of the industry not required by law.

According to N.M. Joshi, “Welfare work covers all the efforts which employers make for the benefit of their employees over and above the minimum standards of living working conditions fixed by the Factories Act and over and above the provisions of the social legislations providing against accident, old age, employment and sickness.”

According to Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, “Labour welfare implies the voluntary efforts of the employers to establish within the existing industrial system, working and sometimes living conditions of the employees beyond what is required by law the custom of the industry and condition of the market.”

Hence the term labour welfare does not Comprehend those activities that are necessitated by the laws of country, the traditions and customs of industry in that country, or by conditions of the market. Instead, it means the voluntary action on the part of the employer to improve the lot of his employees.

The International Labour Organisation defines labour welfare in these words : “Workers’ welfare should be understood as meaning such services, facilities and amenities which may be established in, or in the vicinity, undertaking to enable the persons employed in them to perform their work in healthy, congenial surroundings and provided with amenities conducive to good health and high morale.”

In this way, the term ‘labour welfare’ implies schemes and activities that produce conditions that improve the health of the workers as well as those circumstances that improve their morale. It may widely be taken to mean any voluntary action on the part of the employer that benefits the worker in any way.

But it does not include any activity that the employer is compelled or coerced into performing whatever be the benefit according to the labour class. Through the medium of labour welfare work, employers and industrialists try to achieve the integral or complete development of employees.

In short, measures and activities undertaken by the state, employers and association of workers for the improvement of worker’s standards of life and for the promotion of their economic and social well being are called labour welfare work.

Scope of Labour Welfare – Labour welfare includes all services, amenities and facilities which are provided by the employer in or in the vicinity of the undertaking in order to enable the employees to perform their work in healthy and congenial surroundings and provide them with amenities conducive to good health and high morale. According to Dr. Broughton welfare activities can be divided into two classes –
(a) Intra-mural and
(b) Extra mural.

Intra-mural works include

1. Scientific Selection or Appointment – The scientific selection of workers for the various jobs within the factory.
2. industrial Training – Training for different jobs in the factory.
3. Arrangement for light, fresh air and water – This classification comprehends arrangements in the factory for cleanliness, white washing, ventilation, drinking water, bathrooms, lavatories, urinals, light, air . conditioning, etc.
4. Prevention of Accidents – This includes arrangements for i protection from dangerous machines, extreme temperatures, fire fighting, etc.
5. Other functions – Such as canteen, provision or rest rooms, refreshment, etc.
Major extra-mural labour welfare functions are the following:

  1. Provision of Education – This includes adult education, social education, primary education, education of men, women and children etc.
  2. Arrangement for proper housing accommodation
  3. Medical Service -This includes rest, cure, paid leave, free treatment, subsidized medical aid, etc.
  4. Provision of inexpensive and nourishing food.
  5. Facilities of Recreation – Clubs, gymnasia, cinema, radio, reading- rooms, libraries, etc. In additions to the

above list, the following activities are also a part of labour welfare service:

    1. Social insurance scheme,
    2. Provident fund benefits,
    3. Pension,
    4. Sickness and maternity benefits,
    5. Arrangement of maternity homes and creches,
    6. Provision of cooperative societies,
    7. Arrangement Of cultural programmes,
    8. Schooling of children.

Aims, Objectives Or Advantages Of Labour Welfare:
Today labour welfare programmes have become very important because whatever is spent, on it, is as good investment by the employer, fie is benefited by increased production or better quality of work. Some . important motives of labour welfare are as follows :

  1. To give expression to philanthropic and paternalistic feedings.
  2. To win over employees’ loyalty and increase their morale.
  3. To combat trade unionism and socialist ideas.
  4. To build up stable labour force, to reduce labour turnover and absenteeism.
  5. To develop efficiency and productivity among workers.
  6. To save oneself from heavy taxes on surplus profits.
  7. To earn goodwill and enhance public image.
  8. To reduce the threat of further government intervention.
  9. To make recruitment more effective (because these benefits add to job sales appeal).

Labour welfare operates to neutralise the harmful effects or large scale industrialisation and urbanisation. Provision of welfare amenities enables the workers to live a richer and more satisfactory life and contributes to their efficiency and productivity. It helps in maintaining industrial peace.

Question 2.
Explain the principles of labour welfare programme.
Principles Of Labour Welfare Programme:
Following are the principles to be followed in setting up a labour welfare programme :

1. The programme should satisfy real needs of the workers – This means that the manager must first determine what the employees’ real needs are. Extreme care and serious research should go into the decision of whether or not to offer a particular employees service.

More evidence is required than a mere unfounded bias of the manager. In one case, a company manager who felt that his employees needed a sports programme budget money, purchased facilities, and hired a company athlectic director. But when the whistle was blown to play ball, nobody wanted to play.

2. The, programme should be such as can be handled best by a group approach – For example, life insurance purchased as a group can be obtained at,a significantly lower price than same insurance purchased by the individual. But it is argued that depending upon the differences in sex, age, marital status, number of children, type of job and the income level of employees there are large differences in their choice of a particular benefit.

As a result, it is Suggested that a package total value of benefits should be determined and the selection of the mix of benefits should be left to the choice of each individual employee. .This is known as the ‘Cafetaria approach’. Such an approach individualises the benefit system though it may be difficult to operate and administer.

3. The employer should not assume a benevolent posture – We have seen in the section on leadership how modern organisations, based on classical principles, foster dependency in employees which is incongruent with the needs of a mature personality. The paternalistic and benevolent approach has fallen in disrepute as a result of the employee’s desire to gain maturity and adulthood.

4. The cost of the programme should be calculated and its financing established oh a sound basis – There are several employee services such as pension, provident fund, insurance, etc., which are not cheap to administer.

The cost of such benefits can hardly be termed a fringe. It is, therefore, essential that before conceding any such service over the collective bargaining table sound actuarial estimates of its cost are made and adequate provisions for financing it are established.

5. The management should ensure co-operation and active participation of unions and workers in formulating and implementing the programme.

6. There should be periodical assessment or evaluation of the programme and necessary timely improvement n the basis of feedback.

Question 3.
“Labour welfare measures are a waste of money because neither their nature nor the extent of their use promote workers’ efficiency.” Express your opinion on this statement.
Significance Of Welfare Activities:
Labour welfare work done by several agencies is not satisfactory. The contribution of employers is also negligible. Employers take it as a sheer waste of money and nothing else. There has been very little real spirit of service. Whatever work is done by them is only in pursuit of their liability under the various legislations. Their arguments for this attitude are as under:

  1. Due to their limited financial resources, they cannot set aside adequate funds for welfare work. The negligible amount spent on welfare activities does not find the desired results.
  2. Due to overburdened administrative machinery in industries it cannot think of any additional burden for welfare facilities.
  3. Immediate and direct benefits from the welfare services will be reaped by employees so employees should come forward and bear a greater part of financial burden.
  4. Many- workers look on the welfare work undertaken by the employers with suspicion. They feel that welfare activities are meant to undermine the influence of trade unions.
  5. The various measures provided under various Acts are unscientific and unplanned. They are not carried out in their real spirit. The official machinery is not effective to get the provisions of law executed.
  6. Welfare activities have no direct and immediate effect on labour’s
    efficiency and productivity.
    Therefore the amount spent on labour welfare activities is sheer wastage of money.
  7. Since the rate of absenteeism and labour turnover is very high in Indian industries. The amount spent on welfare activities could not contribute to the efficiency of workers and it goes waste.

Thus employers think that labour efficiency and productivity is not affected directly with these measures hence they dare not to spend much on these activities. They fulfil only their legal commitments and no more. So, they think of the welfare activities as liability and not an investment. The fact is that the labour welfare activities contribute to the better efficiency and productivity of labour in the long run.

It yields good industrial relations , and promotes.workers morale. Planned and well-organised welfare activities repay the employers in the long run. The labour welfare activities increase the workers’ efficiency indirectly’and in the long run in the following ways:

  • Workers real wages are increased by welfare measures which indirectly increases their efficiency. By labour welfare measures their efficiency is increased considerably.
  • Workers begin to feel satisfied with their work when they find that they are being well looked after by their employers, Thus their morale is raised and industrial relations improve.
  • Labour turnover and absenteeism rates decline because workers find their work place congenial and the employer sympathetic towards them.
  • Welfare measures recognise the human values in workers. Therefore, on humanitarian grounds too labour welfare is commendable.
  • From social point of view, welfare measures ensure healthier and more enlightened citizens.
  • Welfare measures develop psychological and moral values in workers. They help minimising the industrial evils because welfare measures keep them engaged in other social and recrerational activities.
  • A sense of responsibility can be developed in workers by giving them proper education.

Thus, we can assert that the labour welfare activities play a very important role in improving their physical and mental health of the workers which may further improve their efficiency and productivity.

In other words, industrial production and profits may go up if proper attention is paid by the Indian industrialists towards the labour welfare activities. The amount spent on these activities should not be considered as a waste of money but should be taken as an investment in labour which would pay the dividend in the long run.

Question 4.
Discuss the reasons why labour welfare work in India assumes greater importance?
Reasons For The Welfare Activities In India:
Following are the important reasons why labour welfare work in India assumes greater importance that in other countries.

1. Lack of strong Trade Union Movement – In India trade union movement is still in its infancy and not strong enough to protect their own interests. In industrialised and developed countries. Workers are strongly organised into trade unions. As the force of strong trade union is missing in our country the welfare of labourers should be efficiently looked after by the employer and the government.

2. Lack of literacy and education. In comparison to other countries, the percentage of educated workers is very low; and consequently they are not in a position to understand their own interests and interests of employer and the society. Hence labour welfare is required more in India than in other countries.

3. Lack of Healthy Recreation – Workers do not have healthy recreation with the result that they indulge in crime and other wrongful activities. Hence it is essential that recreation and entertainment of a healthy kind be provided.

4. Industrial Backwardness – From the viewpoint of industrial backwardness Indian industries are far behind than other countries. Industrial programme is dependent upon the efficiency of labour. Welfare measures motivates the workers and maintains their efficiency and productivity.

5. Problem of Absenteeism and Migration – Compared to workers on other countries the Indian labourer is more restless and tendencious towards frequent migration because life in the town does not provide for his needs, and the atmosphere in general does not suit him. Level of wages is far too low to adequately compensate for the high prices of most commodities.

Hence, the labourers cannot comfortably settle down in one place. This Worker’s migratory tendency can be curbed by providing him with adequate housing improving the conditions in which he is required to work, and other welfare work of a similar nature.

This will help the worker establish a home in the town, and he will not have to run frequently to the village for his family. Hence, the problem of absentees in factory will be reduced. Recreation and cultural facilities will prevent much indulgence in drug addiction and alcoholism, crime and prostitution and other undesirable activity. Even more than this, the precentage of absentees in factories will fall.

Question 5.
Explain in brief the labour activities being done by various agencies in India.
Labour Activities In India:
Before independence, very little was done in the sphere of labour welfare activities either by the Government or employers or by any other agency. But substantial work has been done in this direction since independence. Various agencies have organised welfare activities in India.
These agencies are –

  • The Central Government.
  • The State Government.
  • The Employers. .
  • The Trade Unions.
  • Other agencies.

1. Welfare Activities by the Central Government:
Till Second World War, very little was done by the government of India in this field. During Second War, the Government of India, for the first time, launched Welfare schemes in the war industries to increase productivity of works and to keep their morale high.

The central government has taken special interest in labour welfare activities after the emergence of India as a Welfare State. Since then, various legislations were passed to promote the welfare activities, such as Factories Act 1948, Mines Act 1952, Plantation Labour Act 1951, Coal Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act 1947, Iron ore Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act 1961, etc. Various legislation provided the welfare activities as under:

(a) Factories Act l94$ – Prior to the Factories Act 1948, minimum standards for. lighting, ventilating, fencing of machineries, control of temperature, safety provisions etc. were present in Factories Acts. New provisions providing for washing facilities, first-aid appliances, canteens, rest rooms, creches etc.

were also made in Factories Act 1948. Under the Act, State Government are authorised to make to associates representatives of workers with the management in regard to the welfare arrangement for work. Provision for the appointment of a Labour Welfare Officer in every factory employing 500 or more workers is also made in the Act.

Provisions for welfare of workers also exist in the Indian Dock Labourer’s Act 1934. The Mines Act 1952, The Plantation Labour Act 1951, The Merchant ‘ Shipping Act 1958, The Motor Transport Workers Act 1961, The Bidi and Cigar Workers, conditions of Employment Act 1966, The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act 1970.

(b) Labour Welfare Funds – The Government of India has set up Labour Welfare Funds to finance welfare activities in Governed owned and controlled undertakings excluding Railways and Ports. These funds are contributories in character. Initially, the scheme was for four year but later’ on it was extended with the condition that Welfare Fund Cotnmittees consisting of representatives of employees and government should be formed to administer the Funds.

For the welfare of mine workers, various Welfare Fund Acts were passed for workers engaged in coal, mica, iron-ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The finances for the Funds were raised through the levy of cess on production and export. The welfare activities covered under these Acts are housing, public health, sanitation, medical, education and recreational facilities for workers and their dependents. Acts also cover provisions of accident and other benefits.

(c) Welfare Activities in Railways and Ports – Railways and major ports of Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, Mormagao, Visakhapattanam and other ports in India have provided various labour welfare activities for their workers. These facilities include well-equipped hospitals and dispensaries, canteen, recreation, education facilities, housing, cooperative societies and fair price shops, etc. Railways provide assistance to their workers out of Staff Benefit Fund in times of emergency.
(d) Other Welfare Activities –

  • The Government of India has set up a Central Board for Workers’ Education. It provides grants-in-aid to trade unions and institutions for workers’ education.
  • Shram-Vir Award.have been instituted for workers in recognition of meritorious performance.

2. Welfare Activities by State Government:
State governments have also played an important role in providing the welfare activities to labours in their state., States of Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal are the leading states in organising various welfare activities.

There are Modal Welfare Centres in most of the states. In Maharashtra Bombay Labour Welfare Board organises the labour welfare activities in the state. Welfare funds have also been set up in Maharashtra and U.P. In some states, vocational training is also given to workers. There is a Labour Welfare Advisory Committee in U.P.

3. Welfare Activities by Employers:
At present, the welfare activities are being brought more and more under legislations rather than being left to the good sense of the employers.The Government has made certain facilities obligatory on the part of the employers to be provided to workers, under legislations. The employers have limited resources and moreover, their attitude towards labour is apathetic.

They consider the expenditure on labour welfare activities as waste of money rather than an investment. Even so, some enlightened employers, on their own initiative, have been doing a bit in the direction of welfare. They have provided medical aids, hospital and dispensary facilities, canteens, fair price shops, co-operative societies, recreation, club etc.
These facilities are apart from their liability under various central or state legislations. The Delhi Cloth and General Mills have an Employees Benefit Fund Trust managed by a board of trustees.

This fund is financed by the contribution of a fixed percentage of the amount distributed, unclaimed wages and lines etc. The trust organises several welfare schemes out of this fund such as voluntary health insurance scheme, gratuity and old age pension scheme, the provident fund and daughter’s marriage allowance schemes. It provides financial assistance to workers in emergency.

The welfare facilities provided by employers are not satisfactory. The Labour Investigation Committee has quoted the views of Dr. B.R. Seth who observes, “The vast majority of industrialists in India still regard welfare work as a barren liability rather than a wise investment.”

4. Labour Welfare Activities by Trade Unions:
The welfare work undertaken by the trade union agency are negligible because of lack of organisation and financial stringency. Only a few unions like the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association, the Mazdoor Sabha of Kanpur, Indore Mill Mazdoor San’gh and Bank Employees Association have devoted themselves to welfare work.

The Ahmedabad Textile Labour’ Association spends nearly 70% of its income on welfare activities. Labour welfare activities generally provided by these trade unions are libraries and reading room, educational institution, including day and night schools, cultural and social centres, gymnasia etc. The Mill Mazdoor Sabha, Indore has started a Labour Welfare Centre which is working in three sections as Bal Mandir, Kanya Mandir and Mahila Mandir.
However, in general, trade unions have not taken much interest in welfare work because of lack of proper leadership and funds.

5. Labour Welfare work by other agencies:
Apart from the agencies closely connected with the industries, (Governments employers and trade unions) several other agencies have also done commendable work in the field of labour welfare. Such agencies are:

(a) Social service agencies – Several social service agencies such as Bombay Social Service League started by the Servants of India. Society and similar leagues in Madras and Bengal, the Shiv Sena Society, the Bombay Presidency Women’s Council, the Maternity and Infant Welfare Association, the Y.M.C.A. the Depressed Classes Mission Society and many other missionary societies play an important role in organising the welfare work, both by helping employers and the labour and by independent efforts.

These agencies have provided various welfare activities, like education, indoor and outdoor – games establishment of co-operative societies, night schools and libraries etc.

(b) Municipalities – A few municipalities and municipal corporations have also taken special welfare measures such as co-operative credit societies, maternities and nursery schools, adult schools, creches, etc. These progressive municipalities are at Bomaby, Calcutta, Delhi, Kanpur, Madras, Ajmer etc.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 6 Job Analysis

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 6 Job Analysis

Question 1.
What is job analysis ? Evaluate its significance in personnel management.
“Job analysis is the process of critically evaluating the operations, duties and relationship of the job.” Elucidate this statement.
Job Analysis – Meaning And Significance:
The first function of personnel management is the employment or select function i.e., to select qualified workers in adequate number. It is concerned with recruiting the right people in the right place at the right time. This function involves two steps: (a) determination of kind or quality of personnel needed and (b) determination of the number of personnel required. The first duty of the personnel department is to find out accurate information about the knowledge, skill and experience etc. that an individual should possess to perform a particular job.

It requires job-analysis. Job-analysis is the process of collecting all facts relating to the nature of a specific job through scientific observation and study. It studies and collects information relating to operation and responsibilities of specific job. Following are some definitions:

According to Terry, “Job analysis is the process of critically examining the components of a job, both separately and in relation to the whole, in order to determine all the conditions and duties. ”
In the words of Flippo, “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of specific job. ”

According to Michael J. Jucius, “Job analysis refers to the process of studying the operations, duties and organisational aspects of jobs in order to device specification, or as they are called by some job specifications. ”

From the above definitions it is clear that job analysis is a process by which job, duties and responsibilities are defined and the information of various factors, relating to jobs are collected and compiled to determine the work and conditions, nature of work, qualities of person to be employed on job, position of the job, opportunities available and authorities and privileges to be given on the job etc.

The mainpurpose ofjob analysis is to describle and define the distinctions among various jobs in the organisation and their relationship. In job analysis following informations are usually collected:

  1. Content of a job.
  2. Difference in the nature of different jobs.
  3. Tasks involved in the job.
  4. Equipments and machines required.

Job analysis, thus provides information both for the job and the job holder. The requirements of the job are known as ‘job description’ and the qualities demanded from a job holder are termed as ‘job specifications’. The important contents ofjob description and job specification, products ofjob analysis, are shown in the following figure:
DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 1 Nature and Scope of Human Resource Management 1

-Job title
– Loãation
– Summary of duties
– Detailed statement of work
to be performed
– Tools, equipment, machines
– Materials used
– Responsibility
– Qualifications required
– Wording conditions
– Hazards
Relation to other jobs.

– Education
– Experience
– Training
– Skill
– Special aptitude
– Initiative
– Responsibilities
– Analysis and judgement ability -Adaptability
– Mental and visual demand
– Emotional characteristics

Significance Of Job-Analysis :

Job analysis is an essential ingredient in designing a sound personnel programme. Job information gathered frOrnjob analysis may be used for following purposes –

1. Organisation and Manpower Planning. Job analysis is helpful in organisational planning, for it defines labour needs in clear terms. It coordinates the activities of the work force and facilitiates the division of work, duties and responsibilities. Thus, it is an essentia! element of manpower planning because it matches jobs with them. ,

2. Recruitment and Selection. Job analysis indicates the specific job ’ requirements of each job i.e. skills and knowledge. In this way, job analysis provides a realistic basis forhiring, training, placement, transfer and promotion of personnel. Basically, the goal of job analysis is to match the job requirements with a worker’s aptitude, abilities and interests.

3. Training and Development. Job analysis determines the levels of standard of job performance. Job analysis provides the necessary information to the management of training and development programmes. It helps to determine the content, and subject matter of training courses. It also helps in checking application information, interviewing, weighing test results and in checking references.

4. Wage and Salary Administration. Job analysis is the foundation for job evaluation. By indicating the qualifications required for doing a specified job and the risks and hazards involved in its performance, it helps in salary and wage administration because it evaluates jobs in terms of money.

5. Performance Appraisal. Job analysis helps in establishing clear cut standards which may be compared with the actual contribution of each
individual.’Job analysis data provide a clearcut performance for every job.

6. Job Re-engineering. Job analysis provides information which enables the management to change jobs in order to permit their being manner by personnel with specific .characteristics and qualifications. This takes two forms – industrial engineering activity and human engineering activity. Industrial engineers may use the job analysis information in designing the job by making the comprehensive study. It helps in time study and motion study and work measurement. Human engineering activities such as physical, mental and psychological are studied with the help of job analysis.

7. Health and Safety. Job analysis provides an oppportunity for identifying hazardous and unhealthy conditions so that corrective measures ’ may be taken to minimise the possibility of accidents and sickness.

8. Placement and orientation. A clear undertaking of job requirements helps in matching these requirements with interest, aptitude and abilities of the manpower placed oh these jobs. The purpose is to assign the job to a person who is best suited to the job. Similarly, the orientation programme should be greased toward shelping the employee learn the activities, tasks and duties which are required to perform the job more effectively and efficiently.

9. Career Planning. Jobs are graded through job analysis and therefore it provide a clear cut picture of opportunities in terms of career paths and job available in the organisation. With the help of such understanding, employees and the organisation both can make efforts for career planning and career development.

Question 2.
‘Explain the process of job-analysis.
How should job-analysis be performed ?
Process Of Job-Analysis
Following steps are undertaken in the process of job-analysis:
1. Collection of Factual Material – Collection of the factual information relating to job in each department is the first step in job analysis process. According to Terry, “the make-up of a job, its relations to other jobs and its requirements for competent performance are essential information needed for a job evaluation.” Two types of information are collected

(a) information regarding job such as its physical environment, its social environment, financial conditions, the purpose for which it is undertaken etc. and

(b) information relating to qualities of persons holding the job. Such information may either be collected by specialists from outside (hired persons) or by members on staff having relevant ability. Whichever choice is made preliminary training is called for. In collecting the data, a number of methods may be used. (For various methods used in collecting data are given in the next question).

2. Developing a Job-Description – The information collected is to be developed in the form of a job description. Job description is a written statement that describes the main features of the jobs as well as the qualifications which the job incumbents must possess.

3. Developing Job Specification – The next step is to convert the job description statements into job specifications. Job specification is a statement of minimum acceptable qualities of a job incumbent. It specifies the standard by which the qualities of the person are measured. Such statement is used in selecting a person matching with the job.

4. Preparation of Report – The job analyst prepares a report mentioning the analysis of various activities on the job and the qualities of the individual to be placed on the job. The report is submitted before the supervisor and the personnel manager for suggestions and comments. The report is revised in the light of the suggestions given by the supervisor or the personnel manager.

5. Approval – The complete report is now submitted to the top executive for approval. The office bearers of the trade unions may also be taken into confidence before approving die report. Any suggestion made by the office bearers of the trade unions may be considered to be incorporated in the report before giving final approval on it. The final report should be approved by the top executive who is responsible for making final decision on the matter.

Question 3.
What are the different methods employed in job analysis ?
Methods Employed In Job Analysis:
Following methods are employed to eollect information for a job analysis –
1. Questionnaire – In this method a detailed questionnaire is prepared – by the job analyst containing question pertaining to the nature of duties, tasks and responsibilities and is distributed among the job incumbents. The job incumbents are asked to provide data about their jobs in their own words. They can easily express themselves in writing. This method is best suited and widely used for analysis. But it is often a very time-consuming process to analyse the data obtained in this manner. It does not yield satisfactory results as many employees do not furnish the correct information or sometimes do not fill the questionnaire.

2. Check list – Questionnaires and checklists though, appear to be similar, differ somewhat in the degree to which they are structured. Questionnaires needs narrative description of the tasks, knowledge, abilities, working conditions hazards etc. involved in the performance of their jobs. On the other hand checklists requires the worker to cheek the tasks he performs from a long list of possible task statements. However in order to prepare the check list extensive preliminary work is required in collecting appropriate task statements. Check lists are easy for the job incumbent to respond to. But they do not provide an integrated picture of the job in question. They are more structured than questionnaires and are mainly of ‘yes’ and ‘no’ variety.

3. Observation – This is the most practical and reliable technique of getting information regarding job. This method can be followed right on the job. The analyst observes the incumbent as he performs his work and asks questions regarding the various jobs performed by him. It is costly and slow method and this also interferes with normal work flow. However, it produces a complete and good job description. This method is particularly desirable where manual operations are prominent and the work cycle is short and repetitive.

4. Interview – In this method a group of representative job incumbents are selected for extensive interview – usually outside ofthe actual job situation. The interview may be carried out either individually or in a group to save time. The replies obtained from the interviewees are then combined into a single job description. This method is very costly and time consuming but it helps in getting a complete picture of the job.

In this method, usually a structured interview form is used and information is collected. In this method, it is important that the interviewer must have considerable knowledge and skill of the jobs.

5. Office Records. Human resource department maintains complete records of each job and the job holders. The analysts collects the required information from the records maintained by the HR development. The method is not frequently used because complete information about work and worker cannot be obtained by this technique as the technique is time consuming.

6. Participation – In this method, the job analyst actually performs the job himself. In this way, he is able to obtain first hand information about the job. This method is fairly good for simple jobs but in case of complex jobs advance training of the analyst becomes necessary. This method is also time consuming and expensive.

7. Technical conferepce – In this method, information about the characteristics of the job is collected from experts – usually the supervisors – and not from the actual job incumbents. Experts may have poor knowledge about the job which they are not actually performing themselves and may give answers based on their past experience.

8. Log-Records. In this method, a diary or log-book is provided to every job holder. The job holder daily records the duties performed and the time taken in performing the job. The analyser then analysis the diary or log records. This method is time consuming. Moreover, the job holders are not disciplined fnough to maintain a regular diary. In addition, the diary provide incomplete information because information concerning. Working conditions, equipment used and supervisory relationship is not available from diary records. This method is useful for jobs where observation is difficult such as engineering job, scientists’ jobs, research man etc.

The job analyst has to decide which of the above methods or combination is needed to do a thorough j ob analysis. He often uses a method which is more specific. Widely used method that incorporates various features of the general techniques a provides a quantitative score.

Question 4.
Explain the meaning of job-description. What are the lontents of job-description ?
Job Description:
Job description is the by-product of the job analysis. The job analyst incorporates the informations relating to job in a prescribed blank called job description blank which contains the findings of the job analysis. Job description is an important document which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job analysis. It provides both organisational information and functional organisation. It defines the scope of job activities, major responsibilities and positioning of the job in the organisation.

In the words of Edwin B. Flippo, “The first and immediate product of the job analysis is the job description. This document is basically descriptive in nature and constitutes a record of existing and pertinentjob fact.” Pigors and Myres defines the job description as, “a pertinent picture (in writing) of the organisational relationship, responsibilities and specific duties that constitute a given job or position. It defines a scope of responsibility and continuing work assignment that are sufficiently different from those of other job to warrant a specific title.”

Job description is different from performance assessment. The job description concerns such functions as planning, coordinating and assigning responsibility while the performance assessment concerns the quality of peformance itself.Though job description is not assessment, it provides an important basis for establishing assessment standards and objectives.

Contents Of Job-Description :

A job description contains the following data –

1. Job-Identification – Job-identification or organisational position includes the job title, alternative title, department, division, plant and code number of the job. The job title identifies and designates the job properly. The department, division etc. indicate the name of the department where it is v situated. The location gives the name of the place. –

2. Job Summary – Job-summary serves two important purposes. Firstly, it provides a short definition which is useful as an additional identification information. Secondly, it serves as a summary to orient the reader towards an understanding of detailed information which follows. It gives the reader a “quick capsule explanation” of the content of a job usually in one or two sentences.

3. Job Duties and Responsibilities – Job description clearly states the duties and responsibilities to be performed on the job with proper classification as primary, secondary and other duties. It is regarded as the heart of a job., It also describes time to be taken in performing the job and sub-job.

4. Relation to other jobs – This helps to locate the job in the organisation by indicating the job immediately below or above it in the job hierarchy. It also gives an idea of the vertical relationships of work and procedures.

5. Supervision – The degree and nature of supervision required on each job is also mentioned in the job description. Under it is given the number of persons to, be supervise along with other job titles and the extent of supervision involved – general, intermediate or close supervision.

6. Machines, Tools and Materials – The machines, tools and materials required in the performance of each jobs are also includes in the job description. It indicates the nature and complexity of the job and helps devising training programmes.

7. Working Conditions – Job description usually gives us the . information about the environment in which a job holder has to work. They include heat, cold, dust, wetness, moisture, fumes, odour, oily conditions etc.

8. Hazards – This gives us the nature of risks to life and limb, their possibilities of occurrence etc.

Question 5.
Explain the characteristics of a good job-description. How a job Description is prepared and by whom ?
Characteristics Of A Good Job-Description:
A good job description must possess the following characteristics:

  1. It should be kept upto date i.e. necessary adjustments should have : been incorporated from time to time.
  2. Job title should be short, definite and suggestive as to indicate the nature of the work.
  3. Duties and responsibilities should be clearly defined.
  4. Job description should give a clear concise and readily understandable picture of the whole job. A new employee should understand the job if he reads the job description.
  5. Statements of opinions should be avoided.
  6. Job specifications should clearly be mentioned.
  7. It should be descriptive but short.
  8. Every item should be exactly worded.
  9. Job description should clearly mention the job specification.
  10. Special work conditions and special qualification of the job should be clearly explained in job description.

Preparing Job Description – Job description is prepared from the informations gathered through the job analysis. In order to prepare the job description, the detailed information is collected about the’job title. Job summary, duties and responsibilities etc’, through any of the technique’s of job analysis and compiled in a well-designed blank in an organised manner. Separate blanks are filled for each job. It is prepared by the job analyst who may be a personnel manager or any executive or supervisor.

Question 6.
What are the uses of job description ?
Uses Of Job Description :
Job description has several uses :

  1. Preliminary drafts can be used as a basis for productive group discussion, particularly if the process starts at the executive level.
  2. It aids in the development of job specifications which are useful in planning, recruitment, training and hiring people with required skills.
  3. It can be used to orient new-employees towards basic responbsibilities and duties.
  4. It is a basic document used in developing performance standards.
  5. It can be used for job evaluation, a wage and salary administration technique.
  6. A job description enables the manager to frame suitable questions to be asked during an interview.
  7. A job description becomes a vehicle for organisational change and improvement. It helps top executives in fixing the responsibilities.

Question 7.
Explain job specification and distinguish it from job description.
Job Specification:
Job specification is also the by-product of job analysis. Job
specification takes the job description and answers the question. “What human traits (qualities) and experience are needed to do the job well”? It tells what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities that person should be tested. A job specification is. a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job satisfactorily. According to Flippo “ajob specification is a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly.” In the words of Dale Yoder “the job specification is a specialised job description emphasising personnel requirement and designed especially to facilitate selection and placement.”

Job specifications translate the job description into terms of the human qualifications which are required for a successful performance of a job. They are intended to serve as a guide in hiring and job evaluation. As a guide in hiring, they deal with such characteristics as are available in an application blank with testing, interviews and checking of references.

Job specifications are developed with the cooperation of the personnel department and various supervisors in the whole organisation. The personnel department coordinates the writing of job descriptions and job-specifications and secures agreement on the qualifications required. These specifications include following –

  1. Physical Characteristics which include health, strength, endurance, age-range, body-size, height weight, vision, voice, poise, eye, hand and foot coordination, motor coordination etc.
  2. Psychological characteristics which include judgement, resourcefulness, analytical ability, decision-making ability, alertness etc.
  3. Personnel characteristics which include pleasing appearance, good manners, leadership, cooperativeness, initiative and drive, mental stability etc.
  4. Responsibilities which include supervision of others, sense of responsibility etc.
  5. Other features of a demographic nature such as age, sex, education, experience etc.

Distinction Between Job Description And Job-specification:
Both the documents – job description and job specification are the products of the job analysis. But both are not the same; they are different from each other. Job-description is the summary of the duties, responsibilities and other characteristics of the job whereas job specification is a statement of qualities of the persons who handles the job. Former measures the job and the latter measures the person handling the job.

Job specification assists the management in selecting a match for the job while job description assists the job incumbent to understand the requirements of the job which are to be fulfilled by him.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 5 Human Resource Planning (Or Manpower Planning)

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 5 Human Resource Planning (Or Manpower Planning)

Question 1.
What is manpower planning ? Discuss its objectives.
What are the objects of human resource planning ?
Human Resource Planning Meaning and Objects :
In order to understand manpower planning, or human resouce planing, we should understand the two terms manpower and planning.

Manpower is the human resources employed in any enterprise, The manpower resource is the most vital factor for the survival and prosperity of a firm. An efficient management will always think of procuring for developing adequate talent for various-positions in the organisation. Planning is the thinking process, the organised foresight, the vision based on facts and experience that is required for intelligent action. Planning means determining what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who is to do it.

Manpower planning may be defined as strategy for the procurement, development, allocation and utilisation of an enterprise’s human resources. One of the functions of human resource management is the procurement of employees in sufficient number. The success of the organisation depends upon the right type of persons placed on the job. It is the responsibility of human resource management to see whether qualified personnel have been placed on the job in sufficient number. This requires planning.

Manpower planning is the planning for manpower resources. Manpower planning ensures adequate supplies, proper quantity and quality, as well as effective utilisation of human resources. Thomas H. Patten defines manpower planning as “the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people at the right place at the right time, doing things for which they are economically most useful”.

In the words of Flippo, “An executive manpower planning programme can be defined as an appraisal of an organisation’s ability to perpetuate itself with respect to its management as a determination of measures necessary to provide the essential executive talent.” According to Geisler, “Manpower planning is the process by which a firm ensures tha right number of people and right kind of people at the right place at the right time doing things for which they are economically most useful.”

Thus, manpower planning is the process of developing and determining objective, policies and programmes that will develop, utilize and distribute manpower so as to achieve the goals of the organisation.
The definitions of manpower planning suggest the following features:

  1. It aims at ascertaining the manpower needs of the organisation both quantitatively and qualitatively.
  2. It includes an inventory of present manpower to determine the status of the present supply of available personnel and to discover developed talent within the organisation. •
  3. Manpower planning, like other planning is forward looking or future oriented. If forecasts the needs of future manpower inventory.
  4. Manpower planning must focus not only on the people involved but also on the working conditions and relationship in which they work.
  5. The basic purpose of the human resource planning is to make optimum utilisation of organisation’s current and future human resources.
  6. It is the primary responsibility of the management to ensure effective utilisation of human resources.

Thus manpower planning ensures that the required personnel of required skill are available at the right time. Manpower planning helps in both the selection and developmental activities as it ensures that adequate persons are selected wel I in advance. This would ensure smooth growth of the organisation.

Need Or Objectives Of Manpower Planning :
The following are the main objectives of manpower planning in an organisation –

1. To ensure optimum use of available manpower – In the process of planning, the personnel department takes stock of the present work force and their characteristics. Vacancies should be filled in from among the existing manpower working at the lower level taking into account the characteristics of the persons concerned and the job requirements. Thus available personnel can be employed fruitfully on the job.

2. Forecasting of the future requirements – At the time taking decision for the expansion of the plant, it is necessary to assess the future need of the manpower. The management should also take stock of the present available manpower in the organisation and then it should decide whether the new responsibilities should be given to the existing persons or to the new recruitees who are well qualified in the field. Forecasting thus, helps in filling the right type of job with the right type of man.

If expansion is not planned, changes in the organisation like discharge, retirement, lay-off, retrenchment, demotion, separation etc. all create need of additional workers. They cannot be made available at once. This all requires manpower planning so that right type of fnan may be made available at the right time.

3. Cope with charges – Manpower planning enables the enterprise to cope with charges in competitive forces, market, technology, products and government regulations. Such changes often change the job contents, skill demands, number and type of personnel in the organisation. To cope with the changes manpower planning suggests the new training.programmes to enable the existing personnel to share the responsibility of the changed jobs.

4. Help in recruitment and Selection – Sound manpower planning helps in recruitment and selection of right type of man at the right job, at the right time. The personnel department, in the process of planning might come to know what type of person, it is to.be recruited. It may recruit the persons after proper scrutiny. The rate of labour turn over is also reduced by an effective manpower planning.

5. Maintaining Production level – Manpower planning helps in maintaining production level. The labour turn over, absenteeism, illness and level of workers all reduce the strength of the workers. Manpower planning estimates all these hazards before hand and maintains the production level by arranging for the shortfall in the existing manpower. Two types of analysis are important in this connection – work load analysis and work force analysis.

6. Effective Employee development programme – An effective employee development programme cannot be worked out unless it is linked with the manpower .requirement of the organisation while developing a development programme, the talent, abilities and motives of the individuals as well as of the organisation should be taken into consideration. An effective manpower planning also aims at making the employee development programme effective.

7. Other objectives – Other objectives of manpower planning may be – (a) establishing good industrial relations, (b) reduction in labour costs, (c) coping with the national policy on employment, (d) linking human resource planing with organisation planning (e) identifying areas of surplus personnel so that corrective measures may be taken in time, (f) meeting needs of expansion and diversification.

Question 2.
Explain the importance of manpower planning.
Importance Of Human Resource Planning:
The sound personnel policy requires that there should be adequate number of persons of the right type tp attain its objectives. Personnel objectives cannot be achieved without proper manpower planning. The importance of manpower planning can be judged from the following benefits:

1. Increase in the size of Business – Manpower planning is very helpful when there is expansion of the plant. At the time of taking the decision for expansion of the plant, a large number of workers are required to be recruited. For this purpose a stock of the existing manpower should be taken and future need of the personnel should be assessed. It is very essential to know whether presonnel are to be recruited from outside or from inside and how the training facilities are to be arranged. For all this manpower planning is essential.

2. Effective recruitment and selection policy – Manpower planning helps in formulating effective recruitment and selection policy. Manpower planning is concerned with the right type of people from all sources to meet planned requirements. Manpower planning anticipates manpower needs to develop the existing manpower to fill the future gaps. Thus only right man on the right job at the right time may be recruited and selected.

3. Effective employee development programme – Manpower planning reveals the training needs of the working manpower with the result that training and development programmes become more effective. No effective employee development programme can be worked out unless it is linked with the manpower requirements of the organisation.

4. Reduction in labour cost – Manpower planning ensures recruitment and maintenance of better developed manpower resource which results in reduced manpowers costs. Forecasting of long term manpower needs to help the management to forecast the compensation costs involved.

5. Efficient work force – Manpower planning ensures on the one hand, development of personnel at work and on the other hand, high morale of the personnel. Manpower planning motivates the existing employees and creates favourable psychological climate for motivation. Management succession gets the best contribution from the workers.

6. Avoiding disruption in production – Manpower planning may v help the organisation in procuring the skilled and qualified workers because future needs of personnel may be estimated and they are selected and trained on the basis of a well developed selection and training policy thus ensuring j uninterrupted production.

7. Good Industrial Relations – Manpower planning helps the management in developing the good industrial relations. With the help of manpower planning management may plan to absorb the redundant workers to some new jobs after training in case redundancies of workers are caused by automation or any other reason.

8. National policy on employment – National policy on employment does not allow any employer to oust the worker once employed by the organisation. It is very essential to recruit the workers carefully according to the needs of the enterprise. Only manpower planning can help the organisation in this regard. ’

9. Replacement of Employees, Employees who retire, die, resign and ‘ become incapacitated need immediate replacements, to avoid disruption in production. Provision for replacement of personnel can be made only on the basis of human resource planing.

10. Technological Progress. Human resource planning is helpful in effective utilisation of technological progress. To meet the challenges of pew technology, existing employers are to be retrained or new employees are to be recruited. ,

Question 3.
What are the prerequisites for manpower planning ?
Prerequisites For Manpower Planning:
The implementation and development of manpower planning need following prerequisites:

1. Goals or Objectives of Business – Every business enterprise has some goals or objectives. The manpower planning must be integrated with business policies as regards to profitability, production, sales and development of resources. Any change in business objectives would certainly affect the manpower planning. For example a company decides to introduce computer system in the interprise. This change will affect the manpower planning i.e., company will have to recruit computer operators or it will train its existing employees in computer science. Thus, determination of business objectives clearly in advance is a prerequisite for the effective manpower planning.

2. Support of Top-level management – Manpower planning must have the initiative and support of top level management. Personnel manager of a staff authority can only advise or guide the top management, he cannot implement decisions. Action on decisions or suggestions of the personnel manager are to be taken only at the initiative of top executives. Thus support of top management is a must for the effective manpower planning.

3. Well organised human resourcedepartment – Manpower planning requires forecasting the requirements and developments of the personnel. For this purpose, there is a need of a well organised human resource department. This department collects, records, analyses, interprets and maintains the facts and figures relating to all the personnels in the organisation.

4. Determination of related personnel policies – Determination of personnel policies regarding promotion, transfer, wages, fringe benefits, training, leaves etc. is a prerequisite for manpower planning. Without these policies manpower planning will be of little use.

5. Responsibility – The responsibility of manpower planning should be assigned to some responsible senior personnel. He should be provided all figures relating to the planning.

6. Fixing Planning Period – Planning is concerned with problem of future. The planning period is divided into short term and long term. Planning period depends on the nature of the business and the social, economic and political environment. Long-term planning is preferable for basic and heavy industries. Consumer goods industries may not resort to long term plans. The other important factors are. rate of population growth education and training facilities, cost of training etc.

7. Manpower standards – In order to avoid the problems of overstaffing and understaffing, the optimum manpower standards should be determined on the basis of prevailing standards in similar organisations, past experiences and work measurement. These factors will reduce the cost of production and ‘will increase the quality of production and will help in preparation of manpower plans.

Question 4.
Explain the process of human resource planning.
Discuss the steps in the process of human resource planning.
Process Of Human Resource Planning:
The process of manpower planning consists of the following steps:

1. Analysing Organisational Objectives and Plans. The first step in the process of human resource planning is to analyse the organisational objectives and plans. The ultimate objective of manpower planning is one of matching employee abilities to enterprise requirements with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements. Objectives may be short term or long term.

Further, organisational plans concerning technology, production, marketing finance, expansion and diversification should be analysed in order to have idea about the volume of future work activity. The plans may further be analysed into sub-plans and detailed programmes. Future organisation structure and job-design should be made clear and any change in the organisation structure should be examined so as to anticipate the manpower . requirement. A company’s plans are based on economic forecast, company’s sales and expansion forecast, and the labour market forecasts.

2. Preparing Manpower Inventory. The main purpose of human ” resource planning is to avoid the situation of over-staffing and under-staffing and for this purpose, a stock of existing manpower is to be assessed.

Manpower inventory refers to the assessment of the present and the v potential capabilities of present employees qualitatively and quantitatively. It reveals the degree to which these capabilities are employed optimally and helps to identify the gaps that exist or that are likely to arise in the firm’s human resources. Preparation of manpower inventory involves determination of personnel to be inventories, cataloguing of factual background information of each individual, systematic appraisal of each individual and listing the present and potential abilities and aptitudes of each.

3, Forecasting Manpower Needs or Demands. Forecasting of future manpower requirement is the most important part of manpower planning. The forecasting is made on the basis of corporate and functional plans, future activity levels, and future needs for human resources in the organisation. The number of people and the skill levels needed in future depends on production and sales budgets, workload analysis, work-force analysis estimated absenteeism and labour turnover etc. For a given level of operation, certain other factors like technology used, make or buy decision, job contents, behavioural pattern and control system. It is thus necessary to make projection for the new posts to be created and the vacancies arising in current manpower. The forecasting should be qualitatively and quantitatively depending upon business objectives.

The major determinants of future human resource demands are –

  • Employment Trends. Trends in companys manpower can be judged by examining the changes in the payroll over the last five years within each group. By this examination, expansion or contraction may be measured.
  • Replacement Needs. This need arises due to death, retirement, resignation, and termination of employees. The replacement needs may rebate to specific manpower group e.g. supervisory, clerical skilled etc. This can be assessed on the basis of past experience and future retirement situations.
  • Productivity. Improvement in productivity influence the manpower planning. Gains in productivity will decrease the requirement of manpower or vice-versa.
  • Absenteeism. The demand for manpower depends upon rate of absenteeism. If it is high steps should be taken to reduce it to the minimum.
  • Growth and Expansion. Company’s growth plans and expansion programme should be carefully analysed to judge their impact on human resource requirements in future. Steps must be taken for procuring or developing the talent required.

4. Expected loss of Manpower, From the present stock of manpower, a discount should be given for the likely changes in manpower during the period of planning. Potential losses of human resources may be caused due to death, disability, dismissals, resignations, promotions, transfers, retrenchments, or lay off, terminations, ill health, absenteeism, deputation etc. The study of potential loss of workers should be studied in order to make an estimate of the future needs of the work-force.

5. Estimating Manpower Gaps. A comparison between the existing work-force and the projected work-force or manpower demands should be made to identify the gap between the demand and supply of work-force. It will reveal either surplus or deficit of work-force in future. The deficit suggests the number of persons to be recuited from outside whereas surplus implies redundants to be redeployed or terminated. Similarly, gaps may occur in terms of knowledge, skill and aptitudes. Employees who are dificient qualitatively, can be trained whereas employees with higher skills can be redeployed over other jobs requiring higher skills.

6. Action Planning. Once the manpower gaps are identified, action plans are developed to bridge the gaps. Action plan to meet the surplus manpower may be prepared. The surplus manpower can either be redeployed in other department/units or can be retrenched. However, retrenchment should be made only in consultation with trade unions. People may be persuaded to quit voluntarily through golden hand shake.

Deficit, on the other hand, can be met through recruitment, selection, transfer, promotions and training plans. Realistic plans for the procurement and development of manpower should be made to ensure a continuing supply of trained people to take over jobs as and when they fall vacant, either by promotion or recruitment or through training. In this way, redundancies and shortages of manpower can be avoided in the long run. Necessary modifications in the plans may be made if manpower market situation warrants.

7. Monitoring and Control. Once the action plans are implemented, the human resource jsystem and structure need to be reviewed and regulated periodically. Zero base budgeting may be used to encourage managers to justify their plans. Monitoring and control phase involves allocations and utilisation of human resources over time. Review of manpower plans and programmes reveals the surplus or deficiencies. Corrective actions may be taken immediately to remove the surplus or deficiency. Necessary modification in action plans may be made in the light of changing environment and needs of the organisation. An appraisal of manpower plans serves as a guide in future manpower planning.

Question 5.
Briefly discuss the quantitative and qualitative aspects of human resource planning.
Quantitative And Qualitative Aspects Of Human Resource Planning:
The analysis of manpower planning leads to two broad aspects of the subject viz quantitative aspect and qualitative aspect. The quantitative aspect is concerned with the determination of right number of personnel required for each type of job in the organisation and the qualitative aspect relates to specifying the quality of personnel on each job laying down the educational, professional qualifications, work experience, psychological traits etc. we shall now discuss these two aspects of manpower planning.

Quantitative Aspect of Manpower Planning:  Quantitative aspect of manpower planning relates to forecasting the demand and supply of man-power and fill up the gap if any on the basis of manpower productivity, capacity utilisation and costs to identity needs for improvement in productivity or reduction in costs. For this purpose various action plans are prepared and implemented. Manpower budgets are prepared for setting standards and monitoring the implementation of manpower plans.

A. Demand Forecasting Techniques. Demand forecasting is the pro-cess of estimating the number of personnel required in future taking the cor-porate and functional plans and future activity level of the personnel in the organisation. In a manufacturing concern, the sales budget is translated into a manufacturing plan giving number and types of products to be made in each period. But the human resource requirements for a given level of operations vary depending upon the production technology, process, make or buy decision of the managements, job contents, behaviour patterns and control systems.

There are three basic demand forecasting techniques –

  1. Managerial Judgement
  2. Statistical Techniques
  3. Work study techniques

In many cases, a contribution of the above techniques may be used.

1. Managerial Judgement. Under this technique, the experienced manager at top level estimate the future need of different departments, on the basis of their knowledge of expected future work-loaded and employee efficiency. The top management takes advice of different concerned departments. These forecasts are reviewed and agreed with the departmental managers. This may be known as top-down approach.

Alternatively, a ‘bottom-up’ approach may also be considered. Under this approach like department managers estimate the workload of their re-spective departments and decide the number of people they need in future. ‘They submit the proposals with the top management for approval. Both these techniques may be sometimes combined to get the best results. This is a very simple and time saving method but is not suitable for large concerns because of its subjective character.

2. Statistical Techniques. The most commonly used statistical man-power forecasting techniques in ratio-trend analysis.

(i) Ratio-trend Analysis. Under this method certain ratios (e.g. total output to total number of workers, total sales to total saler person, direct workers made for absenteeism, overtime, idle time, labour turnover etc. The following example illustrates the procedure –

Illustration. Suppose a cement factory aims to produce 50,000 tons of cement during 2007-08. The standard manhours required to produce one tonne of cement are estimated to be 10. On the basis of past experience the factory estimates that on an average, the worker can contribute 2500 hours per year. The total work load and the number of workers required may be estimated as follows –

  1. Production budgeted output , – 50,000 tonnes
  2. Standard manhours required per tonne – 10 hours
  3. Total man hours used for producing 50,000tons (ixii) – 5,00,000 hours
  4. Manhours available per worker during the year – 2,500 hours
  5. Number of workers required ((iii) / (iv)) – 200 workers

Thus, 200 workers will be needed in 2007-08 to achieve the production
target of 50,000 tonnes of cement. However, this is not a reliable estimate because of a number of factors such as absenteeism, availability of raw materials, power breakdown, strikes, lockout etc,.influence the production schedule and allowance should be given for these factors. Gaps in the existing workforce cannot be considered is the basis of above estimates unless a work force analysis is needs.

(ii) Work force Analysis. All the existing workers are not likely to be available everyday throughout the year. So, an allowance is made for absenteeism. labour turnover, and other contingencies. If we assume that on an average 5 percent of the workforce will remain absent and another 5 percent is lost due to resignation, retirement, deaths, terminations etc. Thus, l0 percent additional workforce should be provided for. In the above illustration 10% of the actual workforce required on the job should be recruited. In this way 220 workers are required during the year. This analysis involves a detailed study of part performance, part behaviour and retirement date of each and every employee. This analysis is called work force analysis.

B. Supply Forecasting Techniques. Supply forecasting measures the quantity of manpower that is likely to be available to fill up the vacant posts. Such sources of labour supply may be within or outside the organisation. The supply analysis covers –

  1. Existing manpower resources,
  2. Potential losses to existing resources through labour wastage.
  3. Potential changes to.existing resources through promotion, transfer etc,
  4. Effect of changes in conditions of work and absenteeism.
  5. Sources of supply within the organisation.

1. Existing Manpower Resources. The first supply resource analysis is to identify the existing workforce by function, department, occupation, level of skill and states just to identify the resource centres. Consisting of broadly homogeneous groups to make supply forecasts.

Such analysis reveals the number of employees internally available if needed in future having special abilities and skills. It is just to know how many people will be available for promotion internally and where they can be found.

An analysis by age is also important to avoid problems arising from a sudden rush of retirement, a block in promotion aspect or a preponderance of older employees, lengths of service analysis is also important because it will provide evidence of survival rates, which are a necessary tool for use by planners in predicting future resources.

The study of existing ratios between different categories of staff is also important to know the areas where rapid changes are seen and which may result in manpower supply problem.

2. Labour wastage. Labour wastage due to labour leaving the organisation should be analysed in order to forecast future losses and to identify the reasons for leaving the organisation plans should be drawn to replace uncontrollable loses. The following are certain techniques to measure such losses’ –

(i) Labour Turnover Index. The one traditional formula for measuring wastage is labour turnover index which is given below –

\(\frac{\text { No.of leavers in a specified period }}{\text { Average no. of employees during the same period }} \times 100\)

The method is common in use because it is easy to calculate and to understand. The formula can be misleading also. The main objection to the measurement of labour turnover in terms of the figure may be inflated by the high turnover of a relatively small proportion of labour force.

The labour wastage percentage is a suspect if the average number of workers .employed upon which this percentage is based, is unrepresentative of recent trends because of considerable increases or decreases during the period in the number employ.

(ii) Labour stability Index. It is an improvement over the labour turn-over index. Labour stability index is shown as below –
\(\frac{\text { No. with one year’s service or more }}{\text { No. employed within the year }} \times 100\)

The formula shows a tendency of stay workers in the organisation and therefore shows the degree of which there is a continuity of employment.

(iii) Length of service Analysis. The analysis is made to know the av-erage length of service of peopl^ who leave the organisation. This also gives an index of labour turnover. It is also crude and not fair because it only deals with the total number of people who leave the organisation. A more refined analysis would be to calculate such an index for each category of employees and then compare them with previous figures.

(iv) Survival Rate. The survival rate of employees is the proportion of employees recruited within a certain period and who remain with the firm after so many months or years of service. Thus, if the analysis finds that the workers who have completed their apprenticeship time during last 2 years, only 50 percent are with the company, it means the survival rate is 50 percent > and the company has to train 100 workers during the next five years if company requirement is only of 50 workers.

3. Internal Promotions and Transfers. The supply forecast should indicate the number of vacancies that will have to be filled to meet the demand forecast. Vacancies in the organisation arise because people leave the organisation or due to expansion of the organisation. The vacancies are filled up by transfer or promotion within the department/organisation that may produce a chain reaction of replacements. In a large organisation, persistent pattern of promotion and transfer may develop and it may be possible to predict the proportion of employees who are likely to be promoted or moved in future, starting a chain reaction. For this purpose, management succession planning should be worked out in the organisation by reference to known, retirements and transfers.

4. Changing conditions on work and Absenteeism. A study should also.be undertaken to have effect of change in working conditions on work and absenteeism. This may cover factors like change in weekly working hours, overtime policy, length and timing of holidays, retirement policy for employing part timers, and shift system. The effect of absenteeism on future supply of labour should also be studied and trend in absenteeism should be analysed to trace causes and identify possible remedial actions.

5. Sources of Supply. Sources of labour supply internal as well as ex-ternal should also be established. Internal sources include the output from internal training schemes or the management development programmes and the reservoirs of skills and potentials.that exist within the organisation; When developing expansion plans outside sources should also be explored. Thus, insidp and outside availability of labour supply should be used when preparing development plans. If skilled or desirable persons are not available internally or externally, actions may be taken to develop or redevelop training or retraining programme to upgrade the available manpower to meet the company’s needs. There are so many local or national factors which have bearing on the supply of manpower.

Qualitative Aspect of Manpower Planning. Having done the exercise of determining the number of manpower for each job in the organisation, the next step comes to determine the quality of the people required for individual job. The quality of manpower required varies from job to job. Therefore, the quality of employees required for a job can be determined after determining the job requirements. The nature of job would help determining the minimum acceptable qualities of the person to be put up on the job.

The aspect is the qualitative aspect of manpower planning. The process of determining the na ture of the job together with the minimum acceptable qualities on the part of the personnel required for adequate performance of the job is termed as job analysis. To quote Endwin B. Flippo – “Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operation and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate product of this analysis are job description and job specifications With the help of information obtained through job analysis are job- description and job specification. Job description is a summary of the tasks, duties and responsibilities in a job. Basically, the job description indicates what is done, why it is done and where it is done and briefly how it is done. In other words, it sets performance standards telling what performance, the job demands. The employee must know what is expected and what is below or above standards so that he may perform better.

A job specification on the other hand is a statement of the minimum acceptable quantities (educational qualification, mental abilities, special qualifications and physique etc.) necessary to perform a job properly. It designates the qualities required for acceptable performance. The major use of job specification is to guide in the recruiting and selecting of people to fill jobs.

Question 6.
Discuss the problems in human resource planning. How can these problems be tackled successfully ?
Problems In Or Limitations Of Human Resource Planning:
The problems in the process of human resource planning are as follows –

1. Inaccuracy – Human resource planning forecasts the demand for and supply of manpower during plan period. Forecaste can never be a cent percent projection, Longer the time horizon, greater are the chances of inaccuracy. Inaccuracy may be higher when departmental forecasts are aggregated without critical review or where variables in the environment are ignored.

2. Time and costs involved – Manpower planning is a time consuming and expensive exercise. A good deal of time and costs are involved in data collection and their analysis to make forecasting. Being a costly affair, only large sized firms can resort to manpower planning.

3. Resistance by Employees and Employers – Employees and trade unions feel the manpower planning a futile and useless exercise. They feel that due to large scale unemployment, people will be available as and when required. Moreover they feel that the employer tries to increase their work load through manpower planning. The manpower planning regulates them through productivity bargaining.

Employers also resist manpower planning because they feel that it increases the cost of labour. Managers and Jiuman resource planners do not fully understand the human resource planning process and lack a strong sense of purpose.

4. Inefficient Information System – In most of the Indian industries, the human resource information system is not satisfactory. In the absence of reliable human resource data, it is not possible to develop fully the human resource plans.

5. Uncertainties – There are certain uncertainties or constraints in the way of human resource planning. These are absenteeism, labour turnover seasonal employment, technological changes, and market fluctuations etc. It is therefore, risky to depend upon general estimates of manpower because of the rapid changes in the international and external environment.

6. No Top Management Support – There is lack of support and commitment from the top management. In the absence of support of top management, the human resource experts find it difficult to carry out the manpower plans in their true spirit. Sometimes, it happens that the process is started with great funfare but is not sustained due to lack of support from the top.” In some cases, sophisticated human resource technologies are adopted only because their rivals have introduced them. These may not yield results unless matched with the needs and environment of the particular industry or enterprise.

7. Too much focus on Quantitative Aspect – In some enterprises, too much emphasis is laid on the quantitative aspect of human resource planning to ensure a smooth flow of people in and out of the organisation. This sometimes overlooks the more important aspect i.e. qualitative aspect of manpower planning i.e., the quality of human resource, career planning and development, skill development morale etc.

Thus, limitations of human resource planning arise both from inherent limitations of forecasting and from human weaknesses.

Making Human Resource Planning Effective:
We have just studied various problems faced by, a human resource expert in manpower planning. The following steps may be taken to make the human resource planning effective –

1. Proper Organisation of Human Resource Functions – The human resource planning functions should be well organised. A separate cell, section, division or committee may be constituted within the human resource department to provide adequate focus and to coordinate the planning efforts at various levels.

2. Support from the Top – Top management must support and be committed to the human resource planning. Before starting any human resource planning process, top management must be consulted and its commitment should be ensured. Moreover, the exercise should be carried out within budget allocation. Other restraints should also be considered in detail. It is really useless to formulate plans which cannot be implemented due to financial and other supports from the management.

3. Participation – For the successful human resource planning, active participation of operative executives is required. If possible, trade union support should also be sought. Such participation will help to improve understanding of the process and thereby reduce resistance.

4. Information System – A systematic information system or data base should be developed in order to facilitate the human resource planning.

5. Tailor made – Human resource plans should be balanced with corporate plans of the enterprise. The method and techniques of human resource planning should commensurate with the corporate objectives, strategies and environment.

6. Balanced Focus – The quantity and qualify aspects, should be equally stressed. The stress in filling future vacancies should be to recruit right people to right job or other than to match the existing staff with existing jobs. Promotion of existing staff should be considered carefully.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 4 Human Resource Policies

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes Chapter 4 Human Resource Policies

Question 1.
What is human resources policy ? What are its components ?
“A policy is man-made rule or predetermined course of action that is established to guide the performance of work towards the organisation objectives.” Explain.
Human Resource Policy – Meaning And Contents:
A policy may be defined as statement or general understanding which provides as guidance to decision-making to members of an organisation in respect of any course of action. Personnel policies are well defined intentions of the management with respect to manpower management in the organisation. Human resources policies indicate the objectives or the established course of action to establish management’s relationship with the employees of the organisation. Following are some important definitions of human resources policies.

According to Richard P. Calhoon, “Personnel policies constitute guide to action. They furnish the general standards or basis on which decisions are reached. Their genesis lies in an organisation’s values, philosophy, concepts and principles. ”

According to Edwin B. Flippo, “A policy is a man-made rule or predetermined course of action that is established to guide the performance of work towards the organisation. It is a type of standing plan that serves to ’ guide subordinates in the execution of their task. ”

In the words of Haynes and Massie, “Policies include that body of understanding which makes the action of each member of the group in a given set of circumstances more predictable to other members.

According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Policies are general statements or understanding which guide or channel thinking in decision making of subordinates.

According to Industrial Relations Glossary, “Labour policy is the principle or objective established by a company for the guidance of the management in its relations.

In short, personnel policies are the statement of objectives for the guidance of management in its relations with employees, policies are pre-determined courses of action. They reflect the recognised intentions of the top management and guide to the subordinates in the execution of their task.

Characteristics Of Personnel Policy/ Hr Policy:
Following are characteristics of human resources policies:

  • A human resources policy is formulated in the context of organisational objectives.
  • A policy may be in writing or it has to be interpreted from the behaviour of organisation members particularly people at the top.
  • Policy is formulated through the various steps in the decision¬making process.
  • A policy provides guidelines to the members in organisation for choosing a course of action. Thus policy provides freedom in choosing their action.
  • Policy formulation is a function of personnel department in consultation with line managers. However, top management has important role in policy-making.
  • Policy statement should be positive, clear and easily understood by everyone in the organisation so that what management wants is clear.
  • It provides two way communication system between the management and the employees so that the employees are kept informed of the latest developments in the organisation and the employers are aware of the actions and reactions of the employees on particular issue.

Contents Of A Human Resources Policy:
The primary objectives of a personnel policy are to promote the maximum individual development, to develop techniques for maximum use of human resources and to create good industrial relations. Therefore, a human resources policy should contain the principles, techniques and practices which may help the management to fulfil these objectives. The contents of a personnel policy may vary according to the needs of the organisation but following items should be contained in the personnel policy of a large organisation.

  • Name of the Company along with development of the company and details regarding management personnel.
  • Procedures and techniques of selection including sources of recruitment and methods of recruitment, reservation of seats, qualifications required, basis of selection merit or seniority, probation period etc.
  • Working conditions such as working hours, authority levels, channels for promotions, transfer, rules regarding suspension, retirement, holidays, leave, overtime, work, duration of intervals etc.
  • Training Programmes i.e., full details regarding planning objectives and methods of training for new and existing employees.
  • Procedures for handling grievances – to whom employees should contact and when, where and how.
  • Rules and regulations regarding accidents, unfair terminations, discipline and Standing Orders.
  • Joint Consultation – its methods and procedures.
  • Line of authority relationship and line of communication.
  • Collective bargaining – full particular regarding representation in collective bargaining.
  • Industrial Relations – details regarding maintenance of industrial relations i.e., notice period for the strikes and lock outs, rules for declaring strikes and lock outs illegal, rules regarding recognition of trade union, discipline and conduct rules, workers participation in management.
  • Labour welfare and service activities – such as education, entertainment, canteen facilities, financial assistance, profit sharing, provident fund, compensation for accidents etc.
  • Compensation. Method or procedure for fixation of pay. Methods of wage payment, incentive plans-how to implement, non-inonetary rewards etc.

Question 2.
What are the objectives of personnel policy or Human Resource Policy ?
What is the importance (or needs) of Human Resource policies ?
Importance Or Objectives Of Personnel Policy Or Hr Policy:
The management of an enterprise determines its objectives and seeks to achieve them by various types of business activities. Before commencing these activities, the management considers various alternative course of action which may help in achieving the desired objectives and choose the most suitable method to it. The importance of policy lies in systematic approach of determining a course of action to be undertaken in an organisation in future. Policy substitutes thinking for worry. The effectiveness of human resources policies should be measured in the light of their objectives for which they are formulated. The objectives of human resources policies are listed below:

1. Attention on Objectives of the Organisation – Organisations exist to pursue and achieve certain objectives. Personnel policies make these objectives more concrete and tangible by focussing attention on those so that all organisational activities are directed towards these objectives. Thus policies help in providing guidelines for the individuals in the organisation to work on smooth lines.

2. Maximum Individual Development and Satisfaction – Individual development and satisfaction is the primary objective of personnel policies. Personnel policies should ensure an effective cooperation among employees so that better results may be expected. Management should consider social values and employees’ aspirations in formulating personnel policies. A good system comprising monetary incentives and non-monetary incentives is warranted. It will promote cooperation and loyalty.

3. Maximum Use of Resources – Another important objectives of human resources policy is the best maximum use of human resources. Man is the only active factor of production which engages the other factors of production to work. Individual development of employees is advantageous only when they are used in the best possible manner. So, maximum individual development and the maximum use of human resources is the primary objective of the human resources policy. Other factors of production are ineffective without effective moulding of human resources. Human resources are made to work efficiently by personnel policies.

4. Offsetting uncertainty and change – Future is always full of uncertainties and changes. The organisation has to function in various types of uncertainties. Some of the uncertainties and changes can be predicted on the basis of forecast especially in personnel area. Personnel policies foresees the future and makes provisions for uncertainties and changes. For example, strike, lock out, mechanisation, transfer of personnel from one place to another etc. Personnel polieies ensure uniformity in decisions.

5. Good Industrial Relations – Human resources policies help in maintaining good and harmonious industrial relations. Personal policies are developed for creating good human resources relations. Human resources policies facilitate uniformity in decisions and avoids workers’ exploitation through biased decision. Human resources policies make employees aware of the objectives of the organisation and guide the workers in achieving them. So that they can enthusiasticallly and with loyalty.

6. Better Controls – Control involves the measurement of the accomplishment of events against policies and the correction of deviations to assure attainment of objectives according to policies. Personnel policies provide standards against which the accomplishments are evaluated. Thus personnel policies facilitate the function of control.

7. Prompt Decision Making. Carefully defines human resource policis serve as a guide for decision making on routine and repetitive matters. They prevent wastage of time and energy for solving the problems of similar nature.

Question 3.
Describe an ideal human resource policy.
Ideal Human Resource Policy:
There is no rigid standard to prescribe an ideal or a sound human resource policy because it is based on circumstances peculiar to an organisation. However, following are some characteristics of an ideal personnel policy which are universally applicable.

  1. Relationship to Objectives – The human resource policy should facilitate the attainment of organisational objectives and plans. Policy should reflect the intention of management.
  2. Clarity – The human resource policy should be clear, definite and explicit leaving no scope for misinterpretation. Policy should minimise the number of problems where decisions are based on personal judgement.
  3. Written. The policy should be written, A written policy generally becomes more clear and definite and its communication is very easy. Besides, it speeds up administration by reducing repetition to routine and brings consistency in organisation.
  4. Consistency – The human resource policy should be consistent i.e., the functions and the activities in the policy must be in agreement. Further, the policies must result in stability over a considerable period of time.
  5. Flexibility – A human resource policy should be flexible i.e., policy should be revised from time to time to meet the new situation without disturbing present norms and trends.
  6. Communication – A human resource policy should be clearly communicated in the organisation so that individuals who have to take decisions in the framework of the policy statement understand it clearly.
  7. Participation of Subordinates – The responsibility of laying down policies though, lies with top management, the lower levels must be consulted and due weightage should be given to their advice.
  8. Control – The policy to be effective, must be controlled which requires its periodical review being up-to-date, reflecting organisational objectives and plans in- changing situations, consistency, flexibility and applicability.
  9. Acceptability – The policy should be acceptable to all those for whom it has been formulated. It will reduce disputes and help in maintaining discipline in the organisation.
  10. Compromise with overall policies – Human resource policy should not be against any other policy of the organisation. Thus, it should be within the framework of overall policy of the organisation.
  11. Integration – As all people are different in nature and character, the personnel policy must integrate characteristics of all people at work.- It must take into account the differing capabilities, capacities, interests, aspirations, beliefs and temperament make up of the people.
  12. Uniformity – Personnel policy should be uniform throughout the organisation subject to variations according to local conditions.

Thus, personnel .policy must possess the above characteristics but before evolving such a policy. Trade unions and other concerned departmental heads should also be consulted.

Question 4.
How is a personnel policy developed ?
What are the various steps in policy formulation and administration ?
Formulation Of Human Resource Policy:
The development of human resource policies depends upon the day to day problems arising in an organisation and their solutions. The main purpose of formulating the personnel policy is to assist top executives in reaching the decision in a given situation. Following are the principal steps in policy formulations :

1. Initiating the need. If an organisation does not already have an appropriate human resource policy, the human resource manager should feel its need or he should hear of its need. Then he should start thinking about it. He should also convince the chief executive of the need of human resource policy. Such initation may be taken by the staff or trade union.

2. Fact-finding. After the chief executive has approved the idea to formulate a policy, the next step is to collect facts for its formulation. Facts may be gathered from any of the following sources:

  • Past practice in the organisation.
  • Prevailing practice among the companies in the community and throughout the nation in the same industry.
  • The attitudes and philosophy of the top management as well as of middle and lower management.
  • Knowledge and experience gained from handling countless personnel problems.

The human resource department should study existing documents survey industry and community practices and interview people within the organisation to collect appropriate information widespread consultations and discussions at this stage prove helpful in implementing the policy.

3. Putting the policy in writing – After gathering all information the personnel department can begin the actual work of formulating the written expression of company personnel policy.

4. Getting Approval. The human resource department will refer the policy draft to top management for approval. The management is to see whether the policy draft truly represents the organisations objectives. If it is satisfied, it will approve the policy with or without any modification.

5. Communicating the policy – The policy once formulated should be communicated throughout the organisation. A real education programme should be set up to teach people how to handle various personnel problems in the light of this newly formulated policy. Special attention should be paid to social customs and values, aspiration of employees, labour legislations etc.

6. Evaluating the Policy – Policies provide the future course of action. There may be situations where organisation is not getting the expected results. This requires modifications in the policies. The top management should have full information on the experience of those who are guided and affected by policies as well as about situational changes. On this basis, top executives decide whether there is a need to reformulate the policy. So, human resource policies should evaluated from time to time and necessary modifications should be incorporated if necessary.

Question 5.
Explain various types of personnel policies.
Types Of Human Resouces Policies :
Policies may be classified as under:
(A) On the basis of Sources of Policy – Following are the types of policies on the basis of sources of policy.

1. Originated policy – Such a policy is usually established formally and deliberately by top management for their subordinate’s action as well as their own action. It is originated in the broad framework of the objectives set and defined by top management.

2. Appealed Policy – Such a policy’ is one that arises from the appeal made by subordinate to his superior for deciding an important case or problem. The need for such policy arise because the particular case or problem has not been covered by earlier policies.

3. Implied Policy – These are the policies which are not formally stated. Policies are inferred from the actions of the superiors. It is not a good policy. In the absence of any written promotion policy, it can be inferred from the way the promotions have been or are being made in the organisations.

4. Imposed Policy – Imposed policy is one that arises from the influence of some outside forces like government, trade unions, trade associations etc.

For example, the policy that nobody below the age of 14 will be employed is adopted due to the compulsion provided in the Factories Act.

(B) On the basis of Scope of Policies – Following are the types of policies on the basis of scope of policies.

1. General Policies – Such policies are formulated at the top. They describe the philosophy of top managers and their acceptance of various theories of work and organisation. They tell everybody about the priorities which the top managers want to be assigned to various factors influencing performance. Such policies are called general because they do not relate to any specific issue in particular.

2. Specific Policies – Specific policies relate to specific issues. Thus, there may be separate specific policies on staffing, compensation, training, collective bargaining. These policies may be formulated by the personnel manager himself although others may also exert a great deal Of influence in shaping them.

(C) Another classification of policy is major and minor policies.

1. Major Policies – Major policies pertain to the overall objectives, procedures and control which affect an organisation as a whole. These policies cover all broad areas in personnel activities. Such policies are generally framed by the top executives or Board of Directors,

2. Minor Policies – Minor policies on the other hand cover relationship in a segment of an organisation. Such policies are generally outgrowth of major policies.

DU SOL B.Com 3rd Year Human Resource Management Notes