Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Notes | Syllabus, Reference Books and Important Questions

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Introduction to Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

A remote specially appointed organization (WANET) or Mobile impromptu organization (MANET) is a decentralized kind of remote organization. The organization is specially appointed on the grounds that it doesn’t depend on a prior framework, for example, switches in wired organizations or passageways in oversaw (foundation) remote organizations. All things being equal, every hub takes an interest in directing by sending information for different hubs, so the assurance of which hubs forward information is made powerfully based on network availability and the steering calculation being used.

In the Windows working framework, specially appointed is a correspondence mode (setting) that permits PCs to straightforwardly speak with one another without a switch. Remote portable specially appointed organizations are self-arranging, dynamic organizations in which hubs are allowed to move. Such remote organizations come up short on the complexities of framework arrangement and organization, empowering gadgets to make and join networks “on the fly”.

A genuine MANET by definition requires multicast steering, not simply unicast or broadcast. Every gadget in a MANET is allowed to move freely toward any path, and will consequently change its connects to different gadgets as often as possible. Each must advance traffic disconnected to its own utilization, and accordingly be a switch.

The essential test in building a MANET is preparing every gadget to constantly keep up the data needed to appropriately course traffic. This gets more diligently as the size of the MANET increments because of

  1. the longing to course parcels to/through each other hub,
  2. the level of overhead traffic expected to keep up constant directing status,
  3. every hub has its own goodput to course free and ignorant of others needs, and
  4. all must share restricted correspondence data transmission, for example, a cut of radio range.

Such organizations may work without help from anyone else or might be associated with the bigger Internet. They may contain one or numerous and distinctive handsets between hubs. This outcomes in a profoundly unique, self-ruling geography. MANETs typically have a routable systems administration climate on top of a Link Layer impromptu organization. MANETs comprise of a shared, self-framing, self-recuperating network. MANETs around 2000–2015 commonly impart at radio frequencies (30 MHz – 5 GHz).

Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

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Here, is a list of a few important notes for a thorough preparation of the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  course programme-

  • Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Notes PDF
  • Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Handwritten Notes PDFs
  • Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Notes for CSE PDFs
  • Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Question Paper PDFs
  • Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks PPT Notes PDF

Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Reference Books

Books are a rich source of information and students should refer to books that provide excellent conceptual background. Candidates can avail the best books for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks as recommended by the experts of the subject.

Pupils can refer and read through the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Books and other Study Sources during your preparation.

The list of best and highly recommended books for  Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks preparation are as follows, and candidates can choose the book that meets their knowledge and prepare accordingly.

  • C. Siva Ram Murthy, and B. S. Manoj, “Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols “, Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference, 2008.
  • Carlos De Morais Cordeiro, Dharma Prakash Agrawal “Ad Hoc & Sensor Networks: Theory and Applications”, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2006.
  • Feng Zhao and Leonides Guibas, “Wireless Sensor Networks”, Elsevier Publication – 2002.
  • Holger Karl and Andreas Willig “Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Wiley, 2005
  • Kazem Sohraby, Daniel Minoli, & Taieb Znati, “Wireless Sensor Networks-Technology, Protocols, and Applications”, John Wiley, 2007.
  • Anna Hac, “Wireless Sensor Network Designs”, John Wiley, 2003.

Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Curriculum

The best way to make your preparation effective is with an initial idea and an outline of the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Syllabus. Keeping in mind every student’s requirements, we have provided a detailed view of the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks curriculum.

Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Course Curriculum will give students a clear idea of what to study, and the unit-wise break up gives topics under each unit carefully and allot time to each topic.

Students must cover all the topics before attempting the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks exam so that the paper is reasonably comfortable at the time of the exam. Candidates must ensure awareness of the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Syllabus as it prevents you from wasting unnecessary time on redundant topics.

The updated unit-wise breakup of the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Syllabus is as follows-

Unit Topics
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION Fundamentals of Wireless Communication Technology – The Electromagnetic Spectrum – Radio propagation Mechanisms – Characteristics of the Wireless Channel -mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) :concepts and architectures. Applications of Ad Hoc

and Sensor networks. Design Challenges in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks.

UNIT II- MAC PROTOCOLS FOR AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS                          Issues in designing a MAC Protocol- Classification of MAC Protocols- Contention based protocols-Contention based protocols with Reservation Mechanisms- Contention based protocols with Scheduling Mechanisms – Multi channel MAC-IEEE 802.11
UNIT III- ROUTING PROTOCOLS AND TRANSPORT LAYER IN AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS Issues in designing a routing and Transport Layer protocol for Ad hoc networks- proactive routing, reactive routing (on-demand), hybrid routing- Classification of Transport Layer solutions-TCP over Ad hoc wireless Networks.
UNIT IV- WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS (WSNS) AND MAC PROTOCOLS Single node architecture: hardware and software components of a sensor node – WSN Network architecture: typical network architectures-data relaying and aggregation strategies -MAC layer protocols: self-organizing, Hybrid TDMA/FDMA and CSMA based MAC- IEEE 802.15.4.
UNIT V- WSN ROUTING, LOCALIZATION & QOS Issues in WSN routing – OLSR- Localization – Indoor and Sensor Network Localization-absolute and relative localization, triangulation-QOS in WSN-Energy Efficient Design-Synchronization-Transport Layer issues.

List of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Important Questions

Candidates studying Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks can go through the list of essential questions mentioned below for the Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks course program. All the given review questions aim to help the candidates to excel in the examination.

  1. With suitable trace, explain the route establishment in location aided routing.
  2. Device a pseudo code that present various steps involved in neighbor Degree- Based preferred link algorithm.
  3. How is routing table constructed in fish-eye state routing protocol? Explain in detail.
  4. Discuss table driven protocols with examples.
  5. Explain multicast routing algorithms in detail.
  6. How routing table is constructed in fisheye state routing protocol? Explain in detail.
  7. List the characteristics of ideal routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network.
  8. Classify and explain adhoc wireless network based on routing topology.
  9. Explain the types of ad hoc network routing protocols based on routing information update mechanism.
  10. Explain on demand routing protocol in detail.
  11. Explain the major challenges that a routing protocol designed for adhoc wireless networks face.
  12. Describe how the packets are transmitted in multiple access collision avoidance protocol.
  13. Explain the scheduling table updates mechanism in distributed priority scheduling.

Frequently Asked Questions on Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Notes

Question 1.
How single-channel sender-initiated contention-based MAC protocols for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks work?

In sender-initiated protocols, the packet transmissions are initiated by the sender nodes only. In Single-channel sender-initiated protocols, the total available bandwidth will not be divided into several channels; it will be used as it is. The node which uses the channel can use entire bandwidth and hence only one node can able to transmit data and use the channel at a time.

Question 2.
Outline how node scheduling is done in contention-based MAC protocols with scheduling mechanism.

Contention-based MAC protocols with scheduling mechanisms perform two operations: Packet scheduling at each node and scheduling nodes for accessing channel. Scheduling mechanism has to consider the priority assigned for each flow and the battery power of each node. The scheduling decisions need to consider the following factors. • Delay targets of packets • Laxities of packets • Traffic load at nodes • Remaining battery power at node.

Question 3.
What is multicasting?

In computer networking, multicast (one-to-many or many-to-many distribution is group communication where information is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously. Group communication may either be application layer multicast or network assisted multicast, where the latter makes it possible for the source to efficiently send to the group in a single transmission. Copies are automatically created in other network elements, such as routers, switches and cellular network base stations, but only to network segments that currently contain members of the group.

Question 4.
How is synchronization between nodes achieved in HRMA protocol?

HRMA uses a dedicated frequency channel for synchronization where nodes exchange synchronization information .When a node wants to send data it listens to the HOP reservation period. If there is a packet there, it tries again after a random amount of time, otherwise it sends a RTS packet, and waits for the CTS acknowledgement packet in the CTS period of the corresponding frequency channel.


The information on Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Notes is genuine and reliable and the above mentioned Books and Study Materials aim to help and enhance student’s knowledge and understanding of the subject during preparations and at the time of examination. Students can refer and practice from the provided Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Books, Study materials, and Important Questions from this article.